Paragua PG - History

Paragua PG - History

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(PG: dp. 243,1. 115'3"; b. 17'10", dr. 6'6", s. 10 k., cpl. 30 a. 1 6-pdr., 3 3-pdr., 21 pdr.)

Paragua, an iron-hulled, schooner-rigged, twin screw gunboat, was laid down by Manila Ship Co., Cavite, P.I. in March 1887 and launched for the Spanish Navy in January 1888.

Taken over by the U.S. Navy, she commissioned 29 May 1899 and assumed duties as a patrol vessel. Paragua and other units worked closely with the American Army, patrolling Philippine waters in an effort to prevent arms shipments to the Philippine insurgents. Inter-island trade was policed and piracy suppressed.

The Navy provided active coastal support in the Philippine archipelago throughout thc accomplishment of Pacification and beyond. The Secretary of the Navy commented favorably upon the valuable services rendered by small gunboats such as Paragua and praised her as an example of inter-service cooperation.

Paragua decommissioned 19 April 1911 at Cavite, P.I., was struck from the Navy List 17 June, and sold.

Papua New Guinea

Religions: Roman Catholic 27%, Protestant 69.4% (Evangelical Lutheran 19.5%, United Church 11.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, Pentecostal 8.6%, Evangelical Alliance 5.2%, Anglican 3.2%, Baptist 2.5%, other Protestant 8.9%), Baha'i 0.3%, indigenous beliefs and other 3.3% (2000 census)

Literacy rate: 62.4% (2011 est.)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $19.96 billion per capita $2,900. Real growth rate: 5.4%. Inflation: 3.8%. Unemployment: 1.9% (2008). Arable land: 0.65%. Agriculture: coffee, cocoa, copra, palm kernels, tea, sugar, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables, vanilla, shellfish, poultry, pork. Labor force: 4.077 million (2013 est.) agriculture 27.6%, industry 39.1%, services 33.3%. Industries: copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood-chip production mining of gold, silver, and copper crude oil production, petroleum refining construction, tourism. Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries. Exports: $5.392 billion (2013 est.): oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns. Imports: $4.587 billion (2013 est.): machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals. Major trading partners: Australia, Japan, China, Germany, Singapore, U.S., Malaysia (2012).

Member of Commonwealth of Nations

Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 139,000 (2012) mobile cellular: 2.709 million (2012). Broadcast media: 2 television stations, 1 commercial station operating since the late 1980s and 1 state-run station launched in 2008 satellite and cable TV services are available state-run National Broadcasting Corporation operates 3 radio networks with multiple repeaters and about 20 provincial stations several commercial radio stations with multiple transmission points as well as several community stations transmissions of several international broadcasters are accessible (2009) Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5,006 (2012). Internet users: 125,000 (2009).

Transportation: Railways: 0 km. Highways: total: 9,349 km paved: 3,000 km unpaved: 6,349 km (2011 est.). Waterways: 11,000 km (2011). Ports and terminals: Kimbe, Lae, Madang, Rabaul, Wewak. Airports: 561 (2013).

International disputes: Papua New Guinea relies on assistance from Australia to keep out illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonesia, including goods smuggling, illegal narcotics trafficking, and squatters and secessionists.


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Gaucho, the nomadic and colourful horseman and cowhand of the Argentine and Uruguayan Pampas (grasslands), who flourished from the mid-18th to the mid-19th century and has remained a folk hero similar to the cowboy in western North America. The term also has been used to refer to cowhands and other people of Rio Grande do Sul state in Brazil.

Gauchos were usually mestizos (persons of mixed European and Indian ancestry) but sometimes were white, black, or mulatto (of mixed black and white ancestry). From their own ballads and legends a literature of the gaucho—la literatura gauchesca—grew and became an important part of the Argentine cultural tradition. Beginning late in the 19th century, after the heyday of the gauchos, Argentine writers celebrated them. Examples include José Hernández’s epic poem El gaucho Martín Fierro (1872) and Ricardo Güiraldes’ novel Don Segundo Sombra (1926).

In the mid-18th century, when British, Dutch, French, and Portuguese traders provided a profitable contraband business in hides and tallow in the frontier regions around Buenos Aires, gauchos arose to hunt the large herds of escaped horses and cattle that had roamed freely, bred prodigiously, and remained safe from predators on the extensive Pampas. Gaucho weapons were the lasso, knife, and boleadoras (or bolas), a device made of leather cords and three iron balls or stones that was thrown at the legs of an animal to entwine and immobilize it. Gauchos subsisted largely on meat. Their costume, still worn by modern Argentine cowhands, included a chiripa girding the waist, a woolen poncho, and long, accordion-pleated trousers, called bombachas, gathered at the ankles and covering the tops of high leather boots. The gauchos lived in small mud huts roofed with grass mats and slept on piles of hides. Their marriages were seldom solemnized, and their religious beliefs consisted mainly of age-old superstitions varnished with Roman Catholicism. Their pastimes included gambling, drinking, playing the guitar, and singing doggerel verses about their prowess in hunting, fighting, and lovemaking.

By the end of the 18th century, private owners had acquired the half-wild livestock on the Pampas and hired the gauchos as skilled animal handlers. By the later 19th century the Pampas had been fenced into huge estancias (estates), and the old pastoral economy had given way to more intensive use of the land. Purebred animals replaced the scrub herds and alfalfa was grown to feed them. The once free-spirited gaucho thus became a farmhand or peon.

In the early 19th century the gauchos had been the mainstay of the armies of the Río de la Plata region, which first had thrown off the Spanish colonial regime and had then engaged in decades-long internal struggles between rival caudillos (provincial military leaders). An unruly group of horsemen called the montonera fought in these wars, usually under the federalist caudillos of the provinces outside of Buenos Aires.


The Spanish conquistador Juan de Ayolas (died c. 1537) may have first visited the site of the future city on his way north, up the Paraguay River, looking for a passage to the mines of Alto Perú (present-day Bolivia). Later, Juan de Salazar y Espinosa and Gonzalo de Mendoza, a relative of Pedro de Mendoza, were sent in search of Ayolas, but failed to find him. On his way up and then down the river, de Salazar stopped briefly at a bay in the left bank to resupply his ships. He found the natives friendly, and decided to found a fort there in August 1537. He named it Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción (Our Lady Saint Mary of the Assumption – the Roman Catholic Church celebrates the Feast of the Assumption on August 15). [8]

In 1542 natives destroyed Buenos Aires, and the Spaniards there fled to Asunción. Thus the city became the center of a large Spanish colonial province comprising part of Brazil, present-day Paraguay and northeastern Argentina: the Giant Province of the Indies. In 1603 Asunción was the seat of the First Synod of Asunción, which set guidelines for the evangelization of the natives in their lingua franca, Guaraní.

In 1731 an uprising under José de Antequera y Castro was one of the first rebellions against Spanish colonial rule. The uprising failed, but it was the first sign of the independent spirit that was growing among the criollos, mestizos and natives of Paraguay. The event influenced the independence of Paraguay, which subsequently materialized in 1811. The secret meetings between the independence leaders to plan an ambush against the Spanish Governor in Paraguay (Bernardo de Velasco) took place at the home of Juana María de Lara, in downtown Asunción. On the night of May 14 and May 15, 1811, the rebels succeeded and forced governor Velasco to surrender. Today, Lara's former home, known as Casa de la Independencia (House of the Independence), operates as a museum and historical building.

After Paraguay became independent, significant change occurred in Asunción. Under the rule of Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia (in office 1813–1840) roads were built throughout the city and the streets were named. However, during the presidency of Carlos Antonio López (President 1844–1862) Asunción (and Paraguay) saw further progress as the new president implemented new economic policies. More than 400 schools, metallurgic factories and the first railroad service in South America were built during the López presidency. After López died (1862), his son Francisco Solano López became the new president and led the country through the disastrous Paraguayan War that lasted for five years (1864–1870). On 1 January 1869, the capital city Asunción fell to Brazilian forces led by Gen. João de Souza da Fonseca Costa. After the end of the armed conflict, Brazilian troops occupied Asunción until 1876.

Many historians [ which? ] have claimed that this war provoked a steady downfall of the city and country, since it massacred two-thirds of the country's population. Progress slowed down greatly afterwards, and the economy stagnated.

After the Paraguayan War, Asunción began a slow attempt at recovery. Towards the end of the 19th century and during the early years of the 20th century, a flow of immigrants from Europe and the Ottoman Empire came to the city. This led to a change in the appearance of the city as many new buildings were built and Asunción went through an era more prosperous than any since the war.

Asunción's Downtown in 1872

Asunción is located between the parallels 25° 15' and 25° 20' of south latitude and between the meridians 57° 40' and 57° 30' of west longitude. The city sits on the left bank of the Paraguay River, almost at the confluence of this river with the River Pilcomayo. The Paraguay River and the Bay of Asunción in the northwest separate the city from the Occidental Region of Paraguay and Argentina in the south part of the city. The rest of the city is surrounded by the Central Department.

With its location along the Paraguay River, the city offers many landscapes it spreads out over gentle hills in a pattern of rectangular blocks. Places such as Cerro Lambaré, a hill located in Lambaré, offer a spectacular show in the springtime because of the blossoming lapacho trees in the area. Parks such as Parque Independencia and Parque Carlos Antonio López offer large areas of typical Paraguayan vegetation and are frequented by tourists. There are several small hills and slightly elevated areas throughout the city, including Cabará, Clavel, Tarumá, Cachinga, and Tacumbú, among others.

Costanera Avenue, Asunción

Democracy Square, Asunción, Paraguay

Districts and neighborhoods Edit

Asunción is organized geographically into districts and these in turn bring together the different neighborhoods.

Neighborhood Population (2002) Neighborhood Population (2002) Neighborhood Population (2002)
1. Itá Enramada 4,845 24. Seminario [ citation needed ] 5,070 47. Pinozá 6,621
2. Santa Ana 5,775 25. Vista Alegre 12,611 48. Jara 13,554
3. Bañado Santa Ana 8,374 26. Panambí Retá 2,386 49. Banco San Miguel 953
4. Roberto L. Pettit 20,201 27. Panambí Verá 2,591 50. Tablada Nueva 6,573
5. Republicano 8,429 28. San Pablo 21,787 51. Virgen del Huerto 4,809
6. Pirizal 4,022 29. Terminal 4,305 52. Virgen de la Asunción 9,983
7. San Vicente 15,412 30. Hipódromo 8,348 53. Bella Vista 6,657
8. Bañado Tacumbú 10,958 31. Nazareth 7,133 54. Santo Domingo 2,591
9. Obrero 19,823 32. Villa Aurelia 9,871 55. Cañada del Ybyray 3,166
10. Tacumbú 13,366 33. Los Laureles 3,517 56. Las Lomas (Carmelitas) 5,604
11. Sajonia 14,873 34. Mariscal Estigarribia 7,711 57. Madame Lynch 8,589
12. Itá Pytã Punta 4,225 35. San Cristóbal 6,618 58. Salvador del Mundo 3,883
13. San Antonio 9,544 36. Herrera 5,149 59. Ñu Guazú 1,342
14. Dr. Francia 10,925 37. Santa María 4,591 60. Mbocayaty 6,512
15. La Encarnación 4,928 38. Ytay 3,054 61. Mburucuyá 8,377
16. Catedral 3,676 39. San Jorge 4,844 62. Trinidad 4,515
17. General Díaz 6,068 40. Ycuá Satí 6,687 63. Virgen de Fátima 6,064
18. Pettirossi 11,380 41. Manorá 1,898 64. San Rafael 10,732
19. San Roque 6,355 42. Villa Morra 4,114 65. Botánico 9,982
20. Ricardo Brugada (Chacarita) 10,455 43. Recoleta 10,230 66. Zeballos Cué 18,553
21. San Felipe 5,679 44. Tembetary 3,515 67. Loma Pytá 6,231
22. Las Mercedes 4,827 45. Mburicaó 7,691 68. San Blas 3,651
23. Ciudad Nueva 8,584 46. General Caballero 8,128 69. Santa Rosa 3,546
24. Carlos A. López ? 70. Mariscal López 5,025

Climate Edit

Asunción has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) that closely borders on a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw), characterized by hot, humid summers (average of 27.5 °C or 81.5 °F in January), and mild winters (average of 17.6 °C, 63.7 °F in July). [9] Relative humidity is high throughout the year, so the heat index is higher than the true air temperature in the summer, and in the winter it can feel cooler. [ citation needed ] The average annual temperature is 23 °C (73 °F). The average annual precipitation is high, with 1,400 millimeters (55 in) distributed in over 80 days yearly. The highest recorded temperature was 42.8 °C (109.0 °F) on 1 October 2020, while the lowest recorded temperature was −1.2 °C (29.8 °F) on 27 June 2011.

Snow is unknown in modern times, but it fell during the Little Ice Age, last time in June 1751. [10]

Asunción generally has a very short dry season between May and September, but the coldest months are June, July and August. Slight frosts can occur on average one or two days a year. The wet season covers the remainder of the year.

During the wet season, Asunción is generally hot and humid though towards the end of this season, it becomes noticeably cooler. In contrast, Asunción's dry season is pleasantly mild. Asuncion's annual precipitation values observe a summer maximum, due to severe subtropical summer thunderstorms which travel southward from northern Paraguay, originating in the Gran Chaco region of the northwestern part of the country. The wettest and driest months of the year are April and July, on average receiving respectively 166 mm (6.54 in) and 39 mm (1.54 in) of precipitation.

Climate data for Asunción (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 42.0
Average high °C (°F) 33.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.5
Average low °C (°F) 22.8
Record low °C (°F) 12.5
Average rainfall mm (inches) 147.2
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8 7 7 8 7 7 4 5 6 8 8 8 83
Average relative humidity (%) 68 71 72 75 76 76 70 70 66 67 67 68 70
Mean monthly sunshine hours 276 246 254 228 205 165 195 223 204 242 270 295 2,803
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization [11]
Source 2: NOAA updated to 9/2012., [12] Danish Meteorological Institute (sun only) [13]

The population is approximately 540,000 people in the city proper. [1] Roughly 30% of Paraguay's 6 million people live within Greater Asunción. Sixty-five percent of the total population in the city are under the age of 30. [14]

The population has increased greatly during the last few decades as a consequence of internal migration from other Departments of Paraguay, at first because of the economic boom in the 1970s, and later because of economic recession in the countryside. The adjacent cities in the Gran Asunción area, such as Luque, Lambaré, San Lorenzo, Fernando de la Mora and Mariano Roque Alonso, have absorbed most of this influx due to the low cost of the land and easy access to Asunción. The city has ranked as the least expensive city to live in for five years running by Mercer Human Resource Consulting. [15]

Population by sex and age according to the 2002 census

Age Quantity (census 2002) Male Female
0–4 years 45,382 23,058 22,374
5–9 years 46,120 23,330 22,324
10–14 years 46,272 22,985 23,287
15–29 years 155.675 71,885 83,790
30–59 years 164,367 75,871 88,496
+60 years 54,296 21,686 32,610
Total 512,112 238,815 273,297
Demographic development of Asunción

Religion Edit

Approximately 90% of the population of Asunción professes Catholicism. [18] The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Asunción covers an area of 2,582 square kilometers (997 square miles) including the city and surrounding area and has a total population of 1,780,000 of whom 1,612,000 are Catholic. [18] The Catholic Archbishop is Eustaquio Pastor Cuquejo Verga, C.SS.R. [18] In Paraguay's capital there are also places of worship of other Christian denominations, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, as well as of other religions including Islam, Buddhism and Judaism. [ citation needed ]

Language Edit

Most people in Paraguay speak one of two languages as their principal language: Paraguayan Spanish (spoken by 56.9% of the population) and Guaraní (spoken by 90.1%). 27.4% of the population speaks the Jopará dialect, a mix of Guaraní with loanwords from Spanish (Creole). Other languages are represented by 4.5% of the population. [ citation needed ]

Schools Edit

The city has a large number of both public and private schools. The best-known public schools are the Colegio Nacional de la Capital (which is one of the oldest schools in the city, founded in 1877), Colegio Técnico Nacional, Colegio Nacional Presidente Franco and Colegio Nacional Asunción Escalada. The best-known private schools are, American School of Asunción, Colegio San José, St. Annes School, Colegio del Sol, Colegio Santa Clara, Colegio Goethe and Colegio de la Asunción, Colegio Las Almenas, Colegio Campoalto, Colegio Dante Alighieri, Colegio San Francisco, Colegio San Ignacio de Loyola, Colegio Santa Teresa de Jesús, Colegio Inmaculado Corazón de María, Salesianito, Colegio Cristo Rey, Colegio Internacional.

Universities Edit

The main universities in the city are the Universidad Americana and the Universidad Nacional de Asunción (state-run). The Universidad Nacional de Asunción was founded in 1889 and has an enrollment of just over 40,000 students. The Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción was founded in 1960 and has a current enrollment of around 21,000 students. The Católica has a small campus in the downtown area next to the Cathedral and a larger campus in the Santa Ana neighborhood, outwards toward the adjoining city of Lambaré, while the Universidad Nacional has its main campus in the city of San Lorenzo, some 5 km (3 mi) eastward from Asunción. There are also a number of smaller privately run universities such as Uninorte, Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción and Universidad Autónoma de Asunción, among others.

In terms of commerce, this sector has grown considerably in recent years stretching towards the suburbs where shopping malls and supermarkets have been built. Paraguay's only stock exchange, the BVPASA, is located here. The city itself is listed on it, as BVPASA: MUA. [ citation needed ]

In Asuncion, the most important companies, businesses and investment groups are headquartered. The attractiveness of the city can be attributed to its easy going tax policies. Asunción has unrestrained taxes on the investments and movements of capital. In addition to this, the Asunción stock exchange traded up 485.7% in August 2012 relative to August 2011. There is also no income tax for investors in Bonds of Asunción Stock Exchange. Incentives like these attract significant foreign investment into the city. By many Latin American experts, Paraguay is tapped as one of the top three counties with the best investment climate in Latin America and the Caribbean as well it remains the most attractive nation of the hemisphere in doing business and is equipped with a series of legislations that protect strategic investments and guarantee a friendly environment for the development of large industrial plants and infrastructure projects. The city is the economic center of Paraguay, followed by Ciudad del Este and Encarnación.

Major financial buildings in Asunción

Because the Paraguay River runs right next to Asunción the city is served by a river terminal in the downtown area. This port is strategically located inside a bay and it is where most freight enters and leaves the country. There is a lesser terminal in the Sajonia neighborhood, and a shuttle port in Ita Enramada, almost opposite the Argentine city of Clorinda, Formosa.

Public transportation is used heavily and is served through buses (locally called colectivos, micros or buses) that reach all the regions of the city and surrounding dormitory communities. From October 23, 2020, an electronic card is required to use these buses. There are two cards available from two different providers: "Jaha" (guarani for Let's Go) and "Más" (spanish for More).

The main long-distance bus terminal (TOA, or Terminal de Ómnibus de Asunción) is on the República Argentina Avenue and its bus services connect all of the Departments of Paraguay, as well as international routes to nearby countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Uruguay.

Silvio Pettirossi International Airport is Paraguay's main national and international gateway, located at Luque, suburb of the capital, Asunción. It is named after Paraguayan aviator Silvio Petrossi and is formerly known as Presidente Stroessner International Airport. As Paraguay's busiest airport, it is the hub of Latam Paraguay and Paranair.

The city is home to the Godoy Museum, the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes (which contains paintings from the 19th century), the Church of La Encarnación, the Metropolitan Cathedral and the National Pantheon of the Heroes, a smaller version of Les Invalides in Paris, where many of the nation's heroes are entombed. Other landmarks include the Palacio de los López, the old Senate building (a modern building opened to house Congress in 2003) and the Casa de la Independencia (one of the few examples of colonial architecture remaining in the city).

Calle Palma is the main street downtown where several historical buildings, plazas, shops, restaurants and cafés are located. The "Manzana de la Rivera", located in front of the Presidential Palace, is a series of old traditional homes that have been restored and serve as a museum showcasing the architectural evolution of the city. The old railway station maintains the old trains that now are used in tourist trips to the cities of Luque and Areguá.

Asunción also has luxurious malls that contain shops selling well-known brands. The biggest shopping malls are Shopping del Sol Mariscal López Shopping, Shopping Villa Morra in the central part of the city, Shopping Multiplaza on the outskirts of the city and the Mall Excelsior located downtown. Pinedo Shopping and San Lorenzo Shopping are the newest and also sizeable shopping malls located just 5.6 and 9.3 kilometers (3.5 and 5.8 mi) from Asunción's boundaries respectively, in the city of San Lorenzo, part of Greater Asunción. In 2016 a new shopping mall, La Galeria, was inaugurated. It is in between the blue towers, and is now the largest shopping mall in the country.

Association football is the main sport in Paraguay, and Asunción is home to some of the most important and traditional teams in the country. These include Olimpia, Cerro Porteño, Club Libertad, Club Nacional, Club Guaraní and Club Sol de América, which have their own stadiums and sport facilities for affiliated members. The Defensores del Chaco stadium is the main football stadium of the country and is located in the neighborhood of Sajonia, just a few blocks away from the center of Asunción. Since it is a national stadium sometimes it is used for other activities such as rock concerts. Asunción is also the heart of Paraguayan rugby union.

Asunción also hosts several symphony orchestras, and ballet, opera and theater companies. The most well known orchestras are the City of Asunción's Symphony Orchestra (OSCA), the National Symphony Orchestra and the Northern University Symphony Orchestra. Among professional ballet companies, most renowned are the Asunción Classic and Modern Municipal Ballet, the National Ballet and the Northern University Ballet. The main opera company is the Northern University Opera Company. A long-standing theater company is Arlequín Theater Foundation's. Traditional venues include the Municipal Theater, the Paraguayan-Japanese Center, the Central Bank's Great Lyric Theater, the Juan de Salazar Cultural Center, the Americas Theater, the Tom Jobim Theater, the Arlequín Theater and the Manzana de la Rivera. Asunción is also the center of Architecture in Paraguay.

The seven treasures of cultural heritage material of Asunción Edit

The choice of the seven treasures of cultural heritage material has been developed Asunción during the months of April and May 2009. Promoted by the "Organización Capital Americana de la Cultura", with the collaboration of the Paraguayan authorities participating in the election was carried out with the intention to disclose the material cultural heritage of Assumption. [ citation needed ]

A total of 45 candidates have chosen to become one of the treasures of cultural heritage material Assumption. The result of the vote, which involved 12,417 people, is as follows:

The 7 treasures of Asunción
Palacio de los López Panteón Nacional de los Héroes Cabildo
Catedral Metropolitana de Asunción Hotel Guaraní Teatro Municipal Ignacio A. Pane
Iglesia de la Santísima Trinidad

Nightlife Edit

Nightlife revolves around two areas: one in the downtown part of the city and the other in the neighborhoods of Manora and Las Carmelitas, an area full of nightclubs and bars.

Newspapers Edit

The most read newspapers are: Diario La Nación, Diario Hoy, Diario ABC, Diario Última Hora, and Diario Crónica, although the most successful are ABC and Última Hora.

Television Edit

The most important tv channel are SNT and the other free to air channels Paravisión, Sur TV, Unicanal, Latele, C9N, RPC, Telefuturo and the public station of tv Paraguay TV.

Jackson, R. H. (2015). Demographic change and ethnic survival among the sedentary populations on the Jesuit mission frontiers of Spanish South America, 1609-1803 : Netherlands: Brill

Mondino, M. (2012). Protecting Our Heritage. Americas Quarterly , 6(2), 160-160

Roca, M. V. (2017). Archaeology, Heritage, and Development in Two South American Colonial Sites: The Guarani-Jesuit Missions (1610–1767) . In Collision or Collaboration (pp. 117-135). Springer, Cham

Paragua PG - History

1499 1516 1528 1556 1580 1700

1538 Spanish colonize area called Charcas, Upper Peru, or Chuquisaca to 1545.
1548 Part of Viceroyalty of Peru.
1559 Audiencia de los Charcas created to administer Upper Peru.
1776 Part of Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata .
1809 Independent state proclaimed in Upper Peru nominally in the name of Ferdinand VII the Bourbon king of Spain deposed by Napoleon.
1810 Proclaimed a province of Río de la Plata.
1811 Annexed to Peru.
1825 Bolivian Republic, initially styled República Bolívar.
1836 Component of Peru-Bolivian Confederation ( for North and South Peru components ) to 1839.
1867 Acre granted to Bolivia in the Treaty of Ayacucho.
1868 Republic of Bolivia ( the old style lingers until 1908 ).
1883 Pacific coastline including Antofagasta annexed by Chile.
1899 Acre independent of Bolivia to 1900.
1903 Acre purchased by Brazil.

1541 Spanish colony, Nueva Extremadura, part of Peru.
1778 Captiancy-general of Chile subordinate to Peru.
1810 Revolutionaries, acting nominally in favor of the Fernando VII dethroned by Napoleon, depose the viceroy.
1810 Independence declared.
1814 Spanish reconquest to 1817.
1818 Independence declared, State of Chile, independence recognizes by Spain in 1844.
1826 Republic of Chile
1932 Socialist Republic of Chile, lasted only 12 days.

1932 Republic of Chile
1883 Annexes Bolivian Pacific coast and Antofagasta as well as Tarapaca, Tanca and Arica from Peru.
1888 Annexes Easter Island.

1967 reverse 1988 reverse

Unknown 1813 1814 1815 1815

1536 Spanish colonize Río de la Plata, part of Viceroyalty of Peru to 1580.
1618 Buenos Aires province created.
1661 Audiencia of Buenos Aires.
1671 Subordinated to the Audiencia of Charcas to 1776.
1776 ( Spanish ) Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata separated from Peru ( modern Argentina, Bolivia [Charcas or Upper Peru], Paraguay, and

All th e flag images belong to Vexilla mundi - Drawn by Mello Luchtenberg

All th e State Chronologies belong to World Statesmen - Edited by Benjamin Cahoon


Early years (1953–1963) Edit

WWE's origins can be traced back as far as the 1950s when on January 7, 1953 the first show under the Capitol Wrestling Corporation (CWC) was produced. There is uncertainty as to who the founder of the CWC was. Some sources state that it was Vincent J. McMahon [2] [3] [4] while other sources cite McMahon's father Jess McMahon (who died in 1954) as founder of CWC. [5] [6] [7] The NWA recognized an undisputed NWA World Heavyweight Champion that went to several different professional wrestling promotions in the NWA. The championship was defended around the world. The NWA generally promoted strong shooters as champions, to give their worked sport credibility and guard against double-crosses. While doing strong business in the Midwest (the NWA's core region), these wrestlers attracted little interest in the CWC territory. In 1961, the NWA board decided instead to put the championship on bleach blond showman "Nature Boy" Buddy Rogers, a much more effective drawing card in the region. [8] The rest of the NWA was unhappy with McMahon and Toots Mondt (who joined the CWC in the early 1960s) because he rarely allowed Rogers to wrestle outside of the Northeast. Mondt and McMahon wanted Rogers to keep the NWA World Heavyweight Championship, but Rogers was unwilling to sacrifice his $25,000 deposit on the championship belt (championship holders at the time had to pay a deposit to insure they honored their commitments as champion). Rogers lost the NWA World Heavyweight Championship to Lou Thesz in a one-fall match in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on January 24, 1963, which led to Mondt, McMahon, and the CWC leaving the NWA in protest, creating the World Wide Wrestling Federation (WWWF) in the process. [9] [10]

Rise of Bruno Sammartino (1963–1980) Edit

The World Wide Wrestling Federation (WWWF) was formed on January 24, 1963. On April 25, 1963, Buddy Rogers was awarded the new WWWF World Heavyweight Championship, supposedly winning an apocryphal tournament in Rio de Janeiro. He lost the championship to Bruno Sammartino a month later on May 17, 1963, after suffering a heart attack shortly before the match. To accommodate Rogers' condition, the match was booked to last under a minute. [11]

Sammartino would retain the title for seven years, eight months and one day (2,803 days), making his the longest continuous world championship reign in men's wrestling history. Although Sammartino was the face of the WWWF, wrestlers such as Superstar Billy Graham and Bob Backlund were also hugely popular. [12] [ citation needed ] The WWWF gained notoriety in the 1970s by holding their biggest shows at Shea Stadium or Madison Square Garden and doing strong business across the entire Northeast megalopolis. They leveraged former, but still popular, wrestlers such as Captain Lou Albano, "Grand Wizard of Wrestling" Ernie Roth and "Classy" Freddie Blassie to act as managers for Sammartino's heel (villainous) opponents. At this time, only babyface (fan favorite) wrestlers were allowed to have long championship reigns, such as Bruno Sammartino, Pedro Morales and Bob Backlund, who all retained for more than one year each. The heel champions, such as Ivan Koloff and Stan Stasiak, were used to "transition" the championship from one wrestler to another, and they generally kept the title for no more than a single month-long program before dropping it to the next babyface. Graham was the only heel character to keep his championship for longer than one month, as the WWWF felt it needed time to build Backlund up as championship material. [13]

The WWWF was relatively conservative for promotions of its day running its major arenas monthly rather than weekly or bi-weekly. [14] Programs generally involved a babyface champion facing a heel challenger for one to three meetings in each scheduled town for longer programs the heel would often win the first match in a non-decisive manner such as a countout or via excessive blood loss, and the champion would then retain in an ultraviolent blow-off match such as a steel cage match or Texas Death match. [15] Unlike most of the NWA territories, the main event would occur in the middle of the arena show cards, allowing the company to build upon the match's finish in order to sell tickets to the next event reliable, popular workers such as Chief Jay Strongbow would then wrestle at the end of the show to send the crowd home happy. [16] [17] The WWWF also featured popular wrestlers based out of non-WWWF territories such as Dusty Rhodes and retained the services of (at the time) the most popular and highly paid wrestler in the world, André the Giant, in between his territorial and international obligations.

WWWF held their then major event Showdown at Shea three times at Flushing, New York's Shea Stadium in 1972, 1976 and 1980. Bruno Sammartino main evented the 1972 and 1980 events, in 1972 wrestling Pedro Morales to a 75 minutes time limit draw and in 1980 defeating Larry Zbyszko in a Steel cage match. The main event of the 1976 event was a Boxer vs Wrestler fight between Muhammad Ali and Antonio Inoki which ended in a draw. At that event Sammartino had retained the WWWF World Heavyweight Championship against Stan Hansen. The 1972, 1976 and 1980 events each had attendance figures of 22,508, 32,000 and 36,295 respectively. [18] [19] [20]

Toots Mondt left the WWWF in the late sixties, and Vincent J. McMahon assumed complete control of the organization in 1971. [21] Later that year, The Mongols created controversy after they left the WWWF with the WWWF International Tag Team Championship. The championship would be considered inactive as a result until Luke Graham and Tarzan Tyler won a tournament to claim the championship. They then defeated the Mongols in November 1971, voiding any claim The Mongols had to the championship. In March 1979, for marketing purposes, the World Wide Wrestling Federation was renamed as the World Wrestling Federation (WWF). [22]

Transition (1979–1982) Edit

In 1980, Vincent K. McMahon, the son of Vincent J. McMahon, founded Titan Sports, Inc. and applied trademarks for the initials "WWF".

The Golden Era (1982–1993) Edit

In 1982, McMahon purchased Capitol Sports, the parent company of the WWF, from his father and associates Gorilla Monsoon and Arnold Skaaland. [23]

Seeking to make the WWF the premier wrestling promotion in the world, he began an expansion process that fundamentally changed the industry. [24] In an interview with Sports Illustrated, McMahon noted:

In the old days, there were wrestling fiefdoms all over the country, each with its own little lord in charge. Each little lord respected the rights of his neighboring little lord. No takeovers or raids were allowed. There were maybe 30 of these tiny kingdoms in the U.S. and if I hadn't bought out my dad, there would still be 30 of them, fragmented and struggling. I, of course, had no allegiance to those little lords. [24]

Upon taking over the company, McMahon immediately worked to get WWF programming on syndicated television all across the United States. This angered other promoters and disrupted the well-established boundaries of the different wrestling promotions. In addition, the company used income generated by advertising, television deals, and tape sales to secure talent from rival promoters.

Capitol Sports already controlled most of the northeastern territory, but the younger McMahon wanted the WWF to be a national wrestling promotion something the NWA did not approve of. He shortly defected his promotion from the NWA, much like the American Wrestling Association, which controlled the U.S. Northern Midwest. To become a national promotion, the WWF would have to become bigger than AWA or any NWA promotion.

McMahon's vision for his promotion was starting to become possible when he signed AWA talent Hulk Hogan, who had achieved popularity outside of wrestling – notably for his appearance in Rocky III as Thunderlips. [25] McMahon signed Rowdy Roddy Piper as Hogan's rival, and shortly afterward signed Jesse "The Body" Ventura. Other significant wrestlers who were part of the roster included: Big John Studd, André the Giant, Jimmy "Superfly" Snuka, "The Magnificent" Don Muraco, Junkyard Dog, "Mr. Wonderful" Paul Orndorff, Greg "The Hammer" Valentine, Ricky "The Dragon" Steamboat, and Nikolai Volkoff. In 1984, Hogan was pushed to main event status. He defeated WWF World Heavyweight Champion The Iron Sheik at Madison Square Garden on January 23, 1984 and thus evolved into one of the most recognizable and popular faces in professional wrestling. [26]

With reasonable revenue being made, McMahon was able to secure television deals, and WWF was being shown across the United States. [ citation needed ] McMahon also began selling videotapes of WWF events outside the Northeast through his Coliseum Video distribution company, again angering other promoters. [ citation needed ] The syndication of WWF programming forced promotions to engage in direct competition with the WWF. [ citation needed ] The increased revenue allowed McMahon to sign more talent, such as Brutus Beefcake, Tito Santana, Jake "The Snake" Roberts, Butch Reed, and "Hacksaw" Jim Duggan.

However, for McMahon to truly turn WWF into a national promotion, he needed to have WWF touring the entire United States. [ citation needed ] Such a venture was impossible with the revenue WWF currently had, so McMahon envisioned a way to obtain the necessary capital through a risky all-or-nothing gamble on a supercard concept called WrestleMania in 1985. WrestleMania would be a pay-per-view extravaganza, viewable on closed-circuit television and marketed as the Super Bowl of professional wrestling. WrestleMania was not the first supercard seen in professional wrestling, as the NWA had previously run Starrcade in 1983. However, McMahon's vision was to make WWF and the industry itself mainstream, targeting more of the general television audience by exploiting the entertainment side of the industry. With the inaugural WrestleMania, WWF initiated a joint-promotional campaign with MTV, which featured a great deal of WWF coverage and programming, in what was termed the Rock 'n' Wrestling Connection. The mainstream media attention brought on by celebrities including Muhammad Ali, Mr. T and Cyndi Lauper at the event helped propel WrestleMania to become a staple in popular culture, and the use of celebrities has been a staple of the company to the present day.

With the success of WrestleMania, other promotions which tried hard to keep the regional territory system alive started to merge under Jim Crockett Promotions (JCP). [ citation needed ] Starrcade and The Great American Bash were the JCP versions of WrestleMania, but even when operating inside of its territory, JCP had trouble matching the success of WWF. [ citation needed ] After Ted Turner purchased majority of JCP's assets, the promotion would become World Championship Wrestling (WCW), providing WWF with a competitor until 2001, when WCW and its trademarks were purchased by WWF. [ citation needed ] WrestleMania would become an annual pay-per-view phenomenon, being broadcast in nearly 150 countries and in almost 20 different languages. [ citation needed ]

Perhaps the peak of the 1980s wrestling boom was WrestleMania III at the Pontiac Silverdome, [ citation needed ] which set an attendance record of 93,173. In the main event Hulk Hogan retained the WWF Championship against André the Giant. [27] McMahon used the success of WrestleMania to create more annual pay-per-views such as SummerSlam, the Royal Rumble and the Survivor Series, the latter two both receiving their names from unique stipulation matches featured at the event. These four shows would be jointly known as the “Big Four” of the company’s programming up until modern day.

McMahon's focus on entertainment rather than giving his product a legitimate sports feel, the policy that became the concept of sports entertainment, led to great financial success for WWF. [ citation needed ] During the 1980s, Hulk Hogan would cross over into mainstream prominence presented as an all-American hero. [ citation needed ] Hogan's time as the face of the WWF would last until he departed from the company in the summer of 1993. Other stars such as "Macho Man" Randy Savage, "Rowdy" Roddy Piper, The Ultimate Warrior, The Honky Tonk Man, "Million Dollar Man" Ted DiBiase, and others also helped make WWF a financial success in this time period. [ citation needed ] Jim Duggan won the first Royal Rumble match in 1988. While these talents were recognizable as individuals, some talent became better known for their teamwork as part of tag teams. Stables or groups such as Demolition, Strike Force, The Hart Foundation, The British Bulldogs, The Rockers and The Fabulous Rougeaus helped create a strong tag team division for WWF. [ citation needed ] Towards the end of the "Golden Age", Bret Hart of the Hart Foundation began to break out on his own as a singles competitor, with his most memorable match early on taking place at SummerSlam in 1992 against "The British Bulldog" Davey Boy Smith. Hart would eventually capture the WWF World Heavyweight Championship from Ric Flair later that year and would win the King of the Ring tournament the following year.

In January 1993, WWF created their prime time cable TV program Monday Night Raw, which aired on the USA Network.

Piragua and the piragüeros

Piragua Cart and Piraguero

The piragua vendor is known as the “Piragüero”. Most Piragüeros sell their product from a colorful wooden pushcart that carries an umbrella, instead of from a fixed stand or kiosk. The Piragüero makes the treats from shavings off a block of solid ice inside his cart and mixtures of fruit-flavored syrups. The tropical syrup flavors vary from lemon and strawberry to passion fruit and guava. Once the syrups are ready, the Piragüero will go to his place of business, which in Puerto Rico is usually close to the town plaza, while in the United States it is usually close to the public parks near Hispanic neighborhoods, to sell his product.

type of Hand Ice Shaver used by the Piragüero

What Is The Capital Of Paraguay And Where Is It Located?

The capital city of Paraguay has quite a long name Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción. In short known as Asunción, it is also the largest city in the country. The city is located on the left bank of the Paraguay River. More precisely, Asunción lies near the confluence of the Paraguay River with the River Pilcomayo. The city is separated from Argentina and the Occidental Region of Paraguay by the Bay of Asunción and the Paraguay River in northwest and south. The Central Department of Paraguay surrounds the city in other directions.

Cooking Guinea Pig

Cuy chactadois the deep-fried version of our furry friend. The animal is usually served flattened with the head removed. As there are different versions of this recipe I’ll leave you with one that you can use as a base for experimenting. This is a simple dish so removing the cornmeal, peppers, and cumin from the recipe will not change the overall presentation or taste too much.

Peruvian Guinea Pig recipe

1. Remove the hair and guts from a medium guinea pig. Clean it thoroughly.
2. Dip the cuy in water laced with a good amount of lime juice and leave to dry for an hour or two. In Peru, a cook will leave it to dry in the sun (left to hang on a cord or twine). You can also leave the animal to dry in an oven (at low temperatures)
3. Rub salt, pepper, cumin, and garlic (ground) onto the dry skin of the raw animal. The best way to do this is by hand as you can really get the condiments into the skin this way. Brushing or spooning the spices onto the meat will not work nearly as well.
4. Boil water in a saucepan and add cornmeal (50-100g), 2 chopped ají Amarillo peppers, 1/2 cup of vegetable oil, and a couple of chopped garlic cloves. Cook until the peppers become soft.
5. Heat oil in another saucepan. Meanwhile, dip the carcass in cornmeal flour so that it is coated with a thin layer. Using a skewer put the guinea pig into the oil, turning several times to cook the entire animal. Drop some lime juice onto the flesh as you turn it and remove when the entire carcass is a golden color.

Serve the cuy on a large plate and spoon over some of the sauce from step 4. I like this dish served with potatoes or sweet potatoes. Fries or Salsa criolla are typical tasty sides for cuy chactado. A delicious Peruvian sauce called salsa huacatay is often served up with this dish and it complements it very well.

Photo credit: Roast Guinea Pig with potatoes by Pululante, licence: CC BY 2.0

Roast Guinea Pig (Cuy) Peruvian Delicacy

Cuy: Guinea Pig dish from Peru

About Eat Peru

Peruvian foodie. I've been writing about the food of Peru for over 10 years.

Watch the video: Paraguay - History, Culture, Geography 1943 (July 2022).


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