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Did the legal principle of conflict of interest exist in the 17th century?

Did the legal principle of conflict of interest exist in the 17th century?


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17th century Europe saw many trials related to Catholic-Protestant disagreements. Was the legal principle of conflict of interest operative at the time, so that for example the same person could not be the source of a denunciation and at the same time a legal expert called upon for an opinion?

I would be particularly interested in the trials of the inquisition in Italy.

Apart from the issue to what extent laws concerning "ambidexterity" (mentioned in the answer) were actually followed, I am also interested in what type of (canon) law existed at the time. The scenario I am thinking of is slightly different from ambidexterity. Suppose person X initiated a denunciation (or in more favorable modern terminology "whistle-blowing") concerning person Y. Can person X himself be appointed to sit as a judge or offer expert opinion on the ensuing case involving Y stemming from X's whistle?

Note. An instance of such conflict of interests dates from 1632-1633. Melchoir Inchofer was chosen as one of a panel of three theologians appointed to assess Galileo's work, the others being Agostino Oreggi and Zaccaria Pasqualigo. In addition to this overt task, there is in the papers of the Congregation of the Index an anonymous denunciation, referred to as EE291 in the literature. The EE291 dates from 1632 and is in Inchofer's hand. One of the key accusations is Galileo's alleged non-conformity to Canon 2 of Session 13 of the Council of Trent. Additional details can be found in this 2018 publication in Foundations of Science.


Yes. According to this paper the concept of "ambidexterity" has been a part of Canon law since medieval times.

brief quote:

Sayles notes that there was "a monotonous outcry against the practice whereby the pleader insinuated himself into the confidence of one party and afterwards transferred his services to the other." Christian stated that serjeants "were often accused of being 'ambidexters' and taking fees from both sides."" The Mirror ofJustices, a late thirteenth century attack on judges and the legal system, said that a lawyer should be "suspended if he is attainted of receiving a fee from both sides in one cause.""

According to the Catholic Encyclopedia,

The judges were to be at least forty years old, of unimpeachable reputation, distinguished for virtue and wisdom, masters of theology, or doctors or licentiates of canon law, and they must follow the usual ecclesiastical rules and regulations. On 17 September, 1480, Their Catholic Majesties appointed, at first for Seville, the two Dominicans Miguel de Morillo and Juan de San Martin as inquisitors, with two of the secular clergy assistants. Catholic Encyclopedia

(note: I've cherrypicked the section on the inquisition in Spain; you'll need to do additional research to verify that the inquisition in Italy is chartered and organized the same way. The reason I've picked this section is that it explicitly states that the qualifications for the members include "licentiates of canon law" - meaning that they would be familiar with the sections on ambidexterity. If you can find similar qualifications for the Inquisition in Italy, you'll be very close to your answer.)


The EYE-BALL Opinion

  • Three consecutive NSW Premiers, Wran, Unsworth and Greiner,
  • Several Ministers serving in those Governments and their staffers – one of these Ministers is now a Justice with the NSW Land and Environment Court,
  • Regulatory Departments including the Department of Co-Operatives, Office of Business and Consumer Affairs, and the Australian Association of Permanent Building Societies, (AAPBS) and,
  • Employed State Bank of NSW Executives – the MD was John O’Neill – who all acted in proven ‘conflict of interest’ positions as Directors on the State Building Society Board, and whose intent was to facilitate a FRAUD against the 270,000 SBS members.

Definitions of Allegations alleged against Mr John O’Neill and his cohorts …

  • morally wrong or bad immoral wicked: evil deeds an evil life.
  • harmful injurious: evil laws.
  • characterized or accompanied by misfortune or suffering unfortunate disastrous: to be fallen on evil days.
  • due to actual or imputed bad conduct or character: an evil reputation.
  • marked by anger, irritability, irascibility, etc.: He is known for his evil disposition.
  • Definition: the state of being devoid of morality and ethics, used esp. for business and political entities
  • Example: A complete lack of morals is moral bankruptcy.
  • – irrationally extreme in opinion or practice:
  • – furious or raging violently intense:
  • Synonyms – zealous, fervent, ardent, fanatical, bigoted.
  • – deceit, trickery, sharp practice, or breach of confidence, perpetrated for profit or to gain some unfair or dishonest advantage.
  • – a particular instance of such deceit or trickery: mail fraud election frauds.
  • any deception, trickery, or humbug: That diet book is a fraud and a waste of time.
  • a person who makes deceitful pretenses sham poseur.

STUDY UNIT 2 – Law and rights

KEY QUESTIONS:

1. What is a right? A right is how people relate to one another. When you have a right to something → holder of right Holder / legal subject → right to legal object → other legal subjects must respect your rights Right have 2 relationship→ relationships between:  A legal subject & the legal object  The legal subject (holder of rights) & other legal subjects Therefore→ a legal subject have rights against one another in respect of the object of their rights.

2. Give four (4) important rights in private law? Grouping rights are done by deciding what type of right it is. We can find out the type of right by finding out the object of the right. 4 classes of rights:

(1) Real Right (object: a thing) → car / pen / herd of cows / air in cylinder

→ Rights to physical, material things → we can touch → The powers we exercise → content of the right Examples of real rights:  Ownership : owner of property may freely→ use / enjoy / alienate / destroy → (powers which form the content of the owner‟s real right of ownership)  Pledge : give movable thing for security of debt → pledgee (own receiving pledge thing): powers limited (only possess) → may not use / enjoy  Servitudes : Servitude holder has limited real right to property of another → Ex. right of way over another person‟s land.

(2) Personality Rights (object: personality property)

→ Rights to parts of personality → Ex. Right to → physical integrity / good name / reputation / honour

(3) Intellectual Property / immaterial property rights (object: non tangible creation of the human mind)

Intellectual property rights relates to creation of human mind → ex. Work of art / invention / trademark Also sometimes called immaterial property rights → copyright

(4) Personal Rights (object: performance)

A right to performance / claim / human action → to do/ not to do something →ex. Delivery / payment / services / not compete

3. Explain the connection between the law & rights? The law determines what the content of rights are (powers of the holder). The law prescribes what the limits to the content of rights are.

4. Give examples of the connection between the law & rights? → example: ownership: you have the right to you property and the law prohibits one to erect a building that is higher.

KEY CONCEPTS:

The law → system of norms / rules & system of rights Examples of rights → right to car / book / against seller of car / against all others who must respect my right to my car / book etc. Legal subject → anyone subject to the norms of the law & may be a holder of rights & duties Legal object → the object of a right (legal object) may be anything that is of economic value to people→ costs a lot of money / useful / value to particular person Other meaning of the word right Powers you can exercise in terms of your rights. ex. Right to use & sell your house. → Right to appear in court→ not truly a right→ ABILITY→ CAPACITY → why? There must be → a legal subject & the right to an object of the right.


Construction

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Part 11 commences … The SBNSW Response continues…

An Update – The Reasons Why!

B y now readers of this story will have started to believe that some serious corporate corruption and fraud happened 24 years ago. Events that changed lives – and within the story being told hereto there are another 1000 or so more sub-plot stories that remain untold.

  • What happened to Mr Baker – the Co-Operatives Registrar at the time this all went down in 1988, and the Deputy Registrar when Premier Wran and Minister Sheahan structured the SBS in 1982 – why is he so guarded about the information he has? His wish that he not be involved or want any further contact in relation to the story – as revealed during recent contact – what story does he have that remains untold?
  • Then there is Mr Gray – the SBNSW Treasurer who did the Audit on the SBS Treasury that set-up the SBS GM Denis Cleary – what can his story reveal having worked and dealt with the duress of a delusional MD in O’Neill – and as part of that ambit having to face the financial pitfalls of a Bank floundering in mounting bad-debts and insolvency for another seven years – all before they were sold to Colonial Mutual in 1995 with a legacy inherited by the NSW Taxpayers to the tune of $1.8 billion?
  • Then there was the St George Treasury staff living off the fat created by the SBS Liquids Portfolio they inherited … and then the 600+ staff of the SBS and how the merger with St George impacted on their careers and lives.
  • There are also the Political stories – of Mr Humphries who worked with Premier Greiner throughout the SBS story – and by several accounts was as corrupted as they come in the wheeling and dealing within the political thrust and counter thrust of State politics. He came up from Victoria State Politics to forge his mark in NSW – his take on all this would be most interesting given where he ended up at APRA – Australian Prudential Regulatory Authority. The skeletons in his closet must haunt him every night and day if he was a man with a conscious, or any moral integrity that was recognisable outside the world of politics.
  • Then there was Mr Sturges and his involvement alongside Mr Humphries – to these political operatives working behind the scenes – the events surrounding the SBS were just the happenings in the normal course of any day in a political operatives life. The finding of ways to solve escalating problems is their forte – what gives them kudos and reputation … whether they break the rules is not important at the time, it only becomes so if someone finds out. Their stories would sink Greiner and O’Neill asunder if they were so inclined to tell.

The world is full of these repressed type secrets – just imagine what someone like Rupert Murdoch could do to history and its course if he were to tell all that he knows, and what he did in shaping Government’s and the political careers of those chosen and anointed.

For a century plus – perhaps even from when civilisation began and Adam ate the forbidden fruit – civilisation’s have lived on what people perceive to be the truth and integrity within leadership – all presented to gullible readers and viewers in modern times through the eyes of newspaper editors, and in even more recent times – the TV News and Current Affairs editors and producers.

What people see is the projected image of what politicians, editors and broadcasters want you to see – and the people of the world by and large accept and want to believe it to be so.

You ever think or stop and ponder why it is news when some high-flyer falls to a sex scandal or a corruption claim? The story breaks and it is news for a brief moment – it disturbs the equilibrium of all that sustains our daily processes – the gossip hour with friends – the work environment idle chatter – the latest news on the train ride home – it becomes an interesting part to our day that is not interesting to begin with.

It’s a reflection of us and the mediocrity we endure and tolerate in our leadership – it is also a base-line acceptance that current leadership is good enough. The gossip news and ‘did you hear about’ type telling of these stories in ever-increasing degrees of embellishment – makes our lives that little bit more interesting and above the dreariness.

John O’Neill if he is anything or anybody of importance is like Nick Greiner – ‘he does not even remember the SBS and what they did.’ Well they both do now – and like a spooky horror show sneaking up from behind – blinding their eyes and screaming – ‘do you remember what you did 24 years ago … ‘ – their lives might now also be altered. If there is justice in the world – they will hopefully be waking and thinking about what they did – trying to recall the detail – the conversations – the paper trail – pondering what will happen if this story gains traction and the ‘walls begin to fall down’.

Yet – this story is my story – it is what I have been forced to live with for a very long time – you see not only was O’Neill just after the SBS monetary reserves – he wanted to destroy the people who showed him up – Cleary, Thompson, the SBS Treasurer and anybody else who got in his way. He did it by leaking information to the press – calculated revelations to a greater aim – discrediting the SBS Management was his way to sway the SBS Members to vote for the St George merger.

He didn’t give a second thought to think what damage his actions might cause – he just blasted away and the people he took down had to try and pick up the pieces and move on. But even then he wasn’t done – he verbalised the SBS Staff at every opportunity – his own staff heard the stories during in-house rants, boasts and chatter and they also spread the word – his cancerous bile impacted in ways that even he could never imagine. He sent investigators to find out personal information he could use – he tried to obtain confidential documents by stealth and deception – his actions had ‘evil’ intentions written all over them – this is who John O’Neill was when he served as the MD of the SBNSW.

If you want an answer as to why this story is told – call it motivated revenge – call it retribution – call it trying to get justice for a wrong – or you can simply believe that it is the story of a broken man having given up on life because the struggle to survive in the wake of what he was force to endure – damaged him for life.

This is one life that was irreparable damaged – that damage lay dormant and hidden for a long time – pride and a previous lifetime of success and competitive instincts carried him for many years after the SBS experience. He never wanted to believe that the events of 󈨜 did him damage – and now some two and a half decades later, and after a truly honest look at the gradual slide into depressive oblivion – that journey yielded a cause, and a need to understand the ‘why’ and the ‘how’, and a scent of motivation from a long time ago self-belief in his abilities.

With the flickering flame of a life at the point of self-destruction – there has been but one thing that has sustained him – that was to tell this story and what John O’Neill was responsible for and why he did it. Call it a last stance of defiance to let O’Neill, Greiner and their ‘henchmen’ know that whilst 24 years have passed – someone knew what they did and was going to tell their story.

No amount of money could make up for the life that was taken away, or compensate the other SBS staff forced to restart careers and lives from the ruins of the once proud and robust SBS. What can give some solace is that the authors children now have some answers to why they grew up watching their father never being able to find any sustainable employ – why he existed as half the person they once knew.

This story is as much for them as anything else – to help them understand. Yet – it is only a single story connected to so many stories that can be told as a result of this FRAUD and CORRUPTED process by a Government, and the staff serving that Government. It is a similar story to millions of other untold stories that will never be heard.

This story is not all that important in the overall scheme of things – yes, laws were broken and the responsible parties did harm – and a small portion of a bigger community largely went on and lived their lives without ever knowing what really happened. But multiplied by the millions of similar stories out there – one does not have to look hard to find reasons the world is at the abyss – the cross-over point where realisation becomes an acceptance … that crime does pay. Everybody starts to believe that living a moral and ethical existence gets you nowhere in this world. That cross-over point starts and ends with the corruption within Leadership – and Global and Corporate Leadership is and has been found wanting for a very long time.

Greiner is a millionaire many times over – his political career ended by an ICAC investigation – several people connected with this story are similarly endowed. What if they were all to suddenly face charges arising from this FRAUD – what purpose would it serve? Would others who replace them stop – or would they look upon it as their time at the ‘pig-trough’ – to get their own fill and take their opportunity to line pockets?

his is what comes from discovery – a forensic discovery into the world of how our Leaders get away with crime and corruption. The Murdoch Memoirs – if he were to write them – they would be like the ‘J Edgar-Hoover safe’ – full of information about everybody. The strange thing about J Edgar was that he taught every generation since how to play the game of politics – and that is where the world is today – ‘dirty secrets’ and the evil they breed.

The SBS story continues … The SBNSW Response …

By the end of May 󈨜 the game had changed – O’Neill with his career one flush away from oblivion and his pride served on a platter he now had to face Greiner and tell him he ‘stuffed-up’. He tip-toed into a meeting with Greiner to ask for another crack at dealing with the SBS problem. He had Fred Shields from St George on the hook and this was the carrot he was dangling before Greiner. Greiner took the bait and agreed to do a deal with St George. Part of the new plan was to keep the Regulatory authorities thinking about the ‘merger’ between the SBNSW and SBS.

O’Neill’s plan was to keep the Regulators distracted and looking at ways to stop a merger between the SBNSW and SBS – whilst the SBNSW game plan re-focused on a sale option to St George. To keep up the façade – O’Neill engaged in a lengthy process of letter exchanges with the Registrar and the AAPBS Advisory Committee to keep the mis-direction alive.

Below are internal page links to letter exchanges between the SBNSW and the Regulatory authorities to this aim – [return links provided]:

    – O’Neill and other SBNSW appointed SBS Directors responses to Baker re ongoing ‘conflict issues’ … – Registrar response to O’Neill re matters raised by O’Neill in 2nd June letter … – Internal memo from Registrar to Minister – O’Neill letter to Registrar re 3rd June Baker Response … – O’Neill letter to Registrar re specific matter raised by Baker 20th May & 2nd June … – Registrar to O’Neill … – O’Neill to Registrar … – Registrar to O’Neill … – O’Neill to Registrar … – O’Neill to Advisory Committee with complete history of SBNSW involvement with SBS … the nail in O’Neill’s coffin … – Registrar to O’Neill re outcome of AAPBS Advisory Committee meeting … – Registrar to O’Neill

2nd June: O’Neill letter to Baker re Advisory Committee meeting …

O’Neill letter to Registrar re Waiver letter sent previously – Page 1:

O’Neill letter to Registrar re Waiver letter sent previously – Page 2:

O’Neill and his fellow Directors first waiver letters were not satisfactory, and the Minister requested new waiver letters. In the above letter O’Neill refers to the 24th May letter from Baker – this was reviewed in Part 10 and this letter can again be viewed using the links below – [pages will open in a new window.]:

Kearns Waiver Letter take 2 …

Turner Waiver Letter take 2 …

Thomas Waiver Letter take 2 …:

These waiver letters have some pretty convoluted wording and structured by some legal mind with intent to allow ambiguity and confusion … too smart by half …

As stated – the intent at this stage was to keep the Regulatory authorities thinking ‘merger’ – whilst all the while O’Neill was still serving as the SBS Chairman and able to control and direct all efforts toward the St George sale …

3rd June: Baker response to O’Neill re matters raised by O’Neill in 2nd June letter …

Baker Response to O’Neill Page 1:

The Hely/Allsop opinion was the Freehill Hollingdale and Page opinion presented in Part 10 – this can be downloaded from the EYE-BALL NovelZone Zombie-Leaks Uploads page … or here.

Baker Response to O’Neill Page 2:

Mr Baker was getting to the heart of the matter – were the SBNSW Directors as nominated owners of ‘fixed-capital’ purely trustees and under some deemed allegiance to continue to vote the way of the SBNSW’s interests else the transfer fo the fixed-capital could be effected by an already held document duly signed and held by the SBNSW.

This goes to the convoluted arrangements the guaranteed the SBNSW held control over the SBS – and this was never raised during the CSB v NSWG and SBNSW court case … nowhere in the judgement transcript are these pre-signed ‘fixed-share’ documents mentioned – when it came to the SBS Chairman Ken Dennewald’s dismissal – the SBNSW were able to accept his share because he had pre-signed the transfer of his shares when he took the Director position.

This is very damning evidence and puts the whole 1985 decision by Justice Lockhart in some doubt if this evidence had of been produced.

6th June: Internal memo from Registrar to Minister

Internal memo from Registrar to Minister Page 1:

Internal memo from Registrar to Minister Page 2:

This is an important document in that it discusses the Takeover Review Committee (TRC) and who was to be appointed how it was to be engaged before any merger/sale of the SBS could be effected.

How the SBNSW and the NSWG negotiated their way out of this is still a mystery. But as at the date of this letter the 6th June – and already 5 days after the St George deal was ‘done in principal’ – some heavy-duty bargaining had to have take place to get the Minister to change his mind.

Th importance of this document cannot be overstated –

14th June: O’Neill letter to Baker re 3rd June Registrar Response …

O’Neill letter to Baker re 3rd June Registrar Response Page 1:

O’Neill letter to Baker re 3rd June Registrar Response Page 2:

O’Neill is dancing with Mr Baker – all around his 3rd June letter – note the delay in response – this letter is dated the 14th June – some 11 days after Mr Baker’s letter – and only nine days away from when Mr O’Neill was due to front the Advisory Committee on his ‘show cause’ over his Dual Directorship position.

O’Neill was answering Mr Baker’s questions with more questions – all to the purpose of stringing out the response process to gain more time to put the SBS sale to St George to bed …

14th June: O’Neill letter to Registrar re specific matters raised by Baker 20th May & 2nd June …

O’Neill letter to Registrar re specific matter raised by Baker 20th May & 2nd June Page 1:

15th June: Registrar to O’Neill…

Registrar to O’Neill Page 1:

Registrar to O’Neill Page 2:

Notice that Mr F Shield from St George sits on this Committee – the ‘conflicts of interest’ become deeper and entwined with how the deal with St George would remain secret for a while longer. O’Neill as the SBS Chairman was taking no notice of the said conflict of interest and was dictating proceedings as if no conflict existed – his assurances given in his most recent waiver were concerned with a merger – O’Neill believed that a sale did not fall within his waiver assurances. It is a Directors responsibility to serve the SBS members – how O’Neill could think he was doing so is for him to explain.

17th June: O’Neill to Registrar…

O’Neill to Registrar Page 1:

O’Neill is daring the Registrar to bare his knowledge – if the sale to St George was known to the Registrar at this stage – O’Neill’s challenge has him floating down the river face first …

It is now six days to the Advisory Committee hearing and O’Neill has not answered any of Mr Bakers requests … this is standard operating procedure in any corporate takeover move – delay – delay and delay for as long as you can and then try to mis-direct any specific inquiry whilst appearing to answer the questions being asked.

Some 24 years later – all that can be said is that O’Neill’s tactics were those of a 35 yo out of his depth – his integrity had no bottom – his actions and responsibilities as a SBS Director were never toward the interests of the SBS members and this in itself speaks to the character and caliber of the man.

O’Neill to Registrar Page 2:

O’Neill is calling a double bluff – with Illawarra and St George represented on the Advisory Committee – O’Neill is claiming they have a ‘conflict’ which they do – but knowing full well that the deal with St George is already done – highlighting this mute point for show and posturing is again mis-direction …

21st June: Registrar to O’Neill…

Registrar to O’Neill Page 1:

Registrar to O’Neill Page 2:

Some of the secrets have filtered out – this last paragraph in confirmation of the SBNSW’s internal memos to try and convert as many SBS customers to SBNSW customers before the sale to St George is leaked or announced. The Regulatory authorities were operating in a vacume and had no information flow. O’Neill was not playing by the rules – his actions completely blindsided the Regulatory authority and they never saw it coming.

22st June: O’Neill to Registrar…

O’Neill to Registrar…:

The guy has crocodile skin … he thinks he is untouchable – he is laughing all the way to the SBS reserves and the mounting SBNSW bad-debts are playing second fiddle to what is happening at the moment.

23rd June: O’Neill to Registrar… letter and Appendix – the nail in O’Neill’s coffin …

O’Neill to Advisory Committee … Letter Page 1:

O’Neill to Registrar… Letter Page 2:

O’Neill to Registrar… Letter Page 3:

Just one great blow-hard – O’Neill puffs his chest out and dares the Committee to do its worst …

O’Neill to Registrar… Appendix Page 1:

Paragraph 2 – O’Neill and all the SBNSW staff before him just don’t get it – the SBS was formed under a flawed arrangement – three legal opinions confirmed that natural ‘conflict of interest’ but the SBNSW had this mental block that arose from their court case victory where the structure of the SBS was upheld under perjured evidence – and the circumstances around the non disclosure of particular evidence.

O’Neill is behaving like a spoiled brat – believing that what he had been told fly’s in the face of contra opinions …

In Paragraph 3 – he is daring anyone to prove the SBNSW Directors have acted inappropriately – nowhere in this letter to date are the rights of the SBS members mentioned – O’Neill as the SBS Chairman exposes his conflict in that very omission.

O’Neill to Registrar… Appendix Page 2:

From point 1 on this page O’Neill sets about explaining the history of the relationship between the SBNSW and the SBS according to his understanding –

O’Neill to Registrar… Appendix Page 3:

O’Neill to Registrar… Appendix Page 4:

O’Neill to Registrar… Appendix Page 5:

O’Neill to Registrar… Appendix Page 6:

O’Neill to Registrar… Appendix Page 7:

Registrar to O’Neill re Advisory Review outcome Page 2:

O’Neill was never going to front this Advisory Committee personally – this essay on history invoking the Premier and Minster who approved the 1982 SBS formation with the ‘conflict of interest’ in tow demonstrated his time-warp like understanding of what the current Minister and his Registrar were invoking in the 1988 environment.

If this was all O’Neill was offering it is no wonder his pathetic pleas fell on deaf ears – but he was able to have the last laugh because he had given himself the time to oversee the bulk of the St George sale arrangements –

24th June: Registrar to O’Neill re Advisory Review outcome apologies for the quality of the reproduction –

Registrar to O’Neill re Advisory Review outcome Page 1:

Registrar to O’Neill re Advisory Review outcome Page 2:

This Advisory Committee were only considering the ‘conflict’ position as related to O’Neill’s dual Directorships – and the ‘merger’ between the SBNSW and SBS. This was naive of the Committee – the same conflict had existed and lay dormant ever since 1982 – and given the previous merger intent of the SBNSW and the court case victory – the Authorities remained asleep at the wheel when considering what other steps O’Neill would undertake to bypass the Committee’s focus.

27th June: Business and Consumer Affairs letter to O’Neill…

Business and Consumer Affairs letter to O’Neill Page 1:

Business and Consumer Affairs letter to O’Neill Page 2:

Kicking O’Neill off the SBS Board to only be replaced by another SBNSW appointed Director made no difference to the ‘conflict’. Having obtained waivers from all four Directors previously – they were indicating that collectively the SBNSW were serving in a ‘conflict of interest’ position.

Why would they think that kicking O’Neill off the Board would change anything. This was a real sign of weakness on the part of the Co-Operatives Dept and in review when the Takeover Review Committee was structured on the 6th June under memo to the Minister.

It is around this period where the Co-Operatives exhausted themselves and began to cave … now whether that was Greiner getting to Peacocke in the same way that Wran got to Sheahan – is still indeterminable. But as at the O’Neill dismissal – whilst informed to him on the 24 June his resignation was not advised to the Registrar until the 15th July – some seven days after the letter informed when the resignation took effect – the 8th July.

Part 12 – 15 continues … there will be a delay in the posting of the next installment – the next installments includes the July – Aug period and up to the sale of the SBS to St George. The SBS Treasurer is sent on Administrative leave – the sale to St George is announced – O’Neill’s slanderous behaviour targeted at the SBS Management – and the SBS AGM media reporting … see below for links …

Link to all previous chapters for –

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SIX-YEAR BATTLE OF TWO BANKS IS SETTLED

| Author: By IAN VERRENDER | Date: 23/12/1987 | Publication: Sydney Morning Herald | Section: Business | Page: 20 |

The Commonwealth Bank of Australia and the State Bank of NSW have terminated a 1931 agreement that prohibited the State Bank from operating as a savings bank.

The agreement had been the root of a six-year legal battle between the two organisations.

After several months of intense wrangling between the two banks and State and Commonwealth Government representatives, the two parties have agreed to an out-of-court settlement.

Although both parties yesterday refused to reveal the terms of the settlement, insiders believe the Commonwealth has made a sizable payment to the State Bank, which in May demanded a $200 million payment. The Commonwealth wanted the dispute settled for nothing.

The new arrangement will have significant benefits to both banks, as it will allow the State Bank to expand its retail operations and will remove legal obligations on the Commonwealth to pay half its NSW savings bank profits to the State Bank.

In a two-sentence statement yesterday, Commonwealth managing director Mr Don Sanders and State Bank managing-director Mr John O’Neill said all litigation between the parties over the 1931 agreement to amalgamate savings banks had been settled.

“We are pleased that this dispute has been resolved satisfactorily,” they said.

The State Bank had the upper hand in the long and complex legal dispute, and earlier this year received awards totalling $129.6 million in interest and compensation for payments not received between the years 1981-82 and 1985-86.

The dispute in the Federal Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of NSW and the High Court of Australia are estimated to have cost both parties about $2 million in legal fees.

The feud erupted in 1981 when the Commonwealth Bank refused to honour the 1931 profit-sharing agreement because, it argued, the State Bank had been operating as a savings bank after it acquired the State Building Society.

With the agreement set aside, the State Bank is expected to expand its retail network of 270 branches, and may merge the State Building Society operations into its own network a move that would require the approval of building society members and the board.

The State Bank was shackled by the 1931 agreement, instituted at the height of the Great Depression, because it was prevented from full access to a wide deposit base.

Trading banks are not allowed to offer low deposit rate savings bank facilities, which effectively eliminates them from the retail lending market.

The State Bank earned $52.2 million in the recent financial year, only a 1.1 per cent rise from the previous corresponding period, as a rise in bad debts and the rural crisis affected earnings.

The Commonwealth Bank posted a 32 per cent slump in net profit to $197.2 million in the June year, as increased competition, higher tax rates and a sharp rise in bad debt provisions hit earnings.

  1. Jan 󈨜 – O’Neill’s focus turns to the SBS after the 1931 Agreement is rescinded in Dec 󈨛 –
  2. Jan 󈨜 SBS Board meeting – O’Neill informs SBS Board of merger agenda with SBNSW – SBS Board approves the request for a Macquarie Bank report on the SBS’s future.
  3. Mar 󈨜 – NSW Election results confirm Greiner as the New Premier in a minority Government – ousting Premier Unsworth who had advised O’Neill that he would not support or allow a merger between the SBNSW and SBS.
  4. SBNSW begin to count the financial cost of the Oct 󈨛 crash as property deals start to go sour – speculation on the Banks financial position begin to circulate within the market – O’Neill reluctant to go to the NSW Government asking for capital injection to offset the book value losses.
  5. Late Mar 󈨜 – O’Neill approaches new Premier Greiner to secure his support for a merger between the SBNSW and SBS – Greiner supports the merger after O’Neill outlines his game plan. Greiner signs off on O’Neill’s plan.
  6. SBS Treasury Audit Report requested by O’Neill with an implied agenda to discredit the SBS Management over the extremes of the SBS Treasury profitability –
  7. Apr 󈨜 – new SBNSW Treasurer Phil Gray complies SBS Treasury report and claims ignorance of O’Neill’s agenda … SBS Treasurer sent on Administrative leave during the Audit and for the rest of Apr 󈨜 – the SBS Treasurer never consulted as a part of the SBS Treasury Audit –
  8. Late Apr 󈨜 – O’Neill seeks Independent SBS Board vote to secure numbers to stage a SBS Boardroom coup – late Apt 󈨜
  9. 5th May ‘ 88 Board room coup happens with the SBS GM Denis Cleary sacked – but not before SBS Chairman Ken Dennewald is also dismissed by the SBNSW Chairman – Reg Watson before SBS Board meeting commences.
  10. During Board meeting O’Neill appoints himself as SBS Chairman – and the first and only order of business is to announce ‘merger discussions’ to begin and this is announced to all SBS staff and members the same afternoon.
  11. Mid May 󈨜 – New Co-Operatives Minister – Gerry Peacocke weighs in on the SBS side stating – ‘conflict of interest’ issues are involved in the SBNSW’s move against the SBS. Legal opinions are sought and support the ‘conflict of interest’ position.
  12. Claim made by Independent Director that SBNSW plans to ‘strip’ SBS of assets – [see media story below:]

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Barbary Pirates Flashcards Quizlet

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Barbary pirates Flashcards and Study Sets Quizlet

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  • Learn barbary pirates with free interactive flashcards
  • Choose from 42 different sets of barbary pirates flashcards on Quizlet.

Barbary pirates Flashcards Quizlet

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Barbary pirates: pirates : pg 177 pirates made up of Morocco, Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis who were stealing from various ships and kidnapping ships2.

APUSH chapter 8 Flashcards Quizlet

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  • The barbary pirates were several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North America who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean
  • From 1795-1801 the US paid the barbary states for protection against the pirates

Exam 1 2104 Flashcards Quizlet

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  • Which admiral was sent to the Mediterranean sea to settle the issues with the Barbary pirates? Edward Preble aka the man
  • What was the first battle that led to the outbreak of the civil war? Battle of Fort Sumpter
  • What Ironclad was the Unions first? OTHER QUIZLET SETS

Jefferson and the Barbary Pirates Abbeville Institute

  • Jefferson and the Barbary Pirates
  • President Thomas Jefferson’s first inaugural address articulated his philosophical manifesto: “Peace, commerce, and friendship with all nations – entangling alliances with none.”
  • These basic maxims were stressed repeatedly by Jefferson, who cherished a commercially free

Barbary Pirates Battled By US Navy 200 Years Ago

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  • The Barbary pirates, who had been marauding off the coast of Africa for centuries, encountered a new enemy in the early 19th century: the young United States Navy.
  • The North African pirates had been a menace for so long that by the late 1700s most nations paid tribute to ensure that merchant shipping could proceed without being violently attacked.

The Jefferson Era TEST (20 questions) Quiz

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  • Barbary pirates would capture the ships and imprison the crews
  • Barbary pirates would issue condemnations in the United Nations
  • Barbary Pirates would destroy the captured ships and kill the crews
  • Barbary pirates would return captured prisoners
  • Which of the following statements WAS NOT TRUE of the

Barbary Pirates Capture Ships off Barbary Coast and

Report of Pirates Enslaving Ships off the Barbary Coast! Truly swashbuckling letter in Italian, dated 12 December 1797 and signed by several persons in the Sicilian Senate, from the southern Sicilian town of Siculiana, describing reports of slavery pirates off the coast of Marsala that ship's master Giuseppe Montalbano and three sailors had been enslaved by the Turks and that in recent days

10 Facts About the Wars Against the Barbary Pirates

  • During the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812 the Barbary States returned to their raiding on ships of any Christian nation, and the Americans and Europeans had few assets at hand with which to stop them
  • After the end of the War of 1812 the United States sent another squadron to the region.

The Barbary Pirates: Letter from Tripoli

  • One is the issue of trade and how trade was carried out at that time period—and increase in violence, as well, between the 1780s and the early 1800s
  • There's an incredible increase in violence in trade in general
  • The French Navy, for instance, grows something like 40 or 60 percent, and that's fairly standard.

The Painful History and Astonishing Facts of the Barbary

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  • But little is known or spoken about the slavery carried on by the Barbary pirates on the coastline of Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, and Morocco
  • Slavery has been going on long before African slaves were brought into slave markets around the world
  • Around the early 1600s, many British and European ships were seized and

Barbary Pirates and English Slaves

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  • Barbary Pirates and English Slaves
  • For over 300 years, the coastlines of the south west of England were at the mercy of Barbary pirates (corsairs) from the coast of North Africa, based mainly in the ports of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli
  • Their number included not only North Africans but also English and Dutch privateers.

10 Facts About the Wars Against the Barbary Pirates

  • 10 Facts About the Wars Against the Barbary Pirates Larry Holzwarth - July 29, 2018
  • The bombardment of Algiers in 1816 by an Anglo-Dutch force destroyed the city’s defenses and brought an end to the Barbary Wars

Where were the Barbary pirates located

  • The Barbary pirates were mostly Berbers, Arabs, and other Muslims, but some came from Christian Europe
  • How did the US defeat the Barbary pirates? The ship was paralyzed and overtaken and put into the service of the pirates
  • The following February, eight marines sailed a small merchant vessel alongside the anchored Philadelphia, killed twenty

10 Facts About the Wars Against the Barbary Pirates

During the ensuing Napoleonic Wars and British blockade of the French fleets in their home ports, the Barbary pirates returned to their raiding, though not against American ships until the War of 1812 began, and the US Navy remained largely preoccupied with war with Great Britain.

Thomas Jefferson and the Barbary Pirates HowStuffWorks

  • Thomas Jefferson and the Barbary Pirates
  • Thomas Jefferson was opposed to negotiating with pirates
  • He had to wait until he became president before he was able to take action against the Barbary pirates
  • So great was the problem posed by the state-sponsored piracy that the Barbary nations are mentioned explicitly in the Treaty of Amity and

10 Facts About the Wars Against the Barbary Pirates

During the ensuing Napoleonic Wars and British blockade of the French fleets in their home ports, the Barbary pirates returned to their raiding, though not against American ships until the War of 1812 began, and the US Navy remained largely preoccupied with war with Great Britain.

10 Facts About the Wars Against the Barbary Pirates

Barbary Wars, 1801-1805 and 1815-1816”, by the Office of the Historian, US Department of State, online “The Wars of the Barbary Pirates”, by Gregory Fremont-Barnes, 2006 “The First Barbary War”, entry by the Thomas Jefferson Encyclopedia, Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello, online

Why was the First Barbary War important

  • Who were the Barbary pirates quizlet? Who were the Barbary pirates? The were pirates from Morocco, Algiers, Tunisia and Tripoli, who were called the Barbary States, who raided European and American ships, taking property, enslaving sailors and holding them ransom
  • Which act best describes the reason for the Barbary War? The correct answer is D.

Did Thomas Jefferson Send the Navy to Subdue Barbary Pirates

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The Barbary Wars began in 1801, when President Thomas Jefferson dispatched a naval squadron to the Mediterranean to protect American ships …

First Barbary War Summary, History, Significance

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  • First Barbary War, also called Tripolitan War, (1801–05), conflict between the United States and Tripoli (now in Libya), incited by American refusal to continue payment of tribute to the piratical rulers of the North African Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis, Morocco, and Tripoli
  • This practice had been customary among European nations and the

How did Jefferson deal with the Barbary Pirates

  • How did Jefferson deal with the Barbary Pirates? President Thomas Jefferson took office in 1801
  • Jefferson, who believed that paying off the pirates only led to more demands, announced that there would be no more tributes paid
  • Tripoli demanded a payment of $225,000 on top of annual payments of $25,000
  • Jefferson refused to pay, and Tripoli

Constitutional Rights Foundation

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  • Algiers, the most powerful of the Barbary States, was a different story
  • In the summer of 1785, pirates from Algiers captured two American merchant ships and held the 21 men aboard them for ransom
  • The United States offered $4,200 for the captives

Where is the Barbary Coast in Africa

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  • The Barbary corsairs, sometimes called Ottoman corsairs or Berber pirates, were pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Tunis, Tripoli, and Algiers
  • This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast , a term derived from the name of its Berber inhabitants.

Why don't they teach about the Barbary Wars in American

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  • Why don't they teach about the Barbary Wars in American Schools? America fighting pirates would make for a wonderful and interesting history lesson, and would help explain our Foreign Policy roots in the Middle East
  • All students get are constant reteaching of either the Civil War, WW1, and WW2, and Vietnam
  • While I think each and every war we

How did Jefferson stop the Barbary pirates

  • How did Jefferson stop the Barbary pirates? The U.S
  • Minister to France, Thomas Jefferson, decided to send envoys to Morocco and Algeria to try to purchase treaties and the freedom of the captured sailors held by Algeria
  • Morocco was the first Barbary Coast State to sign a treaty with the U.S., on 23 June 1786.

Where are the Barbary States located

  • The Barbary corsairs, sometimes called Ottoman corsairs or Berber pirates, were pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Tunis, Tripoli, and Algiers
  • This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its Berber inhabitants.

Leading Up to the First Barbary War · How the Barbary Wars

To understand how the Barbary Wars came about, and how the United States came into contact with the Barbary states at all, it is important to understand that even before the US was a sovereign nation the European powers were dealing with the Pirates who would later come to plague the US' merchant operations in the Mediterranean.


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CCTV: State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi met with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov in Guilin, Guangxi yesterday. Can you give us more details? What are the outcomes of this meeting? What is China's comment on Foreign Minister Lavrov's visit and what is China's expectation for China-Russia relations going forward?

Hua Chunying: State Councilor Wang Yi's meeting with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov in Guilin, Guangxi in recent days is fruitful. The two foreign ministers had extensive exchange of views and reached a series of new consensus on bilateral relations and major international and regional issues. Both sides also signed and issued a joint statement of Chinese and Russian foreign ministers on issues of the current global governance, which explains the right connotation of concepts including human rights, democracy, international order and multilateralism and demonstrates the two sides' firm determination to jointly defend international justice and fairness.

This is Foreign Minister Lavrov's first visit to China since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, and also the first face-to-face meeting between the two foreign ministers six months after State Councilor Wang's visit to Russia last September. It is of important positive significance to a good start of China-Russia relations this year and the political settlement process of relevant international and regional issues. The close and efficient strategic communication between China and Russia, despite the impact of the coronavirus, once again demonstrates the high level and uniqueness of China-Russia relations. It also demonstrates to the international community the commitment and responsibility of China and Russia as major countries in the world and permanent members of the UN Security Council.

This year marks the 20th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Good-neighborli ness and Friendly Cooperation between China and Russia. We believe that taking the visit as a start, the two sides will continue to carry forward the enduring friendship and mutual benefit enshrined in the treaty, fully implement the important consensus between the two heads of state, and give strong backing to each other on issues concerning core interests. As important partners in joint pursuit of development and revitalization, China and Russia will play an underpinning role in international affairs, achieve greater development of China-Russia relations in a new era and bring more benefits to both countries and the world.

China Review News: On March 22, the EU, the UK and Canada announced unilateral sanctions against some Chinese individuals and entity citing so-called human rights issue in Xinjiang. On the same day, the US announced sanctions against two Chinese officials of the Xinjiang government as a complementary action to the above-mentioned sanctions. The foreign ministers of the US, the UK and Canada issued a joint statement to pressure China. What is China's response?

Hua Chunying: China strongly condemns the imposition of sanctions by the US, Canada, the UK and the EU on individuals and entity in Xinjiang under the pretext of human rights. This move is based on nothing but lies and disinformation. The Chinese Foreign Ministry has summoned ambassadors of the EU and the UK respectively to lodge solemn representations . Last night, at the earliest time possible, China stated its solemn position and announced sanctions against relevant individuals and entities on the European side. China has also lodged solemn representations with the US and Canadian side.

Over the past 40 years, the population of the Uyghur ethnic group in Xinjiang has increased from 5.5 million to 12.8 million, and the average life expectancy has increased from 30 to 72 years. People of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang, including the Uyghurs, enjoy each and every constitutional and lawful right. The fact that Xinjiang residents of various ethnic groups enjoy stability, security, development and progress, makes it one of the most successful human rights stories.

However, some politicians in the US, the UK, Canada and the EU clearly don't want to acknowledge this fact. They grabbed the so-called "evidence" maliciously fabricated by some anti-China politicians and scholars, even though the so-called "facts" are nothing but patchwork based on false "internal documents", "victim statements" and information from unknown sources. They have even taken out of context and distorted Chinese official documents and data. All this proves that it's never human rights and truth that they care about. They just do not want to see China's success, development and better livelihood. That's why they have been using human rights issues as a pretext for interfering in China's internal affairs and frustrate China's development. What they have done is utter denigration and offense to the reputation and dignity of the Chinese people, blatant interference of China's internal affairs, and grave violation of China's sovereignty and security interests.

It must be pointed out that these countries, who proclaim themselves to be "judges" of human rights and are keen to lecture others, have an ignoble record on human rights. They are not in the position to criticize China, much less to shift blames to China for what they have committed.

As you know, during the 400 years of transatlantic slave trade, colonists from the US, the UK and France transported 12 million enslaved Africans to the Americas, in addition to another 10 million who died during transportation. In the US, people like George Floyd still can't breathe. As pointed out by the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination long ago, African descendants in the US and the UK face systemic racism on health, employment, education, fair trial and other rights.

As early as in the beginning of the 20th century, German colonists slaughtered indigenous Namibian tribes. Between 1904 and 1908, German military killed over 100,000 indigenous people, including 3/4 of the Herero people and over 1/2 of the Nama people. United Nations Economic and Social Council Commission on Human Rights said in a report that this is the first genocide in the 20th century. During WWII, Nazi Germany slaughtered almost six million Jews, including one million children. It is reported that some in the US, the UK and their allies violated the Geneva Conventions and brutally killed innocent civilians in Afghanistan, which constitutes war crimes.

The French army massacred 5.5 million people in Algeria during the colonial period, which is crimes against humanity. The Algerian President said that Algeria will never sacrifice history or memory.

In the 1870s, the Canadian government included assimilation of indigenous people in its official agenda and openly advocated the killing of the Indian bloodline. Starting with indigenous children, residential schools were set up to carry out cultural genocide policies. Incomplete statistics show over 150,000 indigenous children were sent to such schools, of which more than 50,000 died of abuses.

We all remember that the US and the UK, among others, used some test tube of washing powder and a staged video as evidence to launch wars against sovereign countries including Iraq and Syria, which caused untold casualties of innocent civilians, tore apart and displaced numerous families. This year marks the 10th anniversary of the Syrian crisis. In Syria alone, 350,000 people have been killed in the war, their families have been destroyed and their lives greatly affected. Shouldn't the perpetrators be sanctioned?

This year also marks the 10th anniversary of Libya's civil war. France, the UK and the EU, among others, launched the war in Libya, creating a large-scale humanitarian disaster, which is the root cause of the current migrant and refugee issues and an important factor leading to regional turbulence. More than 400,000 people remain displaced within Libya and more than a million are in urgent need of assistance. Shouldn't the perpetrators be held accountable?

These countries show no repentance over the turmoil they created in other countries, and even go further to impose unilateral sanctions on others in the name of human rights, severely jeopardizing the rights to life, health and development of people in relevant countries. In the face of the epidemic, these above-mentioned most developed countries have turned a blind eye to their people's rights to life and health, leading to losses of tens of hundreds of lives. In pursuit of "vaccine nationalism" , they've hoarded vaccines far in excess of their population's needs, leaving developing countries struggling with insufficient vaccines.

We can't help but ask: how could people have any right if they lost their lives? The United States and the West have been trumpeting protecting human rights, but who and what right on earth are they protecting? In what way are they respecting and protecting human rights? Shouldn't they feel ashamed?

These a few countries are obsessed with lecturing others on human rights. But facts in the past have proved that they are neither qualified nor capable of doing so. We hope they will understand that China today is not the same as Iraq, Libya or Syria, still less what it was 120 years ago. The days when foreign powers could force China to open its doors with cannons are long gone also gone are the days when several so-called scholars and state media could unscrupulously malign China in collusion with impunity. We urge them not to underestimate Chinese people's firm determination to defend national interests and dignity. It's a courtesy to reciprocate what we receive. They will have to pay a price for their ignorance and arrogance.

Xinhua News Agency: Last night, China released the information on State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi's visit to six countries in the Middle East. Can you introduce the goal and expectation of the visits?

Hua Chunying: The COVID-19 pandemic is still wreaking havoc on people's life and health, and zero-sum game and bloc politics are impacting the UN-centered international system and the international order based on international law. With the spread of the epidemic, ongoing instabilities and recurring hotspots in the Middle East, countries in this region hope to enhance anti-epidemic and development cooperation and deepen exchanges on state governance with China, and hope that China will play a bigger role in regional affairs.

State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi's visit to the Middle East demonstrates the importance China attaches to its relations with countries in this region and China's sincerity in deepening mutually beneficial cooperation. It also shows that China assumes a responsible attitude toward promoting security and stability in the Middle East. State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi will have in-depth strategic communication with these countries, advance the implementation of important consensuses reached by President Xi Jinping and his counterparts, promote synergy between the building of new development paradigm in China and major development strategies in those countries, support regional countries' fight against the virus and socio-economic recovery, boost high-quality BRI cooperation and discuss win-win cooperation. In the meantime, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi will also exchange views on regional affairs, especially hotspot issues with his counterparts in these countries, and contribute China's wisdom to maintain peace in the Middle East.

Beijing Daily: On March 22, Saudi Arabia proposed a new initiative on Yemen to achieve a nationwide ceasefire, start negotiation among parties in Yemen, and reach a comprehensive solution on Yemen. This initiative is welcomed by the Yemeni government. Does China have a comment?

Hua Chunying: China welcomes the political initiative launched by Saudi Arabia and appreciates Saudi Arabia's positive step to deescalate the situation in Yemen. We hope that Yemen can realize a comprehensive ceasefire and return to political settlement at an early date, and that peace, stability and normal order can be restored in the country.

BBC: We heard last night some sanctions announced by China in response to the sanctions from the EU. I noticed that those Chinese sanctions only target people from the EU. Might there be other sanctions from China, given that other countries, Canada, the UK and the US have also joined in on signing on to this sanctions from the other side.

Hua Chunying: You think they should also be sanctioned, right?

The EU imposed sanctions on relevant Chinese individuals and entity on the basis of nothing but lies and disinformation fabricated by a handful of anti-China elements. Such moves disregard and distort facts, grossly interfere in China's internal affairs, flagrantly breach international law and basic norms governing international relations, and severely undermine China-EU relations. Vice Foreign Minister Qin Gang summoned the head of the EU delegation to China last night to lodge solemn representation and express firm opposition, stern condemnation and strong protest on the wrong decision of the EU. He also stated China's countermeasures . As I just said, China will take firm reactions to any country who cites lies and rumors to smear China, interfere in China's domestic affairs and undermine China's interest and dignity.

The Paper: This year marks the fifth anniversary of Lancang-Mekong Cooperation (LMC). Today's People's Daily carried an article by State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi entitled "building on the past five years of fruitful achievements and setting sail on a new voyage for future cooperation". We'd like to know China's consideration in participating in LMC, and what activities will be held to celebrate the fifth anniversary. Also, how does China envisage the LMC going forward?

Hua Chunying: The Lancang-Mekong Cooperation (LMC) is a new-type sub-regional cooperation mechanism featuring extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits among China, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Since its launch on March 23 in 2016, the LMC has developed rapidly and achieved remarkable results. It has vigorously promoted the economic and social development of the six riparian countries and brought tangible benefits to the people of all countries. China has provided loan support for more than 40 major infrastructure projects in Mekong countries, including roads and airports, power stations and power grids, and industrial parks. The LMC Special Fund established by China has supported more than 500 projects benefiting people in agriculture, health, poverty reduction, environment and other areas. Over the past five years, more than 20,000 students from the five Mekong countries have studied in China on Chinese government scholarships. In 2019, more than 50 million visits were made between China and Mekong countries, with nearly 3,000 scheduled flights per week. Since last year, amid the COVID-19 epidemic and major changes unseen in a century, the six countries have vigorously carried out cooperation to fight the epidemic, resume work and production, strengthen cultural and people-to-peopl e exchanges, and maintained the momentum of LMC growing from strength to strength.

As a close neighbor of the five countries along the Mekong River, China hopes to help them speed up development through Lancang-Mekong cooperation and jointly create a regional environment of peace, stability, development and prosperity. China will work together with them to deepen cooperation in water resources, agriculture, public health, environment and social welfare. We will seek complementarity between LMC and the New International Land-Sea Trade Corridor. The LMC's cooperation with the Ayeyawady-Chao Phraya-Mekong Economic Cooperation Strategy (ACMECS), the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation Program (GMS), and the Mekong River Commission (MRC) will be facilitated. We will speed up the building of the Mekong-Lancang Economic Development Belt, reinvigorate regional economic recovery and prosperity in the post-epidemic era, and contribute to ASEAN Community construction and regional economic integration.

This year being the fifth anniversary of the launch of LMC, China's relevant departments and sub-national governments will work with LMC countries to host nearly 60 colorful celebration activities, including conferences and forums, film and television shows, rural revitalization and youth innovation and entrepreneurshi p competitions. You are welcome to follow these activities.

AFP: An issue about the sanctions yesterday that were announced. So a number of western countries have for the first time taken sanctions together against officials in Xinjiang. Is China concerned that US President Biden is succeeding in an attempt to create like a front of democracies towards China and that the country risks isolation? And is the foreign ministry considering a different diplomatic approach to change the way or to improve the way that it might be perceived abroad?

Hua Chunying: Yesterday there was clearly a coordinated action by several western countries. If you ask us whether we are worried, I can tell you with absolute confidence that we are not worried at all. The US, the UK and Canada together account for only 5.7% of the world's population, and their population and that of the EU combined only accounts for about 11%. In comparison, China's population accounts for 1/5 of the world's total. The voices of these countries do not represent international opinion, neither do their positions represent that of the international community. Still less do they have the right or qualification to represent the international community.

China's circle of friends is actually growing. The countries you mentioned can only represent the values and propositions of the United States and the West. Their bullying practice, hypocrisy and performance on the so-called human rights and democracy issues have been debunked by more and more people. I hope they will reflect on themselves, see themselves and others in a right way, and learn to deal with other countries as equals and with respect. China believes that all countries in the world, big or small, rich or poor, strong or weak, are equal members. All countries should treat each other as equals and respect each other, instead of willfully interfering in others' internal affairs based on ill-intentioned rumors and lies. Politicians in these countries need to take lessons on how to spot lies, how to respect others and how to avoid making foreign policy based on rumors and lies. In particular, when it comes to the People's Republic of China, a permanent member of the UN Security Council and a major country with 1.4 billion people, they should learn to talk and deal with China on the basis of equality and mutual respect.

You just mentioned the so-called "front of democracies". I suggest you take a look at the joint statement issued today by State Councilor Wang Yi and Foreign Minister Lavrov on a number of issues concerning current global governance, which also mentions how we should perceive democracy. Democracy is one of the achievements of human development. It is marked by ensuring that power belongs to the people in the form of legislation, that is, citizens have the right to manage state affairs and use their power lawfully. There is no unified standard for democratic model and the legitimate right of sovereign states to independently choose their development path should be respected. Intervention in the internal affairs of sovereign states under the pretext of "promoting democracy" is unacceptable.

In fact, how is democracy in the countries you mentioned superior to others? In the face of COVID-19, in the world's most developed, richest, and most medically advanced countries, how could they watch hundreds of thousands of their people die? Is this democracy? Is their democracy for the people? While politicians in these countries are busy wooing voters, the Chinese government is busy serving the people wholeheartedly. During your stay in China, you should be able to feel that Chinese democracy is the broadest and truest democracy. If these countries want to talk about democracy, they are more than welcome to come and talk to us. However, if they try to preach human rights or democracy, reprimand China in a condescending way, interfere in China's internal affairs on the basis of rumors and lies, or even impose arbitrary sanctions on China, we will have to reciprocate.

AFP: President Xi Jinping yesterday has exchanged verbal messages with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un while Foreign Minister Wang Yi has met his Russian counterpart. As you mentioned, he will go to the Middle East and Iran soon. Is China looking to build its own alliances to face any potential renewed unity among democratic countries? And what are your thoughts on whether or not it will have enough influence?

Hua Chunying: China's diplomacy is fundamentally different from that of the US, the UK, Canada and the EU. China follows an independent foreign policy of peace. We believe that countries, regardless of size and strength, are equal members of the international community. We uphold a new type of international relations featuring non-conflict, non-confrontati on, mutual respect and win-win cooperation. We advocate the building of a community with a shared future for mankind. By that, we mean issues should be addressed by all through consultation, and benefits should be shared by all. As you can see, China has made tremendous efforts in promoting vaccine accessibility and affordability for developing countries. We have all along been opposed to forming small clique, zero-sum game and cold war mentality. We believe that the world is a diverse one, and countries of different system, history and culture can co-exist in harmony and achieve win-win results through mutually beneficial cooperation. We did not and will not initiate any confrontation, conflict or division. On the contrary, China has been advancing the building of a community with a shared future for mankind. What those who practice bloc politics by forming cliques are pursuing is "pseudo-multila teralism". China upholds genuine multilateralism where every country enjoys its legitimate right to development, all members of the international community participate in global governance on an equal-footing, and all countries can achieve development. True multilateralism also means that cooperation between countries can make the world a more peaceful place where humankind continue to make progress.

I believe enclosed small cliques and bloc politics, which are against the trend of the times, will get no support. The fact is, not all US allies, except for Canada and the UK, follow the US blindly. Some EU countries are under coercion to do so. Hungarian Foreign Minister Peter Szijjarto openly said that sanctions on China is harmful and pointless. Leaders, politicians and diplomats who are visionary and committed to serving their people will not follow the so-called alliance blindly. Many countries in our region say they hope to see peaceful coexistence of China and the US and a sound and steady China-US relations. It is the common aspiration of the two peoples and people around the world.

We hope relevant countries can view China's development in a rational manner, follow the trend of the times and abandon cold war mentality. Working with one another for a better life is democracy in the real sense and truly being responsible for the people.

BBC: I noticed that you mentioned earlier the concept of vaccine nationalism. But China is insisting that people who enter the country now have a specific Chinese vaccine and some people wanting to get entry to China have said that this is also possibly a type of vaccine nationalism and maybe in some countries it's hard for them to get a specific Chinese vaccine. What's your response to that?

Hua Chunying: Vaccines are our weapons against the virus and give us hope to save lives. Be it Chinese vaccine or foreign vaccine, so long as it is safe and effective, it is a good vaccine. China never asks others to receive Chinese vaccines. As a matter of fact, vaccines are much sought-after. We in China are in great need of them as well. The reason that we are willing to share them with others, whether by offering aid to more than 60 countries or facilitating the purchase of vaccines by over 40 countries or making vaccination available to foreigners in China, is to meet their needs and do the best we can to help.

With a view to resuming international travel in an orderly fashion, China has started to provide visa facilitation to incoming foreigners who have received Chinese vaccines and hold a vaccination certificate. This is a meaningful exploration of facilitating international travel once mass vaccination has been achieved on the basis of giving full consideration to safety and efficacy. Last year, China proposed that discussions be held on launching a mechanism for global recognition of health codes. On the basis of accommodating each other's concerns and friendly consultations, we stand ready to make mutually-benefi cial arrangements with other sides to establish a new format for unhindered, healthy, safe and orderly cross-border travel.

BBC: Does that mean in the future, possibly at some point, people will be allowed in with vaccines from other countries, other types of vaccines? And if so, any idea when that might happen?

Hua Chunying: I'll leave that to the experts. On the basis of accommodating each other's concerns and friendly consultations, we stand ready to explore launching with other countries flexible and diverse mutually-benefi cial arrangements. With regard to mutual recognition and reciprocal measures, we hold an open attitude. We will make proper arrangement on the recommendations of experts.

In fact, China has been in close communication with other countries to discuss reciprocal arrangement for vaccination. As long as a measure helps to prevent and control the epidemic and facilitate people-to-peopl e exchanges, we are open to it.

Global Times: Amnesty International reportedly released a report, saying that China has forcibly separated Uyghur families by taking young children into state orphanages. The organization has called on China to release all Uyghur children being held in orphanages without the consent of their families. Some US media reports say that Xinjiang is creating a "generation gap" through boarding schools. What is China's response?

Hua Chunying: We all know what kind of organization Amnesty International is. I can only say that the imagination of the organization is very rich in what they produce. But I'm afraid these people have the map upside down when they make up their lies. Forced family separation is not happening in China's Xinjiang, but in the United States.

As early as the 19th century, the United States began to conduct assimilation of the Indians. Indian children and youth were assimilated into the European and American culture when attending boarding schools. Young children in these schools were forced to give up their native identity and culture and adopt European names. They were forbidden to speak indigenous languages, and forcibly separated from their families.

In recent years, the "zero-tolerance " immigration policy adopted by the US government has led to a large number of children separated from their parents and siblings. According to a US media report, as of March 20 in 2021, the US has detained over 15,000 unaccompanied minors at the US-Mexico border. Since 2018, a total of 24 migrants, including seven children, have died while in detention at U.S. border facilities.

As anyone who knows a bit about Xinjiang understands, Xinjiang is a vast region that covers 1/6 of China's total area. It's three times the size of France, nearly five times that of Germany, and almost seven times that of the UK. It is about 1.5 times the combined area of the UK, France and Germany. In such a vast area, there's long distance between towns and villages, making it inconvenient for students and parents to commute to school. For children living in remote pastoral areas, this problem is all the more prominent. For this reason, the Xinjiang autonomous region government makes building boarding schools a priority in its work to standardize schools of compulsory education for balanced development. Coordinated efforts have been made to ensure children from remote pastoral areas have access to school, while concentrating education resources in an effort to modernize primary and middle schools for ethnic minority groups, and promote the exchanges between all ethnic groups in Xinjiang. Students and their parents are free to choose whether to board or not. Schools have never restricted the contact between students and their parents. Students can go home on weekends, during holidays as well as winter and summer vacations. During school days, they can contact their parents and ask for leave at any time if needed. These schools are not fundamentally different from the boarding schools now operating in other parts of China and other countries around the world. There are boarding schools in Beijing as well, because Beijing is so big. Boarding schools also exist in the UK and are very expensive, whereas boarding schools in Xinjiang cater to children from average families.

Some anti-China forces harbor sinister intention by spreading lies of so-called "family separation", when children in Xinjiang are just going to school like any other. CNN's Beijing office has recently sent us a list of questions about a Uyghur couple who went to Italy with three children in 2016, leaving another four in Xinjiang. I was quite surprised when I read this story. If there's "forced sterilization" and "genocide" in Xinjiang as some in the west claim, how come this Uyghur couple have seven children?

Lying is nothing to be proud of, but rather something to be ashamed of. I urge relevant institutions and individuals to remove their tinted glasses of bias against China. Such "filters" are evil. We hope they will stop spreading false information and view China in an objective and fair light.

Reuters: Given the recent sanctions announced by both the EU and China, are you concerned about the ratification of the EU-China comprehensive agreement on investment?

Hua Chunying: China seeks to develop relations with the EU side. We stand for cooperation and against confrontation. That being said, we are firmly determined to safeguard our legitimate interests. The EU side should not expect to talk about cooperation and gain benefit while sanctioning and harming China's rights and interests. This is neither justifiable nor viable. It should reflect upon itself, stop confrontation and take concrete actions to uphold the sound and steady development of China-EU relations.

China Daily: The first session of the ninth National Assembly of Laos was convened on March 22 in Vientiane. At the session, Thongloun Sisoulith, General Secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP) Central Committee, was elected as the country's new president. Will China send a congratulatory message? Do you have any comment on China-Laos relations?

Hua Chunying: A new central leadership has been elected in the Laos recently, with General Secretary Thongloun Sisoulith elected as the President. China extends congratulations . We believe that led by the new central leadership, the Laos will score greater achievements in the development of the party and the country.

China and the Laos, as friendly neighbors sharing common mountains and waters, are a community with a shared future that went through thick and thin. This year marks the 60th anniversary of the establishment of China-Laos ties and China-Laos Friendship Year. China looks forward to implementing the important common understanding reached between the highest-ranking leaders of the two parties and two countries, strengthen strategic communication, deepen comprehensive strategic cooperation and bring the cause of building China-Laos community with a shared future to new levels.

Reuters: According to a report from Axios, a US intelligence agency is recommending that the US lead a coalition with South American countries to push back against China's fishing and trade practices in the region. Do you have any comment on this?

Hua Chunying: We all know how good US intelligence is. Some test tube of washing powder and a fake staged video of "White Helmets" were used as evidence to strike sovereign countries. That's how reliable US intelligence is.

As to China's distant water fishing policy, we've stated our position repeatedly. In developing ties with other countries, including those in Latin America, we are always above-board and guided by win-win cooperation. Chinese businesses comply with laws and regulations. We hope the US agency and individuals could view China in an objective and rational light instead of through the lenses of confrontation or animosity, which does the US no good.

Bloomberg: Beijing announced counter sanctions on ten individuals and four entities in the EU after the bloc imposed sanctions on China over the Xinjiang allegation. Could the foreign ministry clarify what sanctions apply to the them?

Hua Chunying: The statement issued by the Foreign Ministry last night made its position very clearly. In response to the EU's unilateral sanctions against relevant Chinese individuals and entity on the pretext of the so-called human rights issue in Xinjiang based on lies and disinformation, China has announced sanctions against relevant EU institutions and personnel. The individuals concerned and their families are prohibited from entering the mainland, Hong Kong and Macao of China. They and companies and institutions associated with them are also restricted from doing business with China.

Bloomberg: Xinhua reported yesterday that Beijing told North Korea that it wants to maintain, consolidate and develop China-North Korean ties. Does the foreign ministry have a comment on this? Does China feel that it is time to revisit the issue of U.S. sanctions imposed on North Korea over its nuclear program?

Hua Chunying: China and the DPRK are friendly neighbors linked by mountains and rivers. It is an unswerving policy of the Party and the Chinese government to maintain, consolidate and develop China-DPRK relations. China is ready to work with the DPRK to implement the important consensus reached by the top leaders of the two parties and countries and work for new progress in bilateral relations.

China always believes that willful sanctions and pressure will not solve any problem. China has repeatedly called on the Security Council to activate the DPRK-related resolution provisions on modifying sanctions as soon as possible in light of the developments of the situation on the Korean Peninsula and make necessary adjustments to the sanctions measures, especially those concerning people's livelihood. This is in line with the spirit of the resolutions, will help ease the humanitarian situation and people's livelihood in the DPRK, and create conditions for and inject impetus into the political settlement of the Korean Peninsula issue.

Shenzhen TV: In a televised speech on Sunday, Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei reiterated the country's clear policy on JCPOA, saying that the US side must lift all sanctions, and upon verification, Iran will return to its JCPOA commitments. I wonder if China has any comment on this.

Hua Chunying: The Iranian nuclear issue is now at a critical juncture. The immediate priority is for the US to return to the JCPOA and lift sanctions at an early date, while Iran resumes compliance reciprocally in order to jointly push the JCPOA back on track. China hopes that all parties concerned will act with greater urgency, meet each other half way, and reach consensus on some initial steps as soon as possible, so as to start the process of full compliance by the US and Iran. China will continue to work with all relevant parties to this end.

BBC: Just sort of a follow-up question on one of your responses earlier. We heard like a long list of quite terrible abuses committed by other administrations , other governments throughout history in response to the EU sanctions. But historians may say to the Chinese government, well, sure, but ill treatment by one government doesn't justify ill treatment by another. I mean does the Chinese government think that because other countries have done terrible things, that it's kind of okay for it to act in certain ways? So what would you say to the people who are making these comments?

Hua Chunying: I understand the logic of your question. But there is a substantial difference between the two, and they are completely different things. The severe human rights violations committed by the above-mentioned countries are plain facts, as you have admitted. However, the accusations made by the US, the UK, Canada and the EU on China's Xinjiang and the imposition of sanctions on relevant institutions and personnel are totally based on lies and disinformation. We have on many occasions expounded the actual situation in Xinjiang with facts. But very unfortunately, some politicians and the media in these countries choose to buy rumors and lies of anti-China scholars like Adrian Zenz, completely ignore that what they claimed to be "facts" is based on fake "internal documents", "victims' statements" and information of unknown source. They are even misinterpreting and distorting China's official documents and data out of context. You can ask the CNN reporter, who sent us a written question that said a Xinjiang couple took their three children to Italy in 2016, but left four children in Xinjiang. This in itself is a slap in the face to those countries that accuse China of "forced sterilization" and "genocide" in Xinjiang. How come some even choose to buy this ridiculous false information and make foreign policy based on it? What a shame!

You have been to Xinjiang, and so have many of your colleagues. Xinjiang is open. As I said, doesn't the story of Xinjiang deserve to be hailed as one of the most successful human rights stories? Anyone who has been to Xinjiang will realize how ridiculous those centenary lies of some Western media and anti-China scholars are. We welcome all non-prejudiced people to visit Xinjiang and listen to what people there say, and hear their feelings about their lives. But we firmly reject any presumption of guilt in a condescending manner.

So, the two things you mentioned are completely different in nature and cannot be mentioned in the same breath. The accusations of these countries against China are totally based on lies and false information. Because of this, they are in no position to make condescending accusations against China. They will surely regret their arrogance and foolishness.

I also want to say that at present, some countries have serious misunderstandin gs on the issue of Xinjiang. I don't know what role foreign correspondents in China have played in this. If you had given more objective reports on the real situation in Xinjiang, on a series of white papers issued by the Chinese side, on the 30 press conferences held by the Xinjiang authorities, and on what people in Xinjiang said, instead of selective reports, could there have been less misunderstandin g about the situation in Xinjiang? This is a question for you to think about. I would also like to have further discussions on it with you.

BBC: Is this right, in terms of further retaliation, it is possible that Canada, the US and the UK could also have sanctions applied to them in response for their support for these other sanctions?

Hua Chunying: China urges relevant parties to reflect on themselves, face squarely the severity of their mistakes and redress them. They must stop lecturing others on human rights and interfering in their internal affairs. They must end the hypocritical practice of double standards and stop going further down the wrong path. The fact is very clear. This is by no means a human rights issue. Their real purpose is to stop the Chinese people from living a good life and enjoying security, stability, development and prosperity. They want to create the so-called "Xinjiang issue" to contain China's development and undermine China's security and stability. Such an idea is nothing but wishful thinking. I hope they can realize this fact as soon as possible and don't go further down the wrong path, otherwise they will leave a very shameful mark in history.

China hopes to develop sound and steady relations and carry out mutually beneficial cooperation with all countries in the spirit of equality and mutual respect. The future of our cooperation should be bright, but no one shall underestimate China's firm determination and will to safeguard its sovereignty, security and development interests. Today's China is by no means what it was 120 years ago. Gone are the days when the US and Western countries thought they could force China to yield, compromise and surrender through rumors, lies, slander, attack and containment. They may not have the ability to choke China and will eventually pay a heavy price for their foolishness and arrogance. We hope they can wake up and redress their mistakes at an early date. China is firmly resolved in safeguarding national sovereignty and dignity. We will make just and justified reactions to those who are bent on interfering in China's internal affairs and undermining China's interest.

I'm sure you can get what I said, because when you interview people on the street in Wuhan and Beijing, they are very friendly to you, right? I believe that people always have friendly feelings toward each other, and the Chinese people have always been kind and open. We welcome all foreign friends to make friends with Chinese people, but we will firmly reject and oppose any groundless accusations, slanders or attacks against China, and resolutely fight back against any words or deeds that undermine China's sovereignty, interests, honor and dignity.


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In September 2013, Cabinet approved the publication of a Bill that would pave the way for the Khoisan people to be recognised. The Bill makes statutory provisions for the recognition of the Khoisan and also addresses limitations of existing legislation relating to traditional leadership and governance.”

Then the Deputy President, Jacob Zuma at the Opening Ceremony of the National Khoisan Consultative Conference, 29th March 2001 said this: “This conference is also a powerful demonstration of the enduring strength of the Khoisan people. It was, after all, the Khoi-Khoi in the Cape who waged the first wars of resistance against the colonial onslaught of the seventeenth Century. It is of historical significance that the descendants of those who were cruelly victimised, repressed, exploited, driven from their homes and suffered worse injustices and inhuman treatment, are today joining together to participate in building a better and stronger South African nation.”

As the political space in South Africa is studied, it is apparent that the Democratic Alliance (DA) is the overt face and protector of white colonialist and international capital while the African National Congress (ANC) is the overt face of the same company. Both political entities are tasked to work in tandem to ensure that the masses of people, particularly the black collective (African, so-called “Coloured” and Indians) remain impoverished, ill-educated and permanently domiciled in dreadful labour dormitories (aka townships) to be controlled as a cheap labour force and nothing more this at behest of their common paymasters.

The ANC’s Land Restitution Act 22 of 1994 (which the DA firmly supports) has largely been viewed as a dismal sell-out of the aspirations of the vast majority of the masses in addition to them (ANC) failing to observe and bring into being critical elements of their own Freedom Charter (http://www.anc.org.za/show.php?id=72). There has been the odd restitution case of land returned to a few communities and in particularly the Baralong settlement by global mining giant Amplats, a division of South Africa’s greatest exploiter of black labour and minerals since 1917, Anglo American plc. Even though the ANC forwarded an amendment to the Land Restitution Act (and naturally opposed by the DA), it does move the claim date from 1913 to 1652 where in essence it should reside. Naturally key land restitution cases like District 6 has still not been resolved 21 years after the bill was legalised in parliament.

Therefore, I am of the belief that this “Khoisan” bill is less than sincere and additionally, is neither a workable solution which intends to honestly address the crisis of land redistribution and restitution to the millions of Khoe-San and their descendants in the country. The ANC government has studied the history of Khoe-San people to ultimately hoodwink the so-called “Coloured” collective (the bona fide and genetic descendants of Khoe-San) out of its rightful place and due restitution including reparations of course. Their findings, and they have expert opinion at their disposal are the following:

1. Khoe-Khoen and Sonaqua (San) never had traditional leadership as Nguni royal structures has/do. Khoe-Khoen had clan leadership by virtue paternal lineages (depending on the size of the clan) however no “King“ type character existed nor did the collective have a Paramount Leader/Ruler. Each head of the clan can be more or less likened to a Zulu Induna. There were also many incidences where individuals would be chosen to lead a clan based on their contributions to the collective. By way of example, Doman, became the leader of the Goringhaiqua clan by virtue of his vociferous opposition as well as military leadership against Van Riebeeck and the Dutch Colonialists in 1659. Another example was that in 1788 a common man of the Hessequa Clan, known as Jan Paerl, rose in prominence to become the leader of that specific group

2. The same situation existed within Sonaqua (San) traditional systems and can be verified by the life and example of Oom David Kruiper, a traditional healer who became the leader of the Kalahari ‡Khomani clan. During his entire lifetime and in public, he never once claimed royalty which one could equate to a hierarchal Kingship.

3. This being said, the ANC are well aware of the massive vacuum which exists in national Khoe-San leadership given that the entire clan, social system and way of live has been systematically and brutally destroyed and virtually eradicated by successive Dutch, English and Afrikaner colonialists over a period of 350 years. This is why the parliamentary bill specifically raises the issue of “Traditional Leadership” knowing full well that nothing like that exists.

4. Therefore, by artificially creating this power vacuum it trusts that it would be filled by a number of manageable chancers, charlatans, clowns and what-not and this would inevitably be an easy task to manage and manipulate at will

5. Since the announcement of this bill, a number of so-called Khoi-San “Kings”, Chiefs and so on magically arose out of nowhere. Individuals such as self-proclaimed “King” sic Cardi, Professor Daniel Brown, the self-proclaimed “King” of the entire Khoi-San nation/s, “Chief” Hennie Van Wyk and then Griqua Adam Kok V has proclaimed himself “King” of the Griqua. There are a number of other individuals and we can be sure that many more will surface once the ANC Government makes significant funds available

6. The Griqua need special mention as they were the first and original “Coloured” people in the South African contemporary sense. They were the progeny of Dutch and other European men in the 17th century based in Cape Town and were referred to as Baasters (Bastards) and subsequently referred to their own group as Oorlam. They were the group who joined the Dutch, English and Boers to hunt and kill Khoe-Khoen and San people and assisted in the Namaqua obliteration and decimation in the North Western Cape. Led by a freed African slave (he was not Khoe-Khoen nor San) Kaptein Adam Kok I, they adopted a Khoe-Khoen name Grigriqua (it later morphed to Griqua) and left the Cape Colony to settle in the Northern Cape. This group formed the infamous military unit, Cape Corps in 1871 and it continued its tradition of assisting colonialists in the slaughter of hundreds of thousands (if not millions) of indigenous Khoe-Khoen and San clans across the country. We are well aware of the role they played fighting against the resistance movements in the frontline states during the Boers Total Onslaught period. Recently however, Adam Kok V has miraculously claimed himself to be of “royal” lineage however, anyone with a smattering of common sense would know this to be nothing short of laughable.

7. This group of individuals are the ones who plan to negotiate a settlement between the ANC Government on behalf of all so-called “Coloured” people with a view only to how to enrich themselves. The ANC is well aware of this and will easily manage and manipulate this motley crew to agree with whatever they decide is in the best interest of their paymasters, being colonialist white capital and multi-national corporations.

The Land Restitution Act will never be amended to honestly address land issues in the country to benefit all blacks as long as the ANC is government of the day. It cannot be or even be seen to be affording the Khoe-San nation (so-called “Coloured” people) the right to be acknowledged and recognised with First Nation status. It cannot engage in land claims in either the Western or Northern Cape as traditional Khoe-San territories as it would have to deal with the claim for reparations directed at the Dutch and English as well as one of the biggest corporations on earth, Anglo American/De Beers who have benefited immensely from the illegal exploitation of natural resources for 98 years. The year 1917 (the year when Anglo American Corporation now plc was formed) sits dangerously within the reclamation period of the Land Restitution Act of 1994. Hence, this global megalithic corporation will ensure that both the DA and ANC keep so-called “Coloured” people oblivious and ignorant of their rightful, legal and genetic claim on both the Western and Northern Cape.

It is apparent why the DA is funded so heavily by un-named sources (we-can-guess-who) and this is to ensure that they dominate the so-called “Coloured” political mindspace and will and that the ANC on the other hand, to ensure that at the political centre, legislation is controlled and manipulated at their behest.

The only way forward is to create an organic so-called “Coloured” peoples political movement much like the UDF was, and based exclusively on socialist principle’s to ensure fair and equitable distribution of any accrued benefits. This will stop these so-called Khoisan Kings/Chiefs/Whatnot from selling off the birth right of the collective.

THE TIME IS TO ORGANISE IS NOW!
TOA TAMA !KHAMS KE (THE STRUGGLE CONTINUES)



Comments:

  1. Halebeorht

    Thanks for the help in this question, can, I too can help you something?

  2. Emmett

    In my opinion, this is relevant, I will take part in the discussion. I know that together we can come to the right answer.

  3. Jermain

    is very curious :)

  4. Taura

    In my opinion it is not logical

  5. Whittaker

    it is absolutely not compliant

  6. Ash

    And where is the logic?

  7. Sasha

    It is well said.



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