A county in Pennsylvania.
(AK-172: dp. 2 474, 1. 338'6"; b. 60'; dr. 21'1"; s. 12 k.;
cpl. 79, a. 1 3"; cl. Alamosa)
Clarion (AK-172) was launched 22 October 1944 by Froemming Brothers, Inc., Milwaukee, Wis., under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Miss V. L. Huebner; acquired by the Navy 10 May 1945, and commissioned 27 May 1946, Lieutenant F. Johnson' USNR, in command.
After loading cargo at Gulf ports Clarion sailed for Pearl Harbor, which she reached 2; July 1946. Three days later she got underway for San Francisco to load cargo for Manila, where she arrived 1 October. Carrying cargo to support occupation activities, she called at Jinsen, Korea, and Tsingtao, Taku, and Shanghai, China, before sailing for the east coast from Tsingtao 21 January 1946. She reached Norfolk 11 March, and was decommissioned at Baltimore 13 May 1946. On 18 May 1946 she was transferred to the War Shipping Administration.
USS Clarion (AK-172)
USS Clarion (AK-172) was an Alamosa-class cargo ship commissioned by the U.S. Navy for service in World War II. She was responsible for delivering troops, goods and equipment to locations in the war zone. Clarion (AK-172) was launched 22 October 1944 by Froemming Brothers, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, under a Maritime Commission contract sponsored by Miss V. L. Huebner acquired by the Navy 10 May 1945 and commissioned 27 May 1945, Lieutenant F. L. Johnson, USNR, in command.
Clarion call from cyclists to carry on the fight for socialism on two wheels
Those who think socialism is irrelevant should leave the National Clarion Cycling Club and form their own club, says Jim Grozier. For Charles Jepson and his breakaway organisation, the link between cycling and socialism is unbroken
‘The Clarion Cycling Club and the wider Clarion movement helped to make history.’ Photograph: Allan Cash Picture Library/Alamy
‘The Clarion Cycling Club and the wider Clarion movement helped to make history.’ Photograph: Allan Cash Picture Library/Alamy
Last modified on Thu 17 Jun 2021 05.23 BST
Those behind the recent “coup” in the National Clarion Cycling Club (Keir Hardie’s cycling club jettisons socialism, 14 June) have, like so many others nowadays, misunderstood the concept of inclusion, treating it like a mantra to be trotted out without actually thinking. Inclusion can only be invoked in order to remove irrelevant obstacles to joining an organisation.
For almost all organisations, gender, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation and many other attributes are irrelevant, so they should not be an obstacle. Not so when it comes to political leanings in the context of an overtly political cycling club. One might as well try to persuade the Spurs supporters’ club to admit a card-carrying Arsenal fan. Those who are so unaware of the current political situation as to think socialism “irrelevant” should do the decent thing, leave the Clarion and form their own club, to which they would then be free to invite whoever they wish.
Brighton & Hove Clarion Cycling Club
Many years ago, I joined the National Clarion Cycling Club because it was a socialist organisation. I didn’t expect to talk about the theories of Marx and Engels while out on club runs, or have lengthy discussions on dialectical materialism at the weekly club night. What I did expect, and I was not disappointed, was a comradeship of cyclists who were interested in their fellow human beings and whose behaviour, based on the principles they held, would provide something far more meaningful than a mere love of cycling.
The Clarion Cycling Club and the wider Clarion movement helped to make history. In the days when the working classes were overworked and underpaid, Clarion men and women were in the forefront of those who expounded the theories for a new way of life and who helped to bring about the material benefits we enjoy today. They dared to dream of a new society, a socialist society.
I was secretary of the National Clarion Cycling Club for three years until 2006, when I helped to set up a new organisation, the National Clarion Cycling Club 1895, to protect the founders’ commitment to “combine the pleasures of cycling with the propaganda of socialism”. The Clarion ideal that socialism is the hope of the world has survived for more than 125 years and the link between cycling and socialism will, for some at least, remain unbroken.
Secretary, National Clarion CC 1895
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Clarion River History
NATIONAL WILD AND SCENIC RIVER
In 1996, 51.7 miles of the Clarion River were designated a component of the Wild & Scenic Rivers System by Congress. Two sections totaling 17 miles, from Portland Mills to Irwin Run, and Cooksburg to the Piney Dam backwaters, qualify as &ldquoscenic.&rdquo The remaining 34.7 miles qualify as &ldquorecreational.&rdquo
The Clarion River is considered a Class I river. Its characteristics make the Clarion a desirable river for canoeists and kayakers of all abilities . On a scale of I-VI, the I denotes fast-moving water with riffles and small waves few or no obstructions, all obvious and easily missed with little training risk to swimmer is slight and self-rescue is easy. Keep in mind that classifications can change with high water levels.
WILDERNESS TENT CAMPING
The section between Arroyo bridge and the Irwin Run canoe launch is in the National Forest and has the most enjoyable riverside wilderness camping that is available in western PA, as well as three of the most challenging rapids, called &lsquoX&rsquo, &lsquoY&rsquo, and &lsquoZ&rsquo. There are other rapids between Hallton and Belltown, as well as a few smaller ones downstream.
There is camping at Cooks Forest State Park, Clear Creek State Park, and several campgrounds in the National Forest. Primitive camping is allowed in most of the National Forest and there are a few sites right beside the river between Clarington and Irwin Run.
The best time to float the Clarion River is in early summer . In late summer, the river becomes shallow at times and boat bottoms can drag on the streambed. Your float time will vary according to the season and weather. Contact the local Canoe/Kayak Outfitters for water level and safe paddling conditions
On summer weekends the river near Cooksburg is crowded with paddlers dragging rental canoes through the shallows, so stick to the upper half. The favorite for many is from Portland Mills to Irwin Run canoe launch - about 8 miles with 5 fun little rapids to play in.
Clarion River Native American Heritage
The first name applied to the Clarion River was &ldquoRiver au Fiel&rdquo - &ldquoRiver of Hate,&rdquo as shown on Father Bonnecamp&rsquos map of 1749. The Indians called it &ldquoTobeco Creek,&rdquo meaning &ldquoAlder Creek.&rdquo On some other early maps, it is named &ldquoStump Creek,&rdquo and later &ldquoBig Tobe Creek.&rdquo The older settlers clung tenaciously to the name &ldquoToby&rsquos Creek&rdquo until 1850, although the stream became officially the &ldquoClarion River,&rdquo meaning &ldquoClear River,&rdquo in 1819.
At the time the first European traders and settlers appeared in the region around the fork of the Ohio, the primary occupants of the land were the confederation of the Five Nations, called the Iroquois. The other Indian nations in Ohio Country were the Delaware and the Shawnee.
The Five Nations were comprised of the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas, In 1712, the Tuscaroras, were admitted to the tribal union, and henceforth the confederacy of the Iroquois has been known as the Six Nations. The home of the Iroquois was in New York, but they were a very warlike people and their conquests extended from New York to the Carolinas, and from New England to the Mississippi.
Of the Six Nations, the Senecas were the most western in geographical position, with villages extending from the head waters of the Allegheny River some distance down the Ohio. To this nation belonged Queen Aliquippa, Tanacharison, Guyasuta and Chief Cornplanter (of Kinzua country). In 1778, Seneca fought on the side of the British in the revolutionary war and participated in well planned raids in Northern Pennsylvania.
On November 11, 1794 , the Seneca signed the Treaty of Canandaigua with the United States, agreeing to peaceful relations. On September 15, 1797 at the Treaty of Big Tree, the Seneca sold their lands west of the Genesee River, retaining ten reservations for themselves. The sale opened up the rest of Western New York for settlement by European Americans. On January 15, 1838 , the US and some Seneca leaders signed the Treaty of Buffalo Creek, by which the Seneca were to relocate to a tract of land west of the state of Missouri, but most refused to go. The majority of the Seneca in New York formed a modern elected government, the Seneca Nation of Indians, in 1848.
US and some Seneca leaders signed the Treaty of Buffalo Creek, by which the Seneca were to relocate to a tract of land west of the state of Missouri, but most refused to go. The majority of the Seneca in New York formed a modern elected government, the Seneca Nation of Indians, in 1848.
There are documented accounts of the Delaware, Seneca and Iroquois Indians in the Clarion River region.
You can see many of the historic Native American Indian paths today, such as Kittanning, Pigeon, and Venango-Frankstown paths. The Venango-Frankstown path is the present location of State Route 322, where it crosses the river by the town of Clarion . Other paths remain today as current roads or railways.
Clarion County-Guardians of History
Clarion County is the western gateway to the Pennsylvania’s Great Outdoors region and the home of Clarion University, Cook Forest State Park, two spectacular waterways in the National Wild and Scenic River System, the oldest golf course in continuous play in the U.S., a variety of interesting trails, and an award-winning fall event that attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors each year.
The majority of Cook Forest State Park and its famous old growth forest, fire tower, and Seneca Point are all located in the county. The Cook Forest Sawmill Center for the Arts offers summer theater performances, a craft market featuring handmade local artisan products, and many events and festivals. Visitors to the park can enjoy Living History Weekend in May and an annual French Indian War Encampment in June with cannon firing demonstration and live tactical engagements.
Foxburg is charming resort town where the Allegheny RiverStone Center for the Arts hosts many cultural events throughout the year at its Lincoln Hall Performing Arts Center, home of the McKissick Mighty Wurlitzer theater organ. The historic Foxburg Country Club boasts 134 years of continuous golfing history, and the town also features a hotel, winery, art gallery, chocolatier, tour operator, and restaurants with beautiful views of the Allegheny River.
Helen Furnace and Buchanan Furnace are relics of Clarion County’s rich industrial past that help to build a growing nation. Visitors can tour these historic 32 feet tall cold-blast charcoal iron furnaces built in 1840’s.
The town of Clarion sits in the middle of the county along the banks of the Clarion River, and it’s easily reached by car via Interstate 80. Exit 62 has become known as the “Traveler’s Oasis” due to its variety of lodging options, restaurants, attractions, and more just off the expressway. With forest-covered mountains in every direction and the meandering thread of the Clarion River passing through its midst, the area offers spectacular scenery throughout the year. Each fall, the eye-popping colors of the surrounding woodlands lend their influence on the highly anticipated Autumn Leaf Festival, a huge nine-day award winning event now in its 68th year. At Clarion University, the Marwick Boyd Fine Arts Center hosts numerous theater and musical performances, and the Peirce Planetarium features one of the largest astronomical domes in the state and offers regular shows open to the public during the school year. Slightly north of Clarion, the Fryburg-Marble Mayfest signals the beginning of summer each Memorial Day weekend.
Clarion County has celebrated exciting recent trail developments including the opening of the Climax Tunnel along the Redbank Valley Trail, the new Clarion Loop Trail, and the expansion of the Rail 66 Country Trail between Marianne and Leeper.
In East Brady, at the south corner of the county, you can spend a day boating Pool 9 on the Allegheny River and taking in the stunning panoramic view at Brady’s Bend. Each July, the East Brady Area Riverfest convenes for a three-day “celebration of life” featuring food, vendors, live music, contests, fireworks, and a range of other attractions.
Finally, the town of New Bethlehem hosts the Clarion County Fair, an annual Peanut Butter Festival, and it features the Redbank Valley Trail, Pennsylvania’s very first Trail of the Year and a new art gallery.
Clarion- AK-172 - History
International boundaries and waters affect Alaska
Alaska's nearness to two foreign countries, Canada and Russia, has caused Alaska to have more contact with foreign nations than many other states. This activity has been increased by the fact that Alaska has a long coastline and its thousands of miles of territorial waters border international waters. Because of this, Alaska has especially had much to do with the maritime nations of the world. These are the countries that depend on the oceans for much of their food and as highways over which goods are moved to and from their countries. They include, but are not limited to, Canada, Great Britain, Japan, and Russia.
World War II demonstrates the influence of international events on Alaska
While these countries have been participants in many historic events in Alaska such as the fur trade, sea mammal hunting, fishing, and boundary disputes, they were also participants in the inter-national event that has most dramatically affected Alaska. This was World War 11, a global conflict that lasted from 1939 to 1945. Awareness of Alaska's significance in a Pacific Ocean war had been realized even before the 1867 purchase. President Abraham Lincoln is said to have commented on the United States' need for North Pacific naval bases.
In the early days of American administration of Alaska, Alaska's military significance was seen only in terms of coaling stations for naval vessels on their way across the Pacific Ocean. This significance diminished in the early 1900s. One reason was that Alaskan coal reserves never proved economical for naval use. Another reason was that, although Aleutian ports were on the Great Circle route between naval bases on the United States west coast and the Far East, the navy decided that in the event of war it would refuel its warships from ships rather than from onshore coaling bases. Finally, in the early 1900s, navy ships began to use oil instead of coal as fuel. Although the navy recognized Alaska's potential strategic significance, in 1913, the General Board of the Navy recommended priority be given to facilities on a line drawn from Hawaii to Guam to Manila. These recommendations were made prior to World War I. That war (1914-1918) indicated that the outcome of future conflicts would be influenced by two new weapons. These were the airplane and the submarine. As a result, there were new thoughts about Alaska's strategic significance.
The first implementation of those thoughts was the 1920 flight of the U.S. Army's Black Wolf aircraft squadron from New York to Nome. The 9,000-mile flight proved that aircraft could reach Alaska from the United States and that the reverse was true. Another army flight stopped in Alaska on its way around the world from Seattle in 1924. It re-emphasized Alaska's central location on global air routes. Both flights had been ordered by Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell, assistant chief of the army's air service until 1925. After he left that position, Mitchell wrote:
It does not take much of a look into the future to see that he who holds Alaska holds the world, because a great expanding nation, if it becomes dominant in the air, can now achieve world domination.
The military importance of airplanes was not universally appreciated, however. The navy, responsible for overall defense of Alaska, still believed in the overriding importance of large battleships such as those which had determined the outcome of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 to 1905. As a result, in 1922 the navy bargained away the American right to build fortifications in the Aleutian Islands as one of its concessions in obtaining a limit on the size and number of warships Japan could construct. It seemed clear by this time that Japan would be the United States' opponent in a future Pacific Ocean war. Militarily, Japan was the only nation capable of contesting the interests of the United States in the Pacific Ocean area. Politically and economically, the United States and Japan were on a collision course as each nation sought to obtain resources from Asia and develop markets in Asian countries. Emotionally, many uninformed Americans viewed the Japanese as racially inferior and some were repelled by the 1937 Japanese invasion of China. In general, American sentiment favored China as a result of a long history of American missionary activity in that country. The Japanese, on the other hand, viewed Americans and Europeans as representatives of declining civilizations, which in any case had never equalled Japanese culture and achievement. In particular, they thought it unlikely that Americans would go to war in defense of their Pacific Ocean interests. These political, economic, and emotional factors all increased the likelihood of a Japanese-American war over Pacific Ocean interests.
In planning for such a war, the U.S. Army and the U.S. Navy agreed in 1928 that there should be a defensive line running from Panama to Hawaii to Alaska. Alaskan fortifications were assigned the lowest priority. Then, economic troubles, brought by the world-wide depression that began in 1929, meant that money was not available for low priority construction. Although the navy intensified its survey of the Aleutian Islands for possible naval base sites, nothing more happened until 1934. In that year, Japan announced its intention not to renew the 1922 limitations treaty. This cleared the way for construction of American bases in the Aleutians.
Two other events in 1934 also increased the likelihood that military bases would be developed in Alaska. Alaska's delegate to Congress, Anthony J. Dimond, introduced a bill to appropriate over $10 million for airbase construction at Fairbanks or another suitable Alaskan location. He pointed out that the shortest path between the United States and the Far East was the Great Circle route. This route was only 276 miles south of the Aleutian Islands, but 2,000 miles north of the Hawaiian Islands. A San Francisco to Hawaii to Japan route required over 6,000 miles of travel. A Great Circle route from San Francisco to Japan, paralleling the arc of the Aleutian Islands, required just over 5,000 miles of travel. "Is it not obvious," Dimond said, "that an enemy moving across the Pacific would rather first invade Alaska?" At the same time, another army expedition flew several bomber aircraft from Washington, D. C. to Fairbanks and back. A series of studies and recommendations for Alaskan airbases followed, but nothing happened until 1938.
In 1938, military authorities testifying before Congress stressed the need for Alaskan bases. General Henry H. Arnold, a senior Army Air Corps officer, stated that Alaska flanked the Great Circle route to the Far East. It therefore bordered a possible route for invasion forces approaching the United States from the Far East. Alaska also formed the apex of the Panama-Hawaii-Alaska defense triangle. Alaskan air-bases were needed from which North Pacific Ocean air patrols could be conducted and naval stations at Sitka, Kodiak, and Dutch Harbor could be defended.
Japan had allowed the 1922 armament limitations treaty to end without renewal in 1936. Then, Japanese aircraft sank the United States Navy gunboat Panay on the Yangtze River in China in December of 1937. This persuaded President Franklin D. Roosevelt to support a 20 per cent increase in naval ship building and naval base construction in the Pacific. As a result, the Naval Act of May 17, 1938, authorized construction of several new warships and created a board under former director of naval intelligence, Admiral Arthur J. Hepburn, to study naval base locations.
The Hepburn board submitted its report in December of 1938. Naval air, destroyer, and submarine bases were recommended for Sitka, Kodiak, and Dutch Harbor. As were the recommended army air bases, the naval stations were seen as important defenses against a Japanese attack on the continental United States using an Aleutians-Alaska route. Congress made initial appropriations and work began on the Sitka and Kodiak bases in 1939. Work began at Dutch Harbor in 1940. A joint Army-Navy survey team arrived in Alaska to select future base sites on the mainland and in the Aleutian Islands. Interest in defense of Alaska also increased when Russia, now known as the Soviet Union, allied itself with Nazi Germany in the war that had broken out in Europe in 1939.
The military activity that followed these decisions changed Alaska forever. As other chapters document, the impact on civilian Alaskans was long-term. The events can be put in perspective by realizing that in 1940 there were about 1,000 military personnel and 76,000 civilians in Alaska. This population was scattered over an area of 586,000 square miles.
Although work began almost simultaneously on army, army air, and navy bases in Alaska, the army and the navy did not agree on how to best defend Alaska. The navy took the position that if it could control the North Pacific Ocean, it could protect Alaska. The way to do this was to watch for Japanese activity in the North Pacific with aerial patrols flying from the three Alaskan bases. Destroyers, patrol boats, and seaplane tenders might be stationed in Alaska to support and supplement the aerial surveillance. Only if Japanese naval forces appeared in Alaskan waters would the navy send warships such as aircraft carriers, battleships, cruisers, and submarines to Alaska.
The army position, on the other hand, was that fighters and bombers flying from airbases in Alaska were needed to defend Alaska. The army immediately began to prepare for this. In July of 1940, Colonel Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr., took charge of the Alaska Defense Force. Shortly after this, the army promoted Buckner to Brigadier General. Advance parties from army fighter and bomber units began to arrive at the newly-constructed Elmendorf Field outside Anchorage and army engineers began construction of a chain of air fields along Alaska's coastline. The first combat-ready fighter and bomber squadrons followed in February and March of 1941.
The build-up continued with the army's Alaska Defense Command strength increasing from just over 7,000 personnel at the end of June 1941 to over 21,500 at the end of September of that year. The number of navy personnel in Alaska also grew. The navy had nearly 2,000 at Sitka, 6,000 at Kodiak, and 5,500 at Dutch Harbor. The army's effective fighting forces, however, consisted of only a few obsolete B-18 bombers and P-36 fighters. The navy had only a few patrol boats and aircraft.
Onset of war changes Alaska
By late 1941, Alaska was preparing, but not yet ready, for war. In addition to expansion of the active duty army and navy forces in Alaska the Alaska National Guard was increased in strength. In September of 1941, the guard was called up and integrated with the active duty army. Numbers of individual Alaskans, both Native and non-Native, also left the territory either as individual draftees or volunteers for full-time active duty with the army and other services.
When the Alaska National Guard was called to active duty, Governor Ernest Gruening was given permission to organize an Alaska Territorial Guard to replace it. The army detailed two officers, Major M.R. "Muktuk" Marston and Captain Carl Schreibner, to assist Gruenong in organization of the territorial guard, whose mission was to watch the coastline, pass warnings, and resist parachute invasion. Schreibner organized the guard in Southeast Alaska, while Marston focused on central and western Alaska. Eventually some 3,000 strong, the territorial guard included many Alaska Aleuts, Eskimos, and Indians.
Despite the preparations, the onset of war came as a shock to Alaskans. Japanese authorities decided in late 1941 that they could strike first, destroy the American fleet in the Pacific, and occupy American and European protectorates and colonies in the Pacific Ocean area. The Americans, they thought, would probably try to arrange a peace. The Europeans, they knew, were too busy fighting Nazi Germany in Europe to successfully oppose them in the Pacific. Following this reasoning on December 7 1941, Japanese forces attacked the American fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Attacks on United States bases on Guam Wake and the Philippine islands followed as did attacks on British, Dutch, and French forces in the Pacific Ocean.
News of the attacks reached Alaska by way of Fairbanks radio station KFAR. Radio engineer Augie Hiebert heard the news on short-wave radio. He relayed it to military authorities. Orders went out putting Alaska on a war footing. Lights were blacked out to prevent their aiding in anticipated Japanese bombing raids. Ships were ordered to remain in port. Some train schedules were cancelled. Civilian flying was temporarily halted. Communication facilities were closed down or taken over by the military. Sabotage warnings were issued. Military families and the families of military contractors were evacuated. Some civilian families packed supplies and prepared to flee into the wilderness in case the Japanese invaded Alaska.
Japanese citizens in Alaska and Alaskans of Japanese descent were arrested and eventually sent to camps in the lower 48 states for the duration of the war. A news ban made Alaskans particularly susceptible to rumors about war dangers.
Military control of Alaskan life tightened and military forces in Alaska expanded as the war went on. As in the rest of the United States, civilians had to compete with military personnel for space on buses, planes, ships, and trains. The military also controlled travel to and from Alaska.
It was only six months after the Pearl Harbor attack that war came to Alaska. Early in the spring of 1942, intercepted radio messages indicated that the Japanese planned to attack American bases in the Aleutian Islands. In late May the navy sent a battle squadron of 5 cruisers, 11 destroyers, and 36 smaller craft to defend the Aleutians against the anticipated invasion. Army fighters and bombers were moved forward to hastily-constructed Aleutian airfields. During the first week in June, Japanese carrier-based aircraft bombed Dutch Harbor while Japanese troops occupied Attu and Kiska islands in the westernmost Aleutians. Although U.S. Army aircraft opposed the Japanese assault on Dutch Harbor by attacking Japanese aircraft and bombing Japanese ships, the navy's warships searched unsuccessfully for the Japanese ships at Attu and Kiska. Later, army and navy bombers attempted unsuccessfully to keep the Japanese from consolidating their footholds on Attu and Kiska.
Efforts begin to drive the Japanese from the Aleutian Islands
American efforts to retake Attu and Kiska began with bombing raids on the islands carried out by navy flying boats, or large sea planes, and army air force bombers flying from Umnak Island. Increasing numbers of American fighter aircraft arrived at forward bases in the Aleutians and engaged Japanese aircraft flying from the occupied islands. Japanese losses were high. The last air-to-air fight between American and Japanese planes over the Aleutian Islands took place in February 1943. Later, it was discovered that the terrible Aleutian Islands flying weather and heavy surf at Kiska had accounted for 60 per cent of the Japanese planes lost, while the remaining 40 per cent were destroyed on the ground or in the air by American attacks. American losses were also heavy. Of 31 pilots of the 54th Fighter Squadron sent to Alaska, only 10 survived a year of duty in the Aleutians. While the air attacks were going on, American submarines attacked Japanese ships carrying arms and supplies to Attu and Kiska.
Eventually the Japanese moved most of their troops from Attu to Kiska and reinforced the Kiska garrison with additional soldiers from the home islands. The Americans, in turn, established new bases in the western Aleutians and built up strength to retake Attu and Kiska.
In March of 1943, U.S. Navy ships intercepted Japanese ships attempting to take more troops to Kiska. The resulting "Battle of the Commander Islands" resulted in a Japanese retreat. Thereafter, the Japanese on Attu and Kiska were isolated, although destroyers and submarines occasionally were able to sneak supplies to them.
American military officials authorized the retaking of Attu in March of 1943. In late April of 1943 the invasion force arrived in Alaska from West Coast ports. The force consisted of the 7th Infantry Division on five transports and a naval force of three battleships, six cruisers, 19 destroyers, and one small aircraft carrier. After gathering at Cold Bay, the invasion force headed west and attacked Attu on May 11. The battle lasted until May 29. 0f the 15,000 American troops sent ashore, 549 were killed and 1,148 wounded by fierce Japanese resistance. Over 2,000 more became casualties from frostbite and exposure, due to inadequate training and equipment. The 7th Infantry, which had been training in California for desert warfare, had not been prepared to fight on a snowy, wet, mountainous island. Despite these handicaps, the Americans overcame the much smaller Japanese force. Only 29 of the approximately 2,400 Japanese on Attu survived.
Once Attu was retaken, the Americans began planning the re-capture of Kiska. American engineers built runways on Attu and near-by Shemya Island, while an invasion force of over 34,000 troops was assembled. Bombing raids on Kiska were intensified. While the Americans prepared to (and on Kiska, the Japanese attempted to remove their troops by submarine. More than 800 of the over 5,000 Japanese on Kiska left this way before the effort was abandoned because too many submarines were being sunk by American forces. On July 28,1943, however, the Japanese managed a brilliant escape. Mysterious radar contacts reported 200 miles to the southwest of Kiska drew off American naval forces picketing the island. Two Japanese cruisers and six destroyers rushed into Kiska harbor and carried away the remaining Japanese garrison.
American air attacks on Kiska continued, and although pilots reported either "light opposition" or a belief that the Japanese were gone, American authorities decided to continue with invasion plans. They believed that the Japanese might just have withdrawn into the interior of the island. A combined American and Canadian invasion force of nearly 100 ships and 144,000 troops assembled at Adak. On August 15, the invasion force went ashore on Kiska to find that the Japanese were gone. Nearly 100 Allied troops were killed by each others' fire, booby traps, a naval mine that damaged the destroyer Abner Read, and accidents. The estimated cost of the Kiska recapture was between $150 million and $170 million.
Alaska becomes the "forgotten front"
Much of the American military force in Alaska left after the re-capture of Attu and Kiska. For the troops who were left, Alaska seemed to be the "forgotten front." American planes took off from Aleutian Island bases to bomb the northern Japanese home island of Paramushiro in July of 1943. Those flights continued after the recapture of Attu and Kiska, until the end of the war in 1945, as did patrol flights over the North Pacific Ocean.
Wartime activities continue in other parts of Alaska
The campaign to retake Attu and Kiska had required a huge build-up and construction of a number of military bases on the Alaska mainland and throughout the Aleutian Islands. At the height of World War II military activity in Alaska, the military population of 144,000 outnumbered the civilian population of 81,000. After Attu and Kiska were retaken, many of these bases were either closed or reduced in size. Combat troops were replaced by garrison troops, and the first army women soldiers were sent to Alaska. In August of 1944, all bases east of Adak, except for Ladd Field at Fairbanks and Fort Richardson, including Elmendorf Field, at Anchorage, were put in a caretaker status. Fort Richardson served as the military head-quarters of Alaska. Ladd Field at Fairbanks, Marks Field at Nome, and intermediate fields supported an aircraft ferrying system in which planes were delivered to Russian pilots at Ladd Field and flown back to Russia. The planes eventually ended up on European battlefields fighting against Germany and its allied Axis Powers. The first aircraft were transferred in the fall of 1942 and by the time the war was over in 1945, nearly 8,000 aircraft had been delivered to the Russians.
World war II has lasting impact on Alaska
World war II activities in the territory had a lasting impact on Alaska. The War Department spent over a billion dollars on military construction and operations in Alaska during the war. It shipped military personnel numbering nearly twice the civilian population to Alaska. Many soldiers returned to make Alaska their home after the war.
The war also gave Alaska a new internal road system and its first road link to the rest of the United States. It resulted in many improved airports, harbors, and communications facilities. Finally, the war demonstrated Alaska's strategic position and assured a military presence that continued after 1945.
172nd Support Battalion 172nd Brigade Support Battalion "Opahey"
The 172nd Support Battalion was first constituted in the Regular Army on 24 June 1964 and activated on 1 July 1964 as an element of the 172nd Infantry Brigade.
Following the activation of the 6th Infantry Division on 16 April 1986, the 172nd Support Battalion was inactivated on 15 April 1987 and reflagged as the 706th Maintenance Battalion in 1987 at Fort Richardson, Alaska in support of the 6th Infantry Division (Light).
With the reactivation of the 172nd Infantry Brigade (Separate) in April 1998, the 172nd Support Battalion was reactivated in July 1998, at Fort Wainwright, Alaska. The 172nd Support Battalion was an organic element of the 172nd Infantry Brigade (Seperate), US Army Alaska (USARAK). The 172nd Support Battalion had the mission of providing combat service support to the 172nd Infantry Brigade (Separate). Organized as a separate brigade support battalion, it consisted of 5 companies: a Headquarters Company (HHC), Supply and Transport Company (A Company), Maintenance Company (B Company), Medical Company (C Company), and a composite Direct Support Company located at Fort Richardson, Alaska detached from the rest of the Battalion (D Company). The unit also had a Material Management Center as part of its Headquarters Company.
With the conversion of the 172nd Infantry Brigade Separate into a Stryker Brigade Combat Team in 2004, the 172nd Support Battalion was reorganized and redseignated as the 172nd Brigade Support Battalion. It was inactivated in 2006 as part of the reflagging of the 172nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team as the 1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division.
The unit was reorganized and redesignated as the 172nd Support Battalion in 2008 and reactivated in Germany as part of the 172nd Infantry Brigade (Separate). The 299th Forward Support Battalion was concurrently inactivated and reflagged as 172nd Support Battalion, as part of the reflagging of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division as the 172nd Infanty Brigade (Separate).
یواساس کلریان (ایکی-۱۷۲)
یواساس کلریان (ایکی-۱۷۲) (به انگلیسی: USS Clarion (AK-172) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۳۸۸ فوت ۸ اینچ (۱۱۸٫۴۷ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۴۴ ساخته شد.
|آغاز کار:||۲۲ اکتبر ۱۹۴۴|
|به دست آورده شده:||۱۰ مه ۱۹۴۵|
|اعزام:||۲۷ مه ۱۹۴۵|
|وزن:||2,382 t.(lt) 7,540 t.(fl)|
|درازا:||۳۸۸ فوت ۸ اینچ (۱۱۸٫۴۷ متر)|
|پهنا:||۵۰ فوت (۱۵ متر)|
|آبخور:||۲۱ فوت ۱ اینچ (۶٫۴۳ متر)|
|سرعت:||۱۱٫۵ گره (۲۱ کیلومتر بر ساعت)|
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Clarion is solely focused on making a positive IMPACT on our clients’ future as well as patients’ health. This is what motivates us every day. We share and seek a set of core values that are key to our success:
- Passion – the unyielding force that drives our people to complete the job no matter what obstacles emerge
- Inquisitiveness – the embedded interest in going deep and moving beyond observation to meaningful insight
- Collaboration – the confidence to listen, explore and build superior solutions together
- Honesty – the courage to say what you think, especially when the perspective may be unpopular
Canadian author Geoff Ryman has won 15 awards for his stories and ten books, many of which are science fiction. His novel Air (2005), won a John W. Campbell Memorial Award, the Arthur C. Clarke Award, the James W Tiptree Memorial Award, the Canadian Sunburst Award and the British Science Fiction Association Award. It was also listed in The Guardian’s series ‘1000 Novels You Must Read’. In 2012 his novelette ‘What We Found’ won the Nebula Award in its category and his volume of short stories Paradise Tales won the Canadian Sunburst Award. Much of his work is based on travels to Cambodia such as ‘The Unconquered Country’ (1986), winner of the World Fantasy Award and British Science Fiction Association Award. His novel The King’s Last Song (2006) was set both in the Angkor Wat era and the time after Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge. His other mainstream fiction includes Was (1992), a novel about the American West viewed through the history of The Wizard of Oz . His hypertext web novel 2 53: a novel for the Internet in Seven Cars and a Crash , in which 253 people sit on a London tube and are each described in 253 words, won the Philip K. Dick Memorial Award for best novel not published in hardback. The published Print Remix of the same novel (1998) is his most popular book. In 2011, Geoff Ryman won the Faculty Students’ Teaching Award for the School of Arts, History and Culture.
Larissa Lai has authored three novels, The Tiger Flu , Salt Fish Girl and When Fox Is a Thousand two poetry collections, sybil unrest (with Rita Wong) and Automaton Biographies a chapbook, Eggs in the Basement and a critical book, Slanting I, Imagining We: Asian Canadian Literary Production in the 1980s and 1990s. Winner of a Lambda Literary Award and Tiptree Honor Book for The Tiger Flu , she has also received the Astraea Foundation Emerging Writers’ Award, and been a finalist for the Books in Canada First Novel Award, the Tiptree Award, the Sunburst Award, the City of Calgary W.O. Mitchell Award, the bpNichol Chapbook Award, the Dorothy Livesay Prize and the ACQL Gabrielle Roy Prize for Literary Criticism.
Larissa was born in La Jolla, California and grew up in St. John’s, Newfoundland. A practicing writer and cultural organizer, she did many interesting things through the 1980s and 1990s, including sitting on the organizing committee for Writing Thru Race, working as assistant curator for the contemporary media exhibit Y ellow Peril: Reconsidered , working as coordinator at SAW Video (Ottawa), and curating two shows at the grunt gallery in Vancouver. She has been writer-in-residence at the University of Calgary, the University of Guelph and at Simon Fraser University, as well as guest professor at the University of Augsburg. At the University of British Columbia she served as Assistant Professor of Canadian Literature for seven years before relocating to the University of Calgary where she is currently Associate Professor and Canada Research Chair in the Department of English. There, she directs The Insurgent Architects’ House for Creative Writing. She likes dogs, is afraid of cats, and feels at home in both Vancouver and Calgary.
Anjali Sachdeva’s short story collection, All the Names They Used for God , was named a Best Book of 2018 by NPR, Refinery 29, and BookRiot, longlisted for the Story Prize, and chosen as the 2018 Fiction Book of the Year by the Reading Women podcast. The New York Times Book Review called the collection “strange and wonderful,” and Roxane Gay called it, “One of the best collections I’ve ever read. Every single story is a stand out.” Sachdeva is a graduate of the Iowa Writers’ Workshop and has taught writing at the University of Iowa, Augustana College, and Carnegie Mellon University. She also worked for six years at the Creative Nonfiction Foundation, where she was Director of Educational Programs. She currently teaches at the University of Pittsburgh and in the MFA program at Randolph College. She has hiked through the backcountry of Canada, Iceland, Kenya, Mexico, and the United States, and spent much of her childhood reading fantasy novels and waiting to be whisked away to an alternate universe. Instead, she lives in Pittsburgh, which is pretty wonderful as far as places in this universe go.
Sam J. Miller
Sam J. Miller is the Nebula-Award-winning author of The Art of Starving (an NPR best of the year) and Blackfish City (a best book of the year for Vulture, The Washington Post, Barnes & Noble, and more – and a “Must Read” in Entertainment Weekly and O: The Oprah Winfrey Magazine). A recipient of the Shirley Jackson Award and the soon-to-be-renamed John M. Campbell Award, and a graduate of the Clarion Writers’ Workshop, Sam’s short stories have been nominated for the World Fantasy, Theodore Sturgeon, and Locus Awards, and reprinted in dozens of anthologies. He lives in New York City, and at samjmiller.com.
Christopher Rowe is the author of the acclaimed story collection, Telling the Map (Small Beer Press), as well as a middle grade series, the Supernormal Sleuthing Service, co-written with his wife, author Gwenda Bond. He has also published a couple of dozen stories, and been a finalist for the Hugo, Nebula, World Fantasy and Theodore Sturgeon Awards. His work has been frequently reprinted, translated into a half-dozen languages around the world, and praised by the New York Times Book Review . His story “Another World For Map is Faith” made the long list in the 2007 Best American Short Stories volume, and his early fiction was collected in a chapbook, Bittersweet Creek and Other Stories , also by Small Beer Press. His most recent stories are “Jack of Coins” and “Knowledgeable Creatures” at Tor.com, selected by editor Ellen Datlow, and “Nowhere Fast” in Candlewick’s young adult anthology, Steampunk! , edited by Kelly Link and Gavin Grant.
He has an MFA from the Bluegrass Writers Workshop and lives in a hundred-year-old house in Lexington, Kentucky, with his wife and their many pets. Izzy the Dog, and Puck the Dog.
Gwenda Bond is the New York Times bestselling author of many novels. Among others, they include the Lois Lane and Cirque American trilogies. She wrote the first official Stranger Things novel, Suspicious Minds . She and her husband author Christopher Rowe co-write a middle grade series, the Supernormal Sleuthing Service. She also created Dead Air , a serialized mystery and scripted podcast written with Carrie Ryan and Rachel Caine, and is a co-host of Cult Faves , a podcast about the weird world of cults and extreme belief.