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History of Wando II - History

History of Wando II - History


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Wando II

(Tug No. 17: dp. 575 (n.); 1. 123'6 1/2"; b. 26'8", dr.
11'6'' (mean); cpl. 23; a. 2 3-pars.; cl. Wando)

The second Wando (Tug No. 17) was laid down on 14 June 1915 by the Charleston (S.C.) Navy Yard launched on 7 March 1916, and commissioned on 3 April 1917, Boatswain J. W. Bettens in command.

Wando remained at Charleston until 15 April, when she got underway for New England waters and, with the ferryboat Wave in tow, steamed north, via Lynnhaven Roads, VA., and the New York Navy Yard, arriving at Newport six days later. Shifting to Boston, Mass.—via the Cape Cod Canal—soon thereafter, the tug towed a coal barge to the New York Navy Yard on 25 and 26 April and subsequently towed the cruiser Salem from Philadelphia to the Boston Navy Yard before she returned, via Philadelphia, to Charleston on 19 May, towing the torpedo boat Barney.

After brief tours of duty at Georgetown, S.C., and Jacksonville, Fla, Wando sailed for Hampton Roads VA., anchoring with the Fleet in the York River on 11 June. Through the summer, the tug performed Various utility duties—mostly towing targets and lighters; shifting target rafts and planting buoys—out of Tangier Sound and Yorktown, VA. During that time, she assisted the grounded battleship Louisiana (Battleship No. 19) on 6 July.

In mid-August, Wando underwent repairs at the Norfolk Navy Yard and there received a "minesweeping outfit." She departed Norfolk on 23 August, heading for New York waters, and reached "Base 10"—Port Jefferson, Long Island—on the morning of the 25th. From there, the tug shifted to New London, Conn., where she received additional minesweeping gear from Baltimore. On the evening of 8 September, Wando embarked Capt. Reginald R. Belknap, Commander, Mine Force, and transported him to Newport, R.I., arriving there later that evening. The tug subsequently performed buoy and net-tending functions off the Cornfield Light Vessel from 10 to 13 September.

Wando returned to New London on the 16th and the following day had more minesweeping gear installed. She again transported Capt. Belknap as a passenger, from New London to Newport, before heading for Norfolk. For the remainder of September, Wando operated at "Base One," Tangier Sound, mooring target rafts, working on target moorings, and conducting brief trips for repairs or supplies at the Norfolk Navy Yard. Wando subsequently remained in the Chesapeake Bay-Hampton Roads-Tangier Sound region through the autumn months and into the winter.

Detached from her duty with the Mine Force on 19 November 1917, Wando resumed her operations with the Atlantic Fleet Train. However, she continued to perform the same basic duties, serving as target/net tender and delivering mail and dispatches through the end of March 1918. She subsequently towed targets for battleships engaging in gunnery exercises off the southern drill grounds, off the Virginia capes, and later laid buoys at the Potomac River Torpedo Range, off the mouth of the St. Mary's River.

Wando was deployed in the Caribbean for the first time in early 1919. Underway from Norfolk on 6 February 1919, the tug arrived at Guantanamo Bay on 14 February, with Pontoon No. 23 in tow. She performed her unglamorous service functions for the Fleet—towing targets, lighters, barges, and delivering men and mail—in Cuban waters ( Guantanamo Bay, Guacanamail Bay, and Manzanillo Bay) until 17 April, when she headed home.

Reaching New York on the 18th, Wando subsequently shifted to Hoboken, N.J., where she underwent repairs over the first few days of May. Returning to Norfolk on 6 May, Wando towed targets and performed general utility service with the Atlantic Fleet Train through mid-July and then operated in waters off the northern part of the eastern seaboard, out of Newport, New London, and New York. She remained at New York City from 10 August 1919 to 10 January 1920.

Underway for Norfolk on the latter day Wando arrived there the next day but, on the 14th, sailed south for Charleston and reached that port on the 16th. Detached from the Atlantic Fleet Train on 26 January 1920, Wando was simultaneously assigned duties as a yard craft at the Charleston Navy Yard, her crew reduced to 14 men. While on active duty at Charleston, she was classified AT-17 on 17 July 1920, during the fleet-wide assignment of alphanumeric hull numbers.

Wando operated in the 6th Naval District, out of Charleston, until 18 April 1922, when she was decommissioned and placed in reserve.

Recommissioned at the Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, Calif. on 15 March 1933, Wando was reclassified on 27 February 1936 from a seagoing tug (AT) to a harbor tug, YT-123. On 15 April 1944, she was reclassified again to a large harbor tug, YTB-123—a classification she carried for the remainder of her active naval service.

Assigned to the 13th Naval District after her recommissioning to operate at the Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Wash., Wando performed her vital but unsung tug services from the late 1930's through World War II. Ultimately placed out of commission and out of service on 3 July 1946, Wando was delivered to the Maritime Commission's War Shipping Administration for disposal. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 30 December 1946, and she was acquired by the Puget Sound Tug and Barge Co. on 28 April 1947.


History & Cultural Heritage

Prior to the 1600’s: The wilderness surrounded by various rivers that flow in and around the Lowcountry was inhabited by Tidewater Indians for thousands of years before Europeans arrived. All were skilled hunters and thrived on the bounty of the land and waters. Native Americans used the Broad Path, which followed the Ashley River, to trade with neighboring tribes.

1600’s: Some Native American tribes provided assistance to English colonists as they searched the area to build settlements. Tribes including the Wando, Etiwan, Kiawah, and Sewee helped the English defend against Spanish raids. The Stono and Kussoe tribes were known to threaten early settlers with attacks. Homesteads and farms were established along the banks of the Ashley River and throughout the area.

1700’s: Over 60 plantations were established between the Ashley and Cooper Rivers, such as Accabee, Archdale, Belmont, Elms, Windsor, Marshlands, Oak Grove, White Hall, Turnbull and others. Great botanical and horticultural progress was made by Eliza Lucas Pinkney with the production of silk and indigo Phillipe Noisette with the development of the internationally famous Noisette rose and by Andre Michaux, the father of American Horticulture, who established a botanical garden (near what is now Aviation Ave.) and introduced new plants to the area such as camellias and mimosas.

During the American Revolution (1775-1783): The Broad Path became known as the Road to Dorchester (now Dorchester Road), used by British troops as the main road from their British Fort Dorchester to Charles Towne. The Quarter House Inn, on that path, was established as a British garrison.

1800’s: Earliest railroad track lines were laid from Charleston to the North Area, near what is now Rivers Avenue. Farming and lumbering were vital in the early 1800’s and the mining of phosphate for use in fertilizer created an economic boom after the Civil War. Liberty Hill, the oldest neighborhood in the North Area, was established by freedmen who purchased land in and built homes and farms for their families circa 1864. In 1898, two plantations along the Cooper River were purchased to create Chicora Park, designed by the Olmstead Brothers, as a day destination for wealthy Charlestonians.

The E.P. Burton Lumber Co. operated on 5,000 acres in the 1890s between the Charleston Naval Base and Goose Creek. As the area was cleared and lumber cut. Burton sold the land. By 1912, portions of the tract had been sold to Oakdene Cotton Compress, Texaco, and the Read Phosphate Co.

1900-1972: Chicora Park was purchased by the Navy and the Charleston Naval Yard was established in 1901. The Shipyard boasted the largest pier and dry dock on the East Coast used for shipbuilding and repair prior to World War I. The Naval Shipyard and Naval Base expanded even more during World War II and remained active until it was closed in January 1996. For almost 100 years, the Naval Yard bolstered the economy and the development of North Charleston as a new city, drawn on planning principals of the progressive era.

Charleston Mayor R. Goodwyn Rhett headed a group of investors who organized the North Charleston Corp. and the Filbin Corp. After they had purchased the Burton tract, WB Marquis of Olmsted Brothers Engineering Co. designed the proposed town. In 1914, the North Charleston Development Corp was organized to construct houses for the area. The first residents moved there in the same year. It was about this time that the term “North Charleston” evolved.

By 1925, the North Charleston Corp and the Filbin Corp. had been reorganized as Charleston Farms. It was absorbed by the North Charleston Co. in this year.

Following the financial panic of 1929, Joseph Franc bought control of the holding company. He also bought an additional 44 acres of the tract, including Park Circle.

By 1930 there were only 2,000 residents in the north area and the nation was in a depression. However, West Virginia Pulp and Paper Co. moved into the area creating many jobs and residential population increased.

A Public Service District was formed in 1934 to serve the area with street lights, water, sewerage, garbage disposal, and fire protection. Also in 1934 the federal Public Works Administration completed a community center and gymnasium at the North Charleston High School.

The population then was more than 4,000. It rapidly grew in 1940 as World War II loomed ahead. In 1942, the population jumped to more than 18,000 as the Navy Yard increased its personnel and the Army brought its Port of Embarkation there. The military bases in North Charleston have brought prosperity to the area in both World Wars and the Korean and Vietnam conflicts.

After World War II was over, many servicemen continue to live and work in North Charleston enabling the industrial community to keep up its production.

The area of North Charleston sought to become a city as early as the 1940s. Casper Padgett led one of the first incorporation attempts about 36 years ago. The effort failed when the voters disclosed their opposition to the concept eight to one.

In the late 1950s, Arthur H. Burton led another group that hoped to rekindle interest in incorporation. However, Burton met a major stumbling block in the SC State Constitution. The constitution required voters approve a new city, and the North Area didn’t have that.

A constitutional amendment was required that would allow cities to incorporate with a majority of voters who go to the pools. This amendment was finally granted in 1972.

North Charleston in 1961 tried again to incorporate and, in anticipation, even elected a mayor, F. C. Ott. However the positive response was not enough.

The third effort for incorporation, in 1969, was headed by Rep. Robert W. Turner, the unopposed candidate for mayor of the new city.

It was after this unsuccessful attempt that John E. Bourne took up the struggle in 1971.

Bourne reduced the area voting for incorporation to four precincts where incorporation interest was high and where votes generally turned out to the pools. The incorporators knew that if they could incorporate a smaller area they could then stat on annexation procedures for th rest of the North Area. This effort made North Charleston a city.

1972: The City of North Charleston was established as the 9th largest city in South Carolina on June 12, 1972 with John E. Bourne, Jr. as the first mayor. By December, North Charleston became the 4th largest city in SC after annexing the Naval Base, Air Force Base, and the Charleston International Airport. Within one year the city population had increased from 22,000 to 53,000.

1972-1982: By July 3, 1975 the city became the 3rd largest city in the state. On June 12, 1982 North Charleston had grown by 250 percent. It had $15 million in capital investments $1.95 million invested in parks and recreation facilities, and $2.28 million in economic development.

1982-1996: The City celebrated the opening of Northwoods Mall in 1986, this major retail shopping center helped to promote North Charleston as a state leader in retail sales.

September 21, 1989 Hurricane Hugo hit, causing over $2.8 billion in damage to the South Carolina Lowcountry. The physical and economic impact was devastating.

Bobby Kinard was elected as the second mayor of North Charleston in 1991. Ken McClure assumed duties as interim mayor after Mayor Kinard’s resignation in 1994.

In 1993, the C-17 Globemaster III aircraft squadron was established at the Charleston Air Force Base, providing military support across the world.

The North Charleston Coliseum opened in 1993 and the South Carolina Stingrays Hockey Team of the ECHL began to call North Charleston their home.

Mayor R. Keith Summey was elected in 1994 as the third mayor of North Charleston. He has been re-elected during each election since 1994 and is now serving his fourth full term as mayor.

The Charleston Naval Base and Shipyard officially closed in 1996, ending an almost 100 year history as the largest employer of civilian workers in South Carolina. Approximately $1.4 billion dollars of annual expenditures were lost due to the closure.

1996-present: Hundreds of acres of land that made up the Charleston Naval Base and Shipyard reverted to the City of North Charleston after the base closure. Private industry and businesses began to enter into leasing agreements for warehouses and office spaces.

The North Charleston Performing Arts Center and the Charleston Area Convention Center opened in 1999.

The 400-acre Center Pointe development began in the early 2000’s and now includes Wal-Mart, Sam’s Club, Tanger Outlet Mall and other surrounding retail stores and nationally known restaurants.

The Noisette Community Plan was initiated in 2004 and promoted the revitalization efforts of North Charleston. Political and community leaders, businesses, and area residents began to embrace the emphasis and promotion of preservation, sustainability, recreation, education, health care, cultural growth, providing a pleasant social atmosphere, and attracting new technical and environmental jobs.

North Charleston’s Riverfront Park was officially opened to the public on July 4, 2005, establishing a beautiful access to the vistas along the Cooper River with a large outdoor performance venue and picnic areas. Later a fishing pier, boardwalk, and Naval Base Memorial site were added.

North Charleston continues to lead South Carolina in retail sales, exceeding $6 billion dollars each year.

Boeing Aircraft announced in 2009 that North Charleston would become the new home of the 787 Dreamliner Aircraft assembly and delivery prep center, providing thousands of new jobs in a world-wide market.

North Charleston offers the largest number of hotel accommodations in the area, many new 4-star hotels are being added yearly to fill the need of visitors.


Wando (Tug No. 17) was laid down on 14 June 1915 by the Charleston Navy Yard. Launched on 7 March 1916, she was commissioned on 3 April 1917 with Boatswain J. W. Bettens in command.

Wando remained at the Charleston Navy Yard until 15 April 1917, when she got underway for New England waters and, with the ferryboat USS Wave (YFB-10) in tow, steamed north, via Lynnhaven Roads, Virginia and the New York Navy Yard in New York City, arriving at Newport, Rhode Island, on 21 April 1917. Shifting to Boston, Massachusetts via the Cape Cod Canal soon thereafter, she towed a coal barge to the New York Navy Yard on 25 April and 26 April 1917 and subsequently towed the scout cruiser USS Salem (CL-3) from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to the Boston Navy Yard before she returned, via Philadelphia, to the Charleston navy Yard on 19 May 1917, towing the torpedo boat USS Barney (TB-25).

After brief tours of duty at Georgetown, South Carolina and Jacksonville, Florida, Wando sailed for Hampton Roads, Virginia, anchoring with the fleet in the York River on 11 June 1917. Through the summer of 1917, the tug performed various utility duties —mostly towing targets and lighters, shifting target rafts and planting buoys - operating out of Tangier Sound and Yorktown, Virginia. During that time, she assisted the grounded battleship USS Louisiana (Battleship No. 19) on 6 July 1917.

In mid-August 1917, Wando underwent repairs at the Norfolk Navy Yard and there received a "minesweeping outfit." She departed Norfolk, Virginia, on 23 August 1917, heading for New York waters and reached "Base 10" — Port Jefferson, Long Island, New York — on the morning of 25 August 1917. From there she shifted to New London, Connecticut, where she received additional minesweeping gear from USS Baltimore (C-3) . On the evening of 8 September 1917, Wando embarked Captain Reginald R. Belknap, Commander, Mine Force and transported him to Newport, Rhode Island, arriving there later that evening. Wando subsequently performed buoy and net-tending functions off the Cornfield Light Vessel from 10 September 1917 to 13 September 1917.

Wando returned to New London on 16 September 1917 and the following day had more minesweeping gear installed. She again transported Captain Belknap as a passenger, from New London to Newport, before heading for Norfolk. For the remainder of September, Wando operated at "Base One," Tangier Sound, mooring target rafts, working on target moorings and making brief trips to the Norfolk Navy Yard for repairs or supplies. Wando subsequently remained in the Chesapeake Bay-Hampton Roads-Tangier Sound region through the autumn months of 1917 and into the winter.

Detached from her duty with the Mine Force on 19 November 1917, Wando resumed her operations with the Atlantic Fleet Train. However, she continued to perform the same basic duties, serving as target and net tender and delivering mail and dispatches through the end of March 1918. She subsequently towed targets for battleships engaging in gunnery exercises off the southern drill grounds, off the Virginia Capes and later laid buoys at the Potomac River Torpedo Range, off the mouth of the St. Mary's River.

Wando deployed in the Caribbean for the first time in early 1919. Underway from Norfolk on 6 February 1919, she arrived at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, on 14 February 1919, with Pontoon No. 23 in tow. She performed her unglamorous service functions for the Fleet — towing targets, lighters and barges and delivering men and mail — in Cuban waters at Guantanamo Bay, Guacanayabo Bay and Manzanillo Bay until 17 April 1919, when she headed back to the United States.

Reaching New York on the 18 April 1919, Wando subsequently shifted to Hoboken, New Jersey, where she underwent repairs over the first few days of May 1919. Returning to Norfolk on 6 May 1919, Wando towed targets and performed general utility service with the Atlantic Fleet Train through mid-July 1919 and then operated in waters off the northern part of the United States East Coast out of Newport, New London and New York. She remained at New York City from 10 August 1919 to 10 January 1920.

Underway for Norfolk on 10 January 1920, Wando arrived there the next day but, on 14 January 1920, sailed south for Charleston. which she reached on 16 January 1920. Detached from the Atlantic Fleet Train on 26 January 1920, Wando was simultaneously assigned duties as a yard craft at the Charleston Navy Yard, her crew reduced to 14 men. While on active duty at Charleston, she was classified AT-17 on 17 July 1920, during the fleet-wide assignment of alphanumeric hull numbers.

Wando operated in the 6th Naval District, out of the Charleston Navy Yard, until 18 April 1922, when she was decommissioned and placed in reserve.

Wando recommissioned at the Mare Island Navy Yard at Vallejo, California, on 15 March 1933. She was reclassified on 27 February 1936 from a seagoing tug (AT-17) to a harbor tug, YT-123.

Assigned to the 13th Naval District after her recommissioning to operate at the Puget Sound Navy Yard at Bremerton, Washington, Wando performed her vital but unsung tug services from the late 1930s through World War II. On 15 April 1944, she was reclassified again to a large harbor tug, YTB-123, a classification she carried for the remainder of her active naval service.

Ultimately placed both out of service and out of commission and 3 July 1946, Wando was delivered to the Maritime Commission's War Shipping Administrationfor disposal. Her name was struck from the Navy List on 30 December 1946 and she was acquired by the Puget Sound Tug and Barge Company on 28 April 1947.

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here.


History of Wando II - History

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Just another Roots and Recall Network site

Courtesy of the Segars Collection – 2006

St. Thomas’ Parish was also created in 1706, and the first parish church built in 1708 on the neck of land between Wando and Cooper Rivers, about two miles from the village of Wando, formerly known as Cainhoy. However, Pompion Hill Chapel had been built in 1703 in what became St. Thomas’ Parish. Dalcho termed it the first church built in the province outside the city of Charles Town. Later research has indicated that the first chapel at Goose Creek was erected some years prior to this, perhaps as early as 1680. The first chapel at Pompion Hill was erected soon after the arrival of the Rev. Samuel Thomas, first missionary to Carolina from the newly organized Church of England Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Created in 1701, they sent the Rev. Mr. Thomas to Carolina in 1702. He was the third missionary sent to America and served the people of the Cooper River from Goose Creek to Pompion Hill, making his home at Silk Hope, the plantation of the Governor, Sir Nathaniel Johnson. Writing from “Sir N. Johnson’s Study” in 1705 to the Society in London, Mr. Thomas said, “Here is one church already erected since my arrival by the peculiar direction and religious care of Sir Nathaniel Johnson and at the charge of the parish.” Pompion Hill Chapel on the eastern side of the east branch of the Cooper River took its name from the plantation on the river which it adjoined. The local pronunciation is Punkin, or as Judge H. A. M. Smith wrote “the contemporaneous spelling of Pumpkin is Pompion.” The plantation was written as Ponkin Hill or Ponkinhill Plantation in some deeds before the name was extended to cover the larger tract of plantation which was aggregated by the Rev. Thomas Hasell. He was the first rector of St. Thomas’ Parish, appointed in 1709 after the creation of the Parish in 1706. He married Elizabeth Ashby, daughter of John Ashby, the Second Cassique of nearby Quinby Barony. When the Rev. Mr. Hasell died in 1744, he had served the parish of St. Thomas’ and Pompion Hill Chapels of Ease for thirty-five years. Pompion Hill Plantation of 1540 acres was inherited by his eldest son, Thomas Hasell. In 1750 it was purchased by Samuel Thomas, grandson of the first SPG mis-sionary of that name, and who was the son-in-law of Rev. Thomas Hasell, since Samuel Thomas, II, had married Elizabeth Ashby, II. Before 1784, Pompion Hill Plantation became the property of the Parish, either through purchase or gift from Samuel Thomas. In later years after 1823 Pompion Hill Plantation was owned by Alfred Huger and its name was changed to Longwood, and the name Pompion Hill restricted to the bluff above the river of ten or twelve acres on which the fine old Chapel stands. (Information from: Names in South Carolina by C.H. Neuffer, Published by the S.C. Dept. of English, USC)

Courtesy of the S.C. Dept. of Archives and History

Courtesy of the S.C. Dept. of Archives and History

Thomas T. Waterman photographer 1940 – Images(s) and information from: The Library of Congress – HABS Photo Collection

Thomas T. Waterman photographer 1940 – Images(s) and information from: The Library of Congress – HABS Photo Collection


History of Wando II - History

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Geology, hydrogeology, and potential of intrinsic bioremediation at the National Park Service Dockside II site and adjacent areas, Charleston, South Carolina, 1993-94

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Abstract

Study Area

Additional publication details
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Geology, hydrogeology, and potential of intrinsic bioremediation at the National Park Service Dockside II site and adjacent areas, Charleston, South Carolina, 1993-94
Series title Water-Resources Investigations Report
Series number 96-4170
DOI 10.3133/wri964170
Edition -
Year Published 1996
Language ENGLISH
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Information Services [distributor],
Contributing office(s) South Atlantic Water Science Center
Description viii, 69 p. :ill., maps 28 cm.
Country United States
State South Carolina
City Charleston
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Carolina Colonies

"Carolina was so called by the French, in 1563 or 1564, in honor of Charles IX, King of France (Carolus in Latin, meaning Charles), under whose patronage its coast was discovered.

The territory thus named afterwards included the lands between the 30th and 36th degrees of north latitude, and extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific. In 1663, this defined territory was conveyed, by Charles II, King of England, who claimed it by virtue of Cabot's discovery, to Lord Clarendon, Sir William Berkley, Sir George Carteret, and four others with ample powers to settle and govern it.

Between 1640 and 1650, before the above grant to Clarendon and others, a settlement had begun by planters from Virginia, near the mouth of the Chowan River, on the northern shore of Albemarle Sound. This settlement was placed by Governor Berkley, of Virginia, under the superintendence of William Drummond. The little plantation received the name of the Albemarle County Colony, in honor of the Duke of Albemarle, one of the proprietors.

In 1665, a second permanent settlement was effected, near the mouth of the Clarendon or Cape Fear River, by emigrants from the Island of Barbados. This was called the Clarendon County Colony. It had a similar constitution with Virginia. Sir John Yeamans was the first governor. Both of the above settlements, were within the present limits of North Carolina.

In 1670, a third colony was founded, called the Carteret County Colony, after Sir George Carteret. The colonists were accompanied by Governor Sayle, who had previously explored the coast. The ships which bore the emigrants first entered the harbor of Port Royal, near Beaufort but, not being pleased with the place, they soon sailed into the Ashley River, and laid the foundations of Old Charleston. In 1680, this settlement was abandoned for Oyster Point, on which was commenced the present city of Charleston. This was the commencement of South Carolina.

During the administration of Governor Sayle, a form of government was prepared for these colonies, at the request of the celebrated Lord Shaftesbury, acting in behalf of the proprietors, by the still more celebrated John Locke. It proposed a court, to consist. of the proprietors, one of whom was to be elected president for life also, an hereditary nobility, and a parliament, the latter to consist of the two former, and representatives from each district. All were to meet in one apartment, and to have an equal voice. This ill-contrived and absurd plan of government was attempted to be applied in practice, but it was found to be impracticable. In Albemarle County, it caused an insurrection. It was therefore abandoned, and the former proprietary government restored.

In the year 1671, Governor Sayle dying, Sir John Yeamans, Governor of Clarendon, was appointed to succeed him. In consequence of this event, and the little prosperity of the colony, chiefly arising from the barrenness of its soil, the inhabitants of this later settlement, within a few years, removed to that of Charleston, and the three governments, consequently, were reduced to two. Being widely separated, the distinctive names of' North and South Carolina began to be used in respect to them.

North Carolina Colony

The progress of the Albemarle or North Carolina Colony was long retarded by domestic dissensions. An insurrectionary state of the inhabitants arose out of an attempt to enforce Mr. Locke's plan of government &mdash taxes were enormous, and commercial restrictions embarrassing. In 1677, after an attempt to enforce the revenue laws against a smuggler from New England, the people rose upon the government, and imprisoned the president of the colony and six members of the council, and, having done this, assumed the prerogative of governing themselves.

In 1683, the proprietors sent over Seth Sothel, one of their number, hoping through him to restore quiet and contentment. But he only increased existing disorders. For six years, the inhabitants endured his injustice and oppression, and then seized him, and, after trying him, banished him from the colony. A historian once remarked about Sothel, 'The dark shades of his character were not relieved by a single ray of virtue.'

Philip Ludwell, of Virginia, succeeded the infamous and exacting Sothel, and redressed the wrongs he had done. Under him, arid his successor, Sir John Archdale, in 1695, a Quaker and an excellent man, order was restored to the colony. Emigrants began to flock in, and various other portions of the territory, in the course of a few years, were settled. Liberal assignments of land were made them by the proprietors, and here many, who had fled from religious persecutions, or the devastations of war in foreign lands, found a peaceful and grateful asylum. This was particularly true of a company of French Protestants, who arrived in 1707, and settled on the river Trent, a branch of the Neuse, and of a large number of Germans, who fled from persecution in 1710, and planted themselves in that same part of the province.

But the inhabitants of this colony were destined soon to experience a sad, and, to many, a fatal calamity. The Indian tribes on the seacoast, once numerous and powerful, were fast dwindling before the enterprise of the colonists. To the more inland tribes, especially the Tuscaroras and the Corees, this was an indication not to be mistaken that the days of their prosperity were fast numbering. Grieved and exasperated at the prospect before them, they now combined with other tribes to utterly exterminate the new settlers. This purpose they attempted to carry into effect and so successful were they, that in one night, October 2nd, 1711, they massacred one hundred and thirty persons belonging to the settlements along the Roanoke River and Pamlico Sound.

A few colonists, escaping, hastened to South Carolina for assistance. Governor Craven immediately dispatched to their aid nearly a thousand men, under Colonel Barnwell. On his arrival, he defeated the enemy in several actions and, at length, pursued them to their fortified town, which capitulated, and peace was
concluded.

But it proved of short duration. The Indians renewed their hostilities, and the assistance of the southern colony was again involved. In response, Colonel Moore set out for the hostile territory, with a competent force &mdash forty white men and eight-hundred friendly Indians. They reduced the fort of the Tuscaroras, and with it took eight hundred prisoners. Broken and disheartened by this defeat, the tribe, in 1713, migrated north, and became the sixth nation of the great Iroquois Confederacy &mdash sometimes called the Five, and after this event, the Six Nations. In 1715, a treaty was concluded with the Corees.

In 1719, the proprietary government, which had continued from the settlement of the colony until now, was terminated in consequence of difficulties between the inhabitants and the proprietors. Their charter was vacated by the crown, and royal government substituted. Ten years after in 1729, the proprietors surrendered their right to the government, and interest in the soil, to the king upon which the province was divided into North and. South Carolina, and their governors and councils were appointed by the crown.

South Carolina Colony

The foundation of the Carteret or Southern Colony, was laid by Governor Sayle and emigrants accompanying him, in the settlement of Old Charleston, in 1670. Sayle fell victim to some disease of the climate early in the following year, and Sir John Yeamans, then Governor of Clarendon Colony, was appointed his successor. On being transferred, he drew after him a considerable portion of the latter colony.

The progress of the southern colony was, from the commencement, more rapid than the northern. Several circumstances contributed to this. The soil was more feasible and fertile. Many Dutch families from New York, dissatisfied with the transfer of their home to the English, in 1664, were ready to find a home here and, in 1671, shiploads of them were transported by the proprietors to Carolina, free of expense, and liberal grants of land were made to them. They chiefly concentrated at a place called Jamestown, west of the Ashley River, where they were, from time to time, enforced by emigrants from Holland. The profanity and licentiousness of the court of Charles II, also, drove many Puritan refugees across the Atlantic, a considerable number of whom settled in Carolina.

In 1680, the people of Old Charleston, attracted by the more pleasant location of a point of land between thee rivers Ashley and Cooper, called Oyster Point, removed there, and there laid the foundation of the present City of Charleston, which, from that time, has had the honor of being the capital of the colony and state.

They were, however, immediately afterward, annoyed, and the safety of the place even endangered, by the hostile and predatory conduct of the Westoes, a powerful tribe of Indians in the neighborhood. Retaliatory measures became necessary numbers of the Indians were shot and others, who were captured, were sent into slavery in the West Indies. Fortunately, peace was made with them the following year.

In 1686, soon after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, by Louis XIV, a large number of Huguenots, or French Protestants, came over, and settled in the colony. To the English settlers, who were Episcopal, these refugees being of so different a faith, were by no means welcome and they were quite disposed to drive them from the colony, notwithstanding the latter had been introduced by the proprietors under an assurance of enjoying the rights of citizenship.

About this time, James Colleton, a brother of Sir John, was appointed governor, under an expectation that he would be able to reduce the people to a proper submission to proprietary authority, to which they had for a long time seemed averse. But his arbitrary conduct, in excluding refractory members from the colonial assembly, and in attempting to collect rents claimed by the proprietors as due, drove the people to open resistance. The public records were seized, the colonial secretary imprisoned, the governor defied, and, at length, banished from the colony.

In 1690, that notable person, Seth Sothel, who, for his corrupt conduct, had been driven from North Carolina in disgrace, appeared in the province, and was allowed by the people to assume the government. But, impelled by his avarice to acts of meanness and oppression, as formerly at the expiration of two years he was banished from the colony. Next, Philip Ludwell was appointed by the proprietors as the person to teach the South Carolinians submission and good manner but they were too turbulent, as he thought, and he became glad, at no distant day, to retire.

In 1695, John Archdale, the Quaker, was appointed governor, with power to redress all grievances. The people had long complained against their rulers, and had quarreled among themselves. Archdale, by a wise and conciliatory course, restored harmony, and removed the causes of civil dissatisfaction. He introduced a more republican form of government, thus restoring to the people rights and privileges which had been monopolized by the proprietors, or their agents.

One difficulty, however, still remained, and which he was compelled to leave to the 'softening influence of time' to remove. This was the jealousy and antipathy already alluded to, of the English Episcopalians against the French Protestants. The latter, it was contended, could not legally hold real estate in the colony that the French ministers could not lawfully solemnize marriages and that the children of the refugees must be debarred inheriting the property of their fathers.

But these animosities and differences found an end. When, at length, the inoffensive and even exemplary lives of these exiles, were observed by the English, and also their uniform and liberal efforts to sustain and advance the interests of the colony, prejudice and opposition yielded and, in a few years, the colonial assembly gladly extended to them all the rights of citizens and freemen.

Soon after the declaration of war in 1702, by England against France and Spain, called Queen Anne's War, Governor Moore proposed to the assembly of the colony an expedition against the Spanish settlement of St. Augustine, in Florida. To this the more considerate of the assembly were opposed but, the enterprise being approved by a majority, nearly ten thousand dollars were appropriated for the object, and twelve hundred troops raised, one half of whom were Indians. With the forces above named, and some merchant vessels impressed as transports, Governor Moore sailed for St. Augustine. The design for Colonel Daniel, an enterprising officer, was to proceed by the inland passage, and then attack the town by land, with a party of militia and Indians while Moore was to proceed by sea, and take possession of the harbor. Daniel advanced against the town, entered and plundered it, before the governor's arrival. The Spaniards, however, retired to the castle, with their principal riches, and with provisions for four months.

The governor, on his arrival, could effect nothing, for want of artillery. In this emergency, Daniel was dispatched to Jamaica for cannon, mortars, etc. During his absence, two large Spanish ships appearing off the harbor, Governor Moore hastily raised the siege, abandoned his shipping, and made a precipitate retreat into Carolina. Colonel Daniel, having no intelligence that the siege had been raised, on his return, stood in for the harbor, and narrowly escaped the ships of the enemy. In consequence of this rash and unfortunate enterprise, the colony was loaded with a debt of nearly thirty thousand dollars, which gave rise to the first paper currency in Carolina, and was the means of filling the colony with dissension and tumult.

The failure of this expedition was soon after, in a measure, compensated by a successful war with the Appalachian Indians, who, in consequence of their connection with the Spaniards, became insolent and hostile. Governor Moore, with a body of white men and Indian allies, marched into the heart of their country, and compelled them to submit to the English. All the towns of the tribes between the rivers Altamaha and Savannah were burnt, and between six hundred and eight hundred Indians were made prisoners.

In 1704, Sir Nathaniel Johnson succeeded Governor Moore and now, under his influence, a long-cherished object of the proprietors was accomplished. This was the establishment of the Church of England forms of worship as the religion of the province, and the exclusion of dissenters from all participation in the government. But, in 1706, these laws of exclusion or disfranchisement were repealed, by direction of the English Parliament, which decided that they were inconsistent with the laws of England. But the acts establishing the Church of England religion continued in force, until they were abrogated by the American Revolution.

In 1706, while yet Queen Anne's War continued, a French and Spanish squadron, consisting of a French frigate and four armed sloops, appeared before Charleston, with a design of annexing Carolina to Florida but, by the prompt and energetic efforts of the governor, seconded by Colonel Rhett and the inhabitants, this issue was averted. When, at length, the enemy had passed the bar, he sent a summons to the governor to surrender. Four hours were allowed him to return his answer. But the governor informed the messenger that he did not wish one minute. On the reception of this answer, the enemy seemed to hesitate, and attempted nothing that day.

The day succeeding, a party of the enemy, landing on James Island, burnt a village by the river's side. Another party landed at Wando Neck. The next day both these parties were dislodged the latter party being surprised, and nearly all killed or taken prisoner.

This success so animated the Carolinians, that it was determined to attack the enemy by sea. This was attempted with a force of six vessels, under command of Rhett but, on his appearance, the enemy weighed anchor, and precipitately fled.

In 1715, the province came near the verge of ruin, by reason of a combination of the Yamassees and other Indian tribes&mdashstretching from Cape Fear to Florida&mdashagainst them. The 15th of April 1715, was fixed upon as the day of their general destruction. Owing, however, to the wisdom, dispatch and firmness of Governor Craven, and the blessing of Providence, the calamity was, in a measure, averted, and the colonies saved, though at the expense during the war, of near four hundred of the inhabitants. The Yamassees were expelled from the province, and took refuge among the Spaniards in Florida.

In 1719, the people of Carolina, having been long disgusted with the management of the proprietors, were resolved, at all hazards, to execute their own laws, and defend the rights of the province. A subscription to this effect was drawn up, and generally signed. On the meeting of the assembly, a committee was sent with this subscription to the governor, Robert Johnson, requesting him to accept the government of the province, under the king, instead of the proprietors. Upon Johnson's refusal, the assembly chose Colonel James Moore governor, under the crown and on the 21st of December, 1719, the convention and militia marched to Charleston fort, and proclaimed Moore governor, in his majesty's name.

The Carolinians, having thus assumed the government, in behalf of the king, referred their complaints to the royal ear. On a hearing of the case, the privy council adjudged that the proprietors had forfeited their charter. From this time, therefore, the colony was taken under the royal protection, under which it continued until the Revolution. This change was followed, in 1729, by another, nearly as important. This was an agreement, between the proprietors and the crown, that the former should surrender to the crown their right and interest, both to the government and soil, for the sum of seventeen thousand five hundred pounds sterling. This agreement being carried into effect, the province was divided into North and South Carolina, each province having a distinct governor, under the crown of England.

Source: A History of the United States, by Charles A. Goodrich, 1857


Barbados and the Roots of Carolina, Part 1

If you pick up any book about the origins of South Carolina in the late 1600s, you’ll be sure to find references to the island of Barbados and the great influence it exerted on our early history. Nearly 350 years later, in November 2017, a number of Lowcountry residents are collaborating with officials in Barbados to commemorate the cultural ties that continue to bind our two communities together. The Barbados and Carolina Legacy Foundation, founded by Bajan native Rhoda Green, is leading a coterie of Carolinians to Bimshire (as some natives call the island) this month to celebrate our shared past. I’ll be traveling along with the Charleston delegation, and I look forward to sharing the fruits of my journey when I return.

In preparation for my trip, I’ve been reading a lot and searching for clues to answer this fundamental question: How exactly did Barbados influence the early history of South Carolina? If you peruse a few of the many books and articles written about this topic, you’ll find discussions of a number of specific connections. The Charleston single house, for example, is often described as being a local interpretation of a Barbadian (or Bajan) predecessor. The drinking culture of early Charleston has been described as an extension of the influence of the Bajan rum industry. Several of the early governors and major landowners of colonial Carolina came here from Barbados. Some of South Carolina’s earliest laws for the governing of African slaves were based on legal precedents established in Barbados. The local language we call Gullah, created by the enslaved Africans who lived along the coast of South Carolina, is remarkably similar to the Afro-Barbadian dialect known as Bajan.

After reading about such connections between Barbados and early South Carolina, I have to admit that I still felt a bit unsatisfied. The cultural connections I’ve just described are legitimate, bona fide examples of the historical links between our two communities, but there has to be more to the story. After further reading, digging into the early history of that Caribbean island, however, I found a theme that strikes me as a deeper, more fundamental link between Barbados and Carolina. To illustrate my point, we’ll need to travel back to the early days of European exploration in the New World, and try to understand how the small island of Barbados fits into the larger historic context of this age of discovery.

Barbados is the easternmost island of the Caribbean or West Indian Islands. It contains approximately 166 square miles of land, or just over 106,000 acres. That makes the island of Barbados approximately one-tenth the size of Charleston County, or twice the size of John’s Island. That may be difficult to visualize, so here’s another way to think about it: the pear-shaped island of Barbados is approximately 21 miles long and 14 miles across at its widest point.

European settlement of Barbados began in the 1490s, when Spanish and Portuguese explorers first visited the island. There they found a population of native Amerindians, but did not attempt to create a permanent settlement. Throughout the sixteenth century, Spanish colonists dominated the land of Central America and the islands of the Caribbean Sea, while Portuguese colonists established a vast sugar empire in Brazil in South America.

At the beginning of the seventeenth century, England was poised to launch its first permanent colonies in the New World. The settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, was established in 1607, followed by a permanent settlement in Bermuda in 1609. In 1623 English settlers claimed part of the island of St. Christopher (St. Kitts), in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, just a bit north of Barbados. French settlers claimed the other half of St. Kitts in 1625, leading to years of conflict, so the English kept searching for Caribbean islands to call their own. Also in 1625, English explorers landed at Barbados, found it completely deserted, and claimed the island for their king.

Two years later, in 1627, a small band of about fifty white men and perhaps ten African slaves established the first permanent English settlement on Barbados. Over the next several decades, the island served as the base for other English settlements in the Caribbean, including Nevis in 1628, Antigua in 1632, and then a number of other small islands. As England’s first solid foothold in the West Indies, Barbados quickly became a major destination for adventuring merchants and investors, as well as white indentured servants and exiled criminals. By the early 1640s, when the colony was not quite twenty years old, Barbados was home to approximately 30,000 people, mostly men, making it the most densely populated English-speaking settlement outside of London.

In this crowded society, scores of urban merchants traded with neighboring ports while hundreds of middling landowners cultivated relatively small tracts of lands. They grew tobacco, cotton, indigo, and ginger for export, and raised cattle and provision crops to feed themselves. Indentured white servants, mostly poor Irish, did the bulk of the labor, but Barbados in the early 1640s was also home to nearly 1,000 enslaved Africans, whom the English had purchased through Dutch merchants. English colonists first embraced slavery in Virginia in 1619, but it was not yet the dominant form of labor in their New World settlements. In Virginia in 1650, for example, the population demographics were nearly identical to that of 1640s Barbados: approximately 30,000 whites and nearly 1,000 enslaved Africans.

During its first twenty years of English occupation, Barbados was not a financial success. Tobacco prices declined as the quantity and quality of the Virginia product surpassed Caribbean exports. French and Spanish indigo dominated European markets, and so the English dye faced stiff competition. In response to these conditions, settlers began to stream away from Barbados in search of new opportunities in places like Virginia and New England.

As Barbados struggled to find its niche in the world in the early 1640s, a few planters began experimenting with the cultivation of sugar cane. The Portuguese in Brazil had already turned sugar cane production into an extremely profitable business, using Dutch merchants to market sugar and sugar by-products to European customers who couldn’t get enough of the sweet stuff. Trying to emulate their neighbors, English planters in Barbados started growing the cane and experimenting with the laborious process of converting it into sugar products. At first the results were not promising. The quantity was too small to be profitable, and the quality of their sugar was inferior to that produced by the Portuguese. Within a few years of experimentation, however, and with the important help of Dutch merchants and Sephardic Jews who bridged the gap between Portuguese, Dutch, and English trade networks, Barbadian planters soon perfected their sugar production techniques.

By the end of the 1640s, Barbados was on the cusp of an explosion of sugar production. Planters had mastered both the cultivation of the cane and the techniques of processing it into sugar, molasses, and rumbullion (rum), alias “kill-divil.” The last step in this expansion was to increase production dramatically, a step that would require a larger labor force. In sixteenth-century Brazil, Portuguese planters created an empire of sugar cane by importing large numbers of enslaved Africans. Around the year 1650, Barbadian planters decided to follow a similar path. Within a decade, the island had been radically transformed. Wealthy planters bought out their less-affluent neighbors to create a smaller number of farms, or plantations, cultivating larger tracts of land. Simultaneously, they purchased large numbers of Africans through Dutch merchants, effectively displacing thousands of poor white laborers. By 1660, the population of Barbados stood at approximately 26,000 whites, a decline of a several thousand people since the early 1640s. Conversely, the number of enslaved people of African descent increased from less than 1,000 people around 1640 to approximately 27,000 in 1660.

The transformation of the Barbadian economy in the mid-1600s was a turning point in that island’s history, but it also had important ramifications for the rest of the Caribbean and mainland North America as well. By investing a large amount of capital into large-scale agricultural ventures that focused on a single crop, combined with an emphasis on the use of forced African labor, Barbadian planters were creating a new mode of capitalism in the English-speaking world. The business of exploitative factory farming, as we might call it, produced incredible profits for a relatively small number of investors, while condemning a disproportionately large number of people to a life of labor and poverty. The Spanish and Portuguese had already embarked down this economic road in South America, of course, but for the English nation this was a bold new step that would have long and painful repercussions.

The rapid economic success of Barbados between the late 1640s and the early 1660s, what we might call the Great Sugar Rush, also created a series of immediate challenges for the small island. The great potential for profits drove planters to clear more land to grow more sugar cane and import ever more Africans to do the work. As a result of these changes, Barbadians found it increasingly difficult to sustain their own population. There were far more mouths to feed, but fewer acres of land dedicated to cattle grazing and the cultivation of provisions like wheat and peas. As forests were cleared to create new cane fields, the island grew increasingly desperate for essential wood products like lumber for houses, shingles for roofs, staves for barrels, and firewood to boil the cane juice into sugar and rum. To maintain the fabulously profitable economic dynamo it had recently created, Barbados desperately needed to expand.

The Barbadian model of sugar production enticed English adventurers to carry the business to the other English possessions in the Caribbean, including Antigua, St. Kitt’s, and Nevis. These were small islands with limited resources, however, so they alone could not satisfy the demand for land, wood products, and provisions. In 1655 England captured the much larger island of Jamaica from the Spanish, a feat that promised much needed relief for the strained Barbadian resources. The Jamaican soil proved to be less fertile than that of Barbados, however, and the island’s extensive mountains provided ample shelter to African slaves seeking to escape a life of bondage. In the late 1600s the Jamaican economy developed a sort of auxiliary of the Barbadian sugar model, but the collective resources of the larger island were not sufficient to solve the smaller island’s lingering challenges.

What Barbados merchants and planters of the early 1660s ideally wanted was a cheap, limitless supply of timber for wood products and land for cattle grazing and planting provision crops. Such needs could only be found on the mainland, perhaps, and England’s long, turbulent era of Civil War, Commonwealth, and Protectorate, 1642–1659, precluded the creation of any new mainland colonies in North America. With the restoration of the English monarchy under Charles II in 1660, however, the leading figures of Barbados saw an opportunity to press the new king for assistance in expanding their respective fortunes. Conversations commenced between Barbadians and their allies in the new English government about potential investments and profit schemes. In the spring of 1663, these private negotiations bore fruit in the Royal charter granted by Charles II to a group of eight investors, styled Lords Proprietors, for the vast and verdant new colony called Carolina.

In short, the historical connection between Barbados and Carolina is far deeper than a handful of influential colonists, or an architectural form, or a style of cuisine, or a dialect. Barbados, or more precisely the spirit of late-seventeenth-century Barbados, was encoded in the DNA of Carolina from the moment this colony was conceived. Tune in next week, when we’ll continue this conversation by investigating some of the features of early South Carolina that we can identify as family traits inherited from Barbados.


History of Wando II - History

For most of its history Korea was an independent kingdom, or at least an autonomous kingdom under Chinese influence. This came to an end in 1910 when Japan annexed all of Korea. At the end of World War II in 1945 the 38° parallel was established as the dividing line between U.S. and Soviet zones of occupation, and in 1948 separate civil administrations were established in the two halves of the country. The Korean War (1950-53) ended in a draw with the armistice line falling close to the prewar 38° line. The Republic of Korea (ROK), commonly called South Korea, occupies the Korean peninsula south of the armistice line.

This page covers lighthouses of the northern section of the island county of Wando located off South Korea's southwest coast. Wando is a county of Jeollanam Province in the region of southwestern Korea formerly known known as Jeolla or Cholla. There is another page for the southern islands of the county. Also included on this page are several lighthouses of Jangheung County and Gangjin County, which are on the mainland facing Wando.

In 2000 South Korea adopted a Revised Romanization System to replace systems formerly used in the West. In the Revised System, the word for a lighthouse is deungdae ( 등대 ) dan (formerly tan) is a cape, seom (som) or do (to) is an island, am or amseog is a rock, man is a bay, and hang is a harbor. Some place names may be more familiar to Westerners in the spellings of older systems.

Navigational aids in the ROK are regulated by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF). Most of the lights on this page are maintained by the Mokpo Regional Oceans and Fisheries Administration , but several of the lights in the southeastern part of the Wando archipelago are maintained by the Yeosu Regional Oceans and Fisheries Administration.

ARLHS numbers are from the ARLHS World List of Lights . Admiralty numbers are from volume M of the Admiralty List of Lights & Fog Signals . U.S. NGA List numbers are from Publication 112.

General Sources Port of Mokpo - Lighthouses Photos and information in English for the major lighthouses of the area. World of Lighthouses - South Korea Photos by various photographers available from Lightphotos.net. Kiso's Lighthouses - Korea Photos posted by a Japanese lighthouse fan. Online List of Lights - Korea Photos by various photographers posted by Alexander Trabas. Navionics Charts Navigation chart for Wando.


East Breakwater Light, Wando, September 2009
Daum.net Creative Commons photo by 사비오 (Sabio)

Northeastern Wando County Lighthouses


Geumdangdo Light, Geumdang District
ex-Daum.net Creative Commons photo by 고기잡는어부


Seopdo Light, Geomildo District
Yeosu Regional Port Administration photo

Dojang Hang Detached Breakwater Lights, Geomildo District, October 2018
Google Maps photo by Hunseok Shin

Jangheung County Lighthouses

Hoejin District Lighthouses Hoejin Hang Breakwater East End 2007. Active focal plane 11 m (36 ft) four yellow flashes every 8 s. 10 m (33 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower. Entire lighthouse is yellow. A photo of the two breakwater lighthouses is available and Google has a satellite view . Hoejin is a mainland port opposite the Wando islands. Located at the northeast end of the detached breakwater of Hoejin harbor. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty M4281.78 NGA 17303.2. Hoejin Hang Breakwater West End 2007. Active focal plane 11 m (36 ft) red flash every 4 s. 10 m (33 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower. Entire lighthouse is red. A photo of the two breakwater lighthouses is available and Google has a satellite view . Located at the southwest end of the detached breakwater of Hoejin harbor. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty M4281.79 NGA 17303.3..

Gangjin County Lighthouses


West Breakwater Light, Maryang Hang, May 2020
Google Maps photo by Hyunyong Kim

Northwestern Wando County Lighthouses


Wando Hang Light, Wando, August 2019
Google Maps photo by Banana

Information available on lost lighthouses:

  • Wando Tower, Wando, is a 76 m (250 ft) observation tower it is not listed as an aid to navigation. The tower appears the photo of the Wando East Breakwater Light at the top of this page and Google has a satellite view.

Posted January 9, 2008. Lighthouses: 45. Checked and revised February 10, 2021. Site copyright 2021 Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


The Enduring Fascination – And Challenge – Of World War II

Earl Ofari Hutchinson is the author of multiple books on race and politics in America, a military history analyst specializing in World War II, and a member of the Society for Military History. His books include the trilogy on the Obama Years: The Obama Legacy, How Obama Governed The Year of Crisis and Challenge, and How Obama Won. His most recent books are The Trump Challenge to Black America and From King to Obama: Witness to a Turbulent History. His How World War II Changed America will be released in August, 2021.

More than seven decades after the end of World War II, why are we still so fascinated by it? On a primal level, World War II is the complete package. Violence, action, adventure, romance, drama, death defying feats, passions, race, gender, new inventions, crisis decision making, colorful personalities and leaders, evil personalities and leaders, horror, heroism, and a triumphant ending. It doesn&rsquot get any better (or worse) in the realm of human experience.

World War II also serves to remind us what happens when a country is caught flatfooted and unprepared to respond to a crisis. The Pearl Harbor attack made clear that preparedness for a crisis is paramount. Failure to learn that lesson almost always leads to disaster. The 9/11 attack in 2001, first. Then twenty years after, the nation&rsquos failure to prepare and have plans in place to combat the COVID Pandemic. In both cases, the U.S. paid a terrible price for its lack of preparedness as it did with Pearl Harbor.

It&rsquos simplistic to say that World War II is a case of wanting to hang onto a feel-good, nostalgic past triumph. History is never past. It continues to repeat itself in many ways, and most importantly in many of the eternal issues--war and peace, violence and non-violence, authoritarian rule and democratic government, conservative and liberal ideology, civil liberties and national security, and terrorism and intervention.

Author and World War II expert Michael Bess says the war continues to challenge us to never lose sight of the nation&rsquos principles and values:

The issue raised here is a vital one for any democratic society: how to balance a commitment to constitutional rights and liberties with the demands of security in wartime. The lesson of World War II, in this regard, is clear: take the long view don&rsquot get lost in the panic of the moment. In 1942, in the name of national security, we Americans seized a racially demarcated subset of our citizenry and threw them in the slammer. In both cases, the justification was the same: We are at war. We have to do this in order to survive. But this turned out not to be true. Not a single case of Japanese-American subversion was ever prosecuted during World War II.

History should be approached as a living, breathing organic day-to-day experience. The events of the past that continually influence, shape, and contain important lessons for the present and the future are perpetually invaluable. One of my favorites is nicely summed up on the University of People website:

Learn from the past and notice clear warning signs. We learn from past atrocities against groups of people, genocides, wars, and attacks. Through this collective suffering, we have learned to pay attention to the warning signs leading up to such atrocities. Society has been able to take these warning signs and fight against them when they see them in the present day. Knowing what events led up to these various wars helps us better influence our future.

Do &ldquogenocide,&rdquo, &ldquoatrocities,&rdquo, &ldquowars,&rdquo, &ldquoattacks,&rdquo &ldquocollective suffering,&rdquo &ldquowarning signs,&rdquo &ldquofight against them,&rdquo or &ldquobetter influence our future,&rdquo sound familiar? The message is to be forewarned is to be forearmed. That&rsquos the purpose of knowing and taking to heart the great lessons of, and from, the past. In the end the past is the present and the future.

Here are three immediate examples that painfully underscore that. The U.S. stamped an everlasting stain on its claim to be the global champion of democracy when it interned 120,000 Japanese Americans during the war. The interned not only committed no crime but were productive citizens that made integral contributions to the nation in agriculture, trade, and the manufacturing industries.

The U.S. learned from that heinous act. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attack, fear and hysteria did not run rampant in the nation. There was no wholesale lock-up of Muslims in the country under the guise that they posed a threat to national security. Nearly two decades later, then President Trump&rsquos demand to exclude citizens from nations deemed &ldquoterrorist&rdquo from entrance into the U.S. ignited major resistance and legal challenges. It was soon modified and then scrapped. We learned again.

There were assorted identifiable white nationalist, supremacist and neo-Nazi supporters involved in the violence during the Capitol takeover January 6, 2021. The reaction from the government, media and public was swift condemnation, mass arrests, and prosecutions of the perpetrators. Congressional hearings were held that decried the laxity of response and ignoring intelligence warnings of possible violence. There would be no Reichstag type takeover here.

There is the always public tremor over the use of atomic power. When the Biden administration in April 2021 approved a plan to bankroll a multibillion-dollar project in New Mexico to manufacture key components for the nation&rsquos nuclear arsenal, antinuclear and environmental watchdog groups sprang into action. They threatened lawsuits, court action, and public protests over the plan.

I could name many more examples of how World War II hold lessons for the present.

The monumental destruction World War II wreaked should never blind us to the fact that the war was first and foremost a major historical event. As with all major historical events, they happen in a continuum of time and place. As such, they have important social, political, and economic consequences long after their end. In What is History?, eminent historian E.H. Carr ruminated at length about the inseparable linkage between the past and the present, &ldquoIt is at one the justification and the explanation of history that the past throws light on the future, and the future throws light on the past.&rdquo

Carr goes further. He insists that history has value only when it sheds light on the present and future, &ldquoHistory establishes meaning and objectivity only when it establishes a coherent relation between past and future.&rdquo

America&rsquos master oral history chronicler Studs Terkel published many books in which regular folk told their stories about just about every aspect of American life. There was no surprise then that the Good War had the sledgehammer impact on the public it did when it was released in 1984.

The stories the men and women of World War II told had instant and moving resonance for legions of readers born years, even decades, after the war. They could identify with the human emotions and drama that poured forth in their remembrances. It was the epitome of living history. It was no accident in May 2021, thirty-seven years afterThe Good War, was published, and thirty-six years after it won a Pulitzer Prize, the book still ranked among the top 20 bestsellers in two non-fiction categories on Amazon.

This literally speaks volumes why World War II, the good war, still fascinates us. And undoubtedly will continue to.


A History of the College’s Land

The story of the land that encompasses the College or Charleston campus reflects the history of the city.

The peninsula of Charleston was home to Native Americans long before the first permanent European settlers arrived in 1670. As soon as they entered the harbor, the first settlers saw a large oyster midden, the mounds of discarded oyster shells left by the indigenous people. (They named that area White Point, the site for White Point Garden today.) The tribes in the area included the Wando and the Etiwan. Relations between natives and newcomers started out equitably, but the sad tragedy of native displacement by the Europeans (through enslavement, conflict and disease) that is part of American history also played out here.

No one owned the lands, until they were claimed by England’s King Charles II, who granted them to the Lords Proprietors, who, in turn, granted them to others. What is now our campus was beyond the limits of Charles Towne, which was moved from its original location at Albermarle Point, west of the Ashley River, to the peninsula in 1680. Our land, granted first to Henry Hughes in the 1670s, passed to John Coming. In 1698, a part of that parcel, containing the core of the campus, was conveyed by Coming’s widow, Affra Harleston Coming, to the Pinckney family. (The names of Coming St., which runs through campus, and Harleston Village, just west of it, reflect this early history.) In 1724, a Pinckney heir sold some of this land to the Commissioners of the Free School, making public education the land’s now fulfilled destiny. The large tract of land bounded to the north on a marsh (now Calhoun St.between St. Philip and Coming streets, an area that still floods occasionally) and southerly (south of present-day George St.) on a tract donated by Affra Harleston Coming to St. Philip’s Church. (This gave rise to other street names in the neighborhood – St. Philip and Glebe – the latter word meaning property of a church.) Some of the first structures on the land in the Colonial era were wooden barracks, soon replaced by two brick barracks. The barracks were used in the American Revolution by the Second SC Regiment under William Moultrie. Plats indicate that those buildings were in the approximate area of what is now Cistern Yard.

The College’s first president Bishop Robert Smith, who lived nearby, was not just a clergyman, but a plantation owner whose wealth came from enslaved people who worked his land. (Almost all early endowments came from similar sources: Benjamin Smith, the first contributor to the College, no relation to Robert Smith, was a wealthy slave and plantation owner, as well, and Miles Brewton, another donor, was a slave trader.) President Smith, who would own more than 200 human beings at his death in 1801, was in the position to advance the struggling College funds to repair the barracks classrooms records also reveal that people he enslaved worked on related projects, for which he billed the institution. To pay off those debts after his death, the College trustees, mostly wealthy slave owners themselves, cut Green Street (now Green Way, converted to a pedestrian mall in the 1970s) through its lands, attempting to rent lots along it. The College’s land was now quartered into four approximately equal squares or blocks, the extreme outer limits being Boundary (now Calhoun), St. Philip, George and Coming streets, with College Street running north/south through the parcel, and Green Street running east/west through it. In 1817, the College was forced to sell most of its land to satisfy the debt, restricting its precincts to the southeast square of land bounded by George, College, Green and St. Philip streets.

On these lands, fringing the compact campus, rose houses, large and small, of men and women white and black, free and enslaved, many of whom could not legally attend the school whose student body consisted mostly of the white slave-owning elite. (There were religious, educational civic buildings and graveyards in the neighborhood, too.) As the College grew and eventually became state supported in the 20th century, it began to acquire more of the surrounding property. Many buildings were torn down, some were saved, and others relocated. After all these changes, the College of Charleston now includes the approximate parcel it possessed at its founding, and more: the campus now extends north of Calhoun Street, east of St. Philip Street, across Coming Street and as far south as Wentworth Street. There are other non-contiguous College lands on the peninsula and others across both the Ashley and Cooper Rivers.

Within the over 30 acres of the downtown campus are innumerable stories to discover.


Watch the video: A Short History of Wandering Wando (May 2022).