K. I. Luckenbach Str - History

K. I. Luckenbach Str - History

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K. Luckenbach Str

K. Luckenbach

A former name retained.

(Str: dp. 16,000; 1. 468'3"; b. 56'; dr. 30'6"; s. 15 k.; cpl. 99; a. 1 6", 1 3")

K. Luckenbach was launched 27 October 1917 by the Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, Mass., for the Luckenbach Steamship Co. of New York; acquired by the Navy at New York 8 August 1918; and commissioned 9 August, Lt. Comdr. James A. McDonald, USNRF, in command.

K. Luckenbach served as a cargo transport supplying the AEF in France. From 12 August to 22 December she made two round-trip voyages carrying general Army cargo to France. She was detached from NOTS 24 December and assigned to the Cruiser and Transport Force to assist in returning American troops from France. She made three round-trip voyages before debarking her last soldiers in New York 14 September 1919. Two days later she arrived Norfolk, decommissioned 5 October, and returned to her owner.

Heartworn Highways: The story behind “London Homesick Blues”

(March/April 2012/vol. 5 – Issue 2)

January of 1972 was a turning point in my life. Having left the University to pursue the music business full time, the several projects I had attempted had all ended unhappily. I had reached the point of being totally frustrated, and had decided to relocate to the family ranch and do a soul-searching sabbatical and some manual labor and try to focus on what I wanted to do with my life. This was toward the end of 1971.

I had packed and was ready to move when I learned that Michael Murphey was scheduled to play the first week in January at the Saxon Pub, which was then located at 38th ½ Street and I-35, known at that time as the Interregional. Following the closing of Rod Kennedy and Allen Damron’s folksy venue called the Chequered Flag, the Saxon Pub had become the favorite venue in Austin for what was known as the “Coffee House Circuit.” Among the circuit’s popular acts were Damron, Frummox with Steven Fromholz, Three Faces West with Ray Wylie Hubbard, B. W. Stevenson, and Bill and Bonnie Hearne.

I had delayed my departure so that I could catch Michael’s performance that first Monday of 1972. Bob Livingston was playing bass backing up Michael. I listened intently to his first set, and quickly realized why everyone in that circuit held Michael in such high regard. He had written a 22-song country rock concept album called The Ballad of Calico, which had just been recorded by Kenny Rogers and the First Edition. Songs like the title cut, “Waking Up,” and “Harbor for My Soul” were clearly advanced and in my opinion of the caliber of Buffalo Springfield and Simon and Garfunkel, which were my favorites at the time. I was very impressed.

Upon completing his first set, Michael got off the stage and walked directly to me, though we had never met, and said, “I’ve heard a lot about you, how would you like to play bass in my band?” I’m thinking to myself, “This is a whole new ballgame he’s clearly a very gifted and prolific songwriter, and a soulful singer. He’s working on an LP (that was to become Geronimo’s Cadillac), and has a recording contract with a major label, A&M Records!” I answered without thinking twice that I would be thrilled to play bass in his band. However, at the time he didn’t have a band, but there were some players around that he had some familiarity with and a band quickly formed around him. Eventually it became, besides myself, Craig Hillis, Michael McGeary, Herb Steiner, and Bob Livingston.

Michael completed Geronimo’s Cadillac and I got to sit in on the sessions, play a little piano and organ. I was on Cloud Nine. A&M Records put him on the road to promote it, and we toured the East Coast, playing Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and various college towns with large student populations as well as larger venues in Texas like McFarland Auditorium on the SMU campus in Dallas and, more importantly, the ARMADILLO WORLD HEADQUARTERS! This was a major step up from the smaller listening rooms like Castle Creek, but more importantly it was the first time that someone who was not a nationally known “rock ’n’ roll” act was booked to play the Armadillo!

Gary P. Nunn, back at Luckenbach, December 2011. (Courtesy Gary P. Nunn)

I would be remiss in telling this story if I didn’t mention the fact that during this year of 1972, while we were technically Michael Murphey’s band, Jerry Jeff Walker had moved to Austin. He had used us to record his first Texas record, simply titled Jerry Jeff Walker. Also, Jerry Jeff had an uncanny knack at booking himself as the opening act at Michael’s shows. In reverse, many times it would be Jerry Jeff’s show and Michael was booked as opening act. Consequently, the band would back up both of them. It went along like this throughout 1972 and things were starting to happen. In early ’73, Michael was scheduled to go back to Nashville to record his second LP for A&M, his Cosmic Cowboy Souvenir album. In preparation for that record, we had rehearsed for six weeks at Bob’s house out on Horseshoe Bend on Lake Travis. There was a problem, though, and that was that Michael had surgery on his vocal cords and was forbidden to speak during this period. He was writing songs on paper and in his head and he would come to rehearsal and peck them out on the piano. Bob would “grok” what he had in mind and do the vocals during that rehearsal period.

We went to Nashville and recorded the record in two days at Ray Stevens’ Studio. After those sessions the band went back to Texas and went on the road with Jerry Jeff as his record was beginning to get some notice. I stayed with Michael and we worked on overdubs and finished up the album.

In March of 1973, Michael had signed on with the European worldwide label, EMI Records, and they wanted him to come to England to do promotions in the U.K. for Cosmic Cowboy Souvenir. This is when he invited me to go to England with him, which I happily accepted. It was the thrill of a lifetime to have the opportunity to go overseas. It was Michael, his British-born wife, Diana, their 3-year-old son, Ryan, and me. Diana’s mom and dad lived in the Midlands of England, and her brother lived in a fashionable two-story flat near Oxford Street and Hyde Park in London. We did some press receptions. The Eagles were in London promoting their Desperado LP. We were walking past the Royal Albert Hall one day and walked in the backstage area just so, and ran into Don Henley, who we both knew from his days in Texas. Don came by the press reception and sat in on drums as we did our showcase for the British press. I have a little Kodak photo of that somewhere in my stuff.

We were scheduled to be in England for a month, then travel to Holland and France before returning to Texas. Michael was attending one promo function after another, all of which did not require my presence. He had arranged for me to “crash” on the couch in Diana’s brother’s fashionable flat. It was a four bedroom flat with a two-story layout. There were four young men who lived there: Diana’s brother, a stock broker another English chap a fellow from Switzerland and an American from El Paso studying at the London School Of Economics. They were all very nice and hospitable to me. However, they didn’t spend much time at home, nor did they keep food there. I had virtually no money and I spent most of my days in that flat watching horse racing and chilling out, literally, because the heat in that flat went off at 6 a.m. and came back on at 6 p.m. I had a little gut-string guitar with me and I was walking about the living room, looking out on the park below. It was a typical foggy, drizzly, and cold London day. The words that came out of my mouth were, “well it’s cold over here, and I swear, I wished they would turn the heat on.”

That’s where it started. I “fancied,” just to pass the time, that I would make up a tune just an exercise in writing, the purpose being to mix British phrases and Texas phrases. Thus came lines like, “London Bridge has fallen down, and moved to Arizona, now I know why” “you can put up your dukes, or you can bet your boots” “those Limey eyes, were eying the prize, some people call manly footwear“ “when a Texan fancies that he’ll take his chances” and so on. With these phrases I had something to work with so I just played around with it and put it together. I had plenty of time and nothing to do but “go down to Marble Arch Station.” Of course, the chorus was a no brainer once I had, “I wanna go home with the armadillos.” I debated with myself whether to say, “I wanna go home to the Armadillo.” I think most people thought that’s the way it was anyway. When you’re writing you have these debates with yourself. Sometimes you wish you had done it differently after it’s recorded and too late to change. Then you live with it.

Back in Texas the spring and summer passed. I ran into Jerry Jeff at Tim O’Connor’s first bar in Austin, called the Squeeze In, a tiny little place on 19th Street. about where Guadalupe Street meets what is now called MLK Blvd. Jerry Jeff was going on about how he wanted to make a record in Luckenbach, Texas, which at the time I had never heard of. He asked me if I would come down and play some piano or something. I said sure. I went down there. I think Bob Livingston in his article in this same issue (page 48) describes very well that weeklong recording session in the Luckenbach Dancehall. It was very unconventional but exactly the kind of atmosphere Jerry Jeff wanted to record in. It turned out great, and there’s lots of magic on that recording. On Saturday night of that week, we threw a concert and charged $1.00 a head. That’s the sign on the cover of the ¡Viva Terlingua! LP. The place was packed to the max. Late in that show, Jerry Jeff looked over at me at said, “do that song you were singing under the trees this afternoon.” I did.

Reading Comprehension Worksheets Grades 1 - 10

Use our free, printable reading comprehension passage exercises to improve your student's reading skills! Recognizing letters and words is an important first step in learning to read. However, it is only a first step it is vital that students comprehend, or understand, what they are reading. They must be able to get the meaning of the text: What is the author telling the reader? This is reading comprehension, and it is an essential skill for success in school and in the real world. Below are our reading comprehension worksheets grouped by grade, that include passages and related questions. Click on the title to view the printable activities in each grade range, or to read the details of each worksheet. They are free for use in the home or in the classroom. Be sure to check out our spelling words activities too!

K. I. Luckenbach Str - History

This page features all available views that were taken on board or close to USS Edward Luckenbach (ID # 1662).

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

USS Edward Luckenbach (ID # 1662)

Ship's Officers and Crew, 1919.
Panoramic photograph by H. Lindsey, 188 9th Avenue, New York City.

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2008.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 146KB 1200 x 605 pixels

USS Edward Luckenbach (ID # 1662)

Halftone reproduction of a photograph of the ship's officers, taken in 1918-1919.
This image was published in 1918-1919 as one of ten photographs in a "Souvenir Folder" of views of and on board Edward Luckenbach .

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2006.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 103KB 740 x 485 pixels

USS Edward Luckenbach (ID # 1662)

Halftone reproduction of a photograph on the ship's foredeck, looking aft toward her bridge, taken in 1918-1919.
This image was published in 1918-1919 as one of ten photographs in a "Souvenir Folder" of views of and on board Edward Luckenbach .

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2006.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 113KB 740 x 530 pixels

USS Edward Luckenbach (ID # 1662)

Halftone reproduction of a photograph of the interior of the ship's wheel house, taken in 1918-1919.
Note the engine order telegraph and heating radiator in the foreground, and helmsman at the steering wheel beyond.
This image was published in 1918-1919 as one of ten photographs in a "Souvenir Folder" of views of and on board Edward Luckenbach .

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2006.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 85KB 740 x 510 pixels

USS Edward Luckenbach (ID # 1662)

Halftone reproduction of a photograph of the ship's pay office and its staff, taken in 1918-1919.
This image was published in 1918-1919 as one of ten photographs in a "Souvenir Folder" of views of and on board Edward Luckenbach .

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2006.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 99KB 740 x 485 pixels

USS Edward Luckenbach (ID # 1662)

Halftone reproduction of a photograph of the ship's surgical operating room, taken in 1918-1919.
This image was published in 1918-1919 as one of ten photographs in a "Souvenir Folder" of views of and on board Edward Luckenbach .

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2006.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 90KB 740 x 505 pixels

USS Edward Luckenbach (ID # 1662)

Halftone reproduction of a photograph of the officers' ward room on the ship, taken in 1918-1919.
This image was published in 1918-1919 as one of ten photographs in a "Souvenir Folder" of views of and on board Edward Luckenbach .

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2006.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 76KB 740 x 505 pixels

USS Edward Luckenbach (ID # 1662)

Halftone reproduction of a photograph of the crew's mess hall on the ship, with places set for a meal, taken in 1918-1919.
This image was published in 1918-1919 as one of ten photographs in a "Souvenir Folder" of views of and on board Edward Luckenbach .

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2006.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 83KB 740 x 505 pixels

USS Edward Luckenbach (ID # 1662)

Halftone reproduction of a photograph of berths in crew's quarters on the ship, taken in 1918-1919.
This image was published in 1918-1919 as one of ten photographs in a "Souvenir Folder" of views of and on board Edward Luckenbach .

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2006.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 104KB 740 x 510 pixels

The following photograph MAY show USS Edward Luckenbach :

Troops embarking on a U.S. Navy transport

At American Bassens, France, for passage home to the United States, 1919.
This ship is a former Luckenbach Lines freighter, either USS Edward Luckenbach (ID # 1662), USS Julia Luckenbach (ID # 2407), USS F.J. Luckenbach (ID # 2169), USS K.I. Luckenbach (ID # 2291) or USS Katrina Luckenbach (ID #3020).
The original photograph is printed on postcard ("AZO" stock.

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2007.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 89KB 740 x 475 pixels

Additional image: Photo # NH 103598, a photograph of a six-inch gun identified as being mounted on USS Sierra (ID # 1634), is identical to the gun photograph included in the USS Edward Luckenbach "Souvenir Folder". The location of the gun on the ship's deck edge makes it very unlikely that it was actually photographed on Edward Luckenbach .

Page made 15 August 2006
New image added and page divided 16 February 2009

History of the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette

The history of Arkansas' newspaper, the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, begins in the wilderness at Arkansas Post.

At a clearing in those dense woods the Arkansas Gazette was born in 1819, at a simple frontier time when Arkansas was still a young territory, not yet a state.

Half a century later the Arkansas Democrat came into being, born of the turbulent politics of the defeated, war-ruined South.

Together they dominated the newspaper landscape of Arkansas for more than a century. Today they survive and thrive as one -- the oldest continuously published newspaper west of the Mississippi

The front page of the Gazette from 1819.

The first days of the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette go back to the moment when William E. Woodruff, the young founder of the Arkansas Gazette, landed at Arkansas Post accompanied by his printing press. He had made an arduous journey in flatboats down the Cumberland, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers, changing to a dugout canoe for the final upstream leg to the rustic capital of the new territory.

Soon after Woodruff's arrival, the first territorial Legislature met. There was an abundance of news and official business to be printed.

Woodruff's training and equipment were up to date and up to the task. As Henry Bullen wrote in the Gazette's centennial edition in 1919: "There were larger plants in New York City, but the presses and types they used were of exactly the same style and size as the press and types used by . . . William E. Woodruff in Arkansas Post in 1819."

After two years in the humid, mosquito-infested village, Woodruff moved his Gazette to Little Rock in 1821, following the relocation of the territorial capital there. Through the pages of his newspaper he worked tirelessly to promote new settlement in Arkansas. By 1836, when Arkansas gained the statehood for which the Gazette had energetically campaigned, its population exceeded 50,000. Woodruff could boast of 1,800 Gazette subscribers and $30,000 in advertising, subscription and printing debts owed to him.

Consistent with the regional enthusiasms of the day, the Gazette campaigned for Texas independence from Mexico and, in turn, annexation to the United States.

It supported the Mexican War (1846-48), adding its voice to the call for volunteers from Arkansas.

The 1840s in Arkansas were a time of wild financial speculation followed by a hard crash, and the Gazette's finances suffered along with those of the state.
Starting in 1836, the Gazette went through a series of changes leading to co-partnerships and three sales to other owners. In 1850, Woodruff repurchased it but meanwhile, in 1846, he had established a competing newspaper which he called the Arkansas Democrat. During the 1850s Woodruff's two papers were united under the name Arkansas State Gazette and Democrat, but in 1859 he simplified that to Arkansas State Gazette, echoing the one he had chosen more than 40 years before.

When Union soldiers captured Little Rock on Sept. 10, 1863, the Gazette suspended publication, remaining silent until May 1865. Federal authorities commandeered its presses and used them for their own purposes.

Woodruff's short-lived Arkansas Democrat has no direct connection to today's Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. A different Arkansas Democrat arose during Reconstruction and its aftermath. First called The Liberal, then The Journal, then The Chronicle, and finally The Evening Star, the newspaper had passed through several hands and several editors by 1875.

Then, on April 11, 1878, Col. J.N. Smithee, an Arkansan who had served in the Confederate Army, acquired the newspaper, named it the Arkansas Democrat, and took aim on the state's lucrative printing contracts.
He also immediately launched an attack upon the Gazette over the issue of the repudiation of the state debt. The Gazette struck back, implying that the name Democrat was merely a cover for a resurgent Republican Party.

Later that year Smithee engaged in a shoot-out at the corner of Markham and Main streets in Little Rock with Maj. John A. Adams, a part-owner of the Gazette.
Neither man was wounded seriously, although Smithee was hit by two bullets. But soon Smithee was compelled to dispose of his newspaper when the board of printing commissioners implicated him in a conflict of interest because of his other job as state land commissioner. In September 1878, former Arkansas Gazette editor James Mitchell and his partner Gen. W.D. Blocher, former owner of the Gazette, bought the Democrat from Smithee.

In a remarkable twist of fate suggesting how inbred the newspaper business must have been during this era, the controversial Smithee was named president of the Arkansas Gazette a few years later.

During Mitchell's first year with the Arkansas Democrat, he successfully backed J.D. Walker for Congress against R.W. Johnson, who happened to be the brother of the editor of the Arkansas Gazette. This was perceived as a great victory for the Democrat and increased its business immensely.

K. August Engel,
President and General Manager of the Democrat

In the 20th century, both newspapers came under the dominance of two men -- J.N. Heiskell at the Gazette, and K. August Engel at the Democrat.
After James Mitchell died in 1902, the ownership of the Democrat changed hands three times. In 1926, K. August Engel, who had been born in Luckenbach, Texas, in 1889, and who had joined the Democrat as business manager in 1911, acquired a major interest and became the newspaper's president and general manager.

Engel controlled the paper for the next 42 years, leading it through a period of great growth. In 1930 he acquired the YMCA building at Capitol Avenue and Scott Street and turned it into a modern newspaper plant. He gained a reputation as a hard-working, shrewd businessman who insisted on running his business on a cash basis. A bachelor, he lived in a hotel a few blocks from the Democrat building.

He took an active part in the editorial process, even to the point of reviewing proofs of editorials and news pages.

Under Engel, the Democrat urged reforms at the state hospital, improved election laws, revision of property tax assessments, municipal ownership of city waterworks, improved education and a four-year college for Little Rock.

In 1954, the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville awarded Engel an honorary degree, stating: "You have kept free the news columns of the Arkansas Democrat that they might report in an objective manner the events of the world . . . you have been a faithful watchman for the people and the public good."

Engel died on Jan. 8, 1968. His nephews, Marcus George and C.S. Berry, were appointed editor and publisher, respectively. The Gazette had this to say about Engel the day after his death: "Except for its occasional ventures in sensational, topical news articles -- a penchant shared by most afternoon newspapers -- the Democrat during Engel's tenure was austere in its makeup and treatment of general news."

The first half of the 20th century also saw the Gazette consolidating leadership that would carry it to a position of eminence. In 1902, the Gazette Publishing Co. was reorganized and John Netherland Heiskell, a Tennessean by birth, became president and editor-in-chief. He held these positions for 70 years until his death in 1972 at the age of 100. When Heiskell bought the Gazette, its circulation was about 6,000 when he died, it was more than 100,000.

The Gazette's circulation had reached 100,000 in the 1950s, then dipped to 83,000 because of its editorial policy during the 1957 integration crisis in Little Rock. The Gazette took a strong editorial stand against Gov. Orval E. Faubus' attempts to prevent integration of Central High School. The Gazette was awarded two Pulitzer Prizes in 1958 -- one for meritorious public service and the other to its executive editor, Harry Ashmore, for editorial writing.

Long before 1957, a highlight of Heiskell's career had been his sustained opposition to Jeff Davis, a turn-of-the-century Arkansas governor and United States senator. The colorful Davis, a stem-winding stump speaker who was unrelated to the Confederate president of the same name, often attacked both Little Rock newspapers. On one occasion he said, "I see the Gazette agent out there in the audience giving out that old red harlot, the Arkansas Gazette. I had rather be caught with a dead buzzard under my arm, or a dead polecat." Another time he regaled his listeners with a story about his young son: "If I find that boy is a smart boy, I will go and make a preacher out of him if I find he is not so smart a boy, I am going to make a lawyer out of him if I find he has not a bit of sense upon earth, I am going to make an editor out of him and send him to Little Rock to edit the Arkansas Democrat."

When Davis died suddenly in 1913, Heiskell, in a sweet bit of irony, was appointed by Gov. George Donaghey to fill his old rival's vacant Senate seat. Heiskell's term lasted only three weeks, so his maiden Senate speech was also his farewell speech. "Maybe we should have more of that in the Senate," said Heiskell, who gained a reputation as a wit through the years.

A few months before Heiskell's death in 1972, the Gazette opened a new production building at Fourth and Byrd streets in Little Rock. The architecturally notable Gazette building at Third and Louisiana had also been erected during Heiskell's tenure as editor, being dedicated in 1908.

Hugh B. Patterson became publisher of theGazette in 1948.

Hugh B. Patterson, J.N. Heiskell's son-in-law, who had been the Gazette's business manager, became publisher in 1948. He was elected president of the company in 1970.

Soon afterward, change came to the Democrat. In 1974 Marcus George and C.S. Berry sold the newspaper for $3.7 million to the Palmer group, headed by Walter E. Hussman. His son, 27-year-old Walter E. Hussman Jr., became the Democrat's new publisher.

What happened in Little Rock in the next several years mirrored trends in the newspaper industry all across the country. Five hundred cities had boasted separately owned, competing newspapers in 1923. By 1953 only 90 cities did. By 1974, when the Palmer group purchased the Democrat, such competition survived in just 34 cities.

At the start of the 1960s, the two Little Rock newspapers had been neck-and-neck in circulation. In the first quarter of 1960, the Democrat's daily circulation was 88,890, narrowly ahead of the Gazette's 88,152. Owners of the two newspapers on numerous occasions discussed a joint printing plant, but plans always fell through because of disagreements over where to locate the plant and because of the impossibility of printing both Sunday newspapers.

Most of the newspapers that were dying off in America were circulated in the afternoon. Reflecting this trend, circulation at the Democrat declined substantially throughout the 1960s and 1970s.

By 1974, the numbers were stark: Gazette circulation was 118,702 Democrat circulation was 62,405. In addition, the Democrat had only about a fourth of the total newspaper revenue in the market.

For three years after 1974, the Hussmans responded by pursuing a strategy of reducing operating costs and focusing subscription efforts in the city zone.

This effort was not enough to reverse circulation and advertising trends, so in 1977 Walter E. Hussman Jr. sought a joint operating agreement with the Gazette. Both the specific offer and the basic concept of a joint operating agreement were rejected by Hugh Patterson at the Gazette.

Hussman concluded he had two options: Either to close the Democrat or to make a commitment to vigorous competition.

He chose the latter. A hotly competitive 13-year newspaper war ensued.

In late 1978, the Democrat began an extensive effort to expand its news and classified advertising in order to become the state's largest newspaper.

Included was a free want ad program that more than tripled the size of the paper's classified section. The Democrat became the only Arkansas newspaper ever to publish more than one million classified advertisements in a single year.

In 1979, the Democrat switched to all-morning publication -- one of the first newspapers of its size to do so. The transition was done in steps. In January, the paper began publishing a morning edition seven days a week in addition to its evening papers. This late deadline morning paper was initially only for circulation outside Pulaski County. The Democrat published its last evening editions on Oct. 7.

Since then, the number of afternoon newspapers has declined by 432, while the number of morning newspapers has increased by 234. In 1980 there was more afternoon circulation than morning circulation for American newspapers but today there is 2.5 times as much morning as afternoon circulation.

Also in 1979, John Robert Starr, former Arkansas bureau chief of the Associated Press, became managing editor of the Democrat. The news staff was doubled in size and the news space increased more than 50 percent.

As a result of these vigorous new policies, readership increased dramatically.
Circulation totals showed that the Democrat was the fastest growing newspaper in the United States during 1980.

Across town at the Arkansas Gazette, 1981 saw big changes too. Robert R. Douglas, Gazette managing editor since 1972, announced his resignation in July and was named chairman of the department of journalism at the University of Arkansas. Hugh Patterson remained as publisher while his son, Carrick H. Patterson, was named the Gazette's managing editor.

At the Democrat, the changes continued. Dozens of new reporters, editors and photographers had been hired in an effort to ensure the most thorough local news coverage possible. In 1982 the newspaper inaugurated the use of color, using offset lithography printing presses the Gazette followed in 1987.

Two other significant developments that would affect the course of the competition occurred in the 1980s. First, the Gazette filed a federal antitrust suit against the Democrat in 1984. Second, the Gannett Corp., the nation's largest newspaper chain, bought the Gazette in 1986.

The suit accused the Hussman enterprises of trying to put the Gazette out of business. The Democrat responded that it was only trying to remain competitive, and that none of its practices were intended to run the Gazette out of business.

A federal jury in the court of U.S. District Judge William R. Overton rendered its verdict on March 26, 1986. The Democrat was found innocent of all the allegations leveled against it by the Gazette.

Just a few months later, on Oct. 30, the newspaper war's biggest bomb was dropped: Gannett was coming to Little Rock. The Heiskell-Patterson family sold the Arkansas Gazette to Gannett on Dec. 1, 1986.

Wehco Media Inc., the parent company of the Arkansas Democrat, was the largest media company in Arkansas. But Gannett was the largest in the country. Wehco's annual revenues at the time were about $60 million Gannett's were $2 billion.

Gannett also acquired a built-in daily circulation lead when it arrived in Little Rock: 131,020 for the Gazette, 78,302 for the Democrat.

Within five years the Democrat had closed the gap: Gazette daily circulation was 134,027 the Democrat's, 133,753. On Sunday the Democrat was substantially ahead, 241,361 to 225,326.

Each year, Gannett was suffering increased financial losses with the Gazette, with losses of more than $29 million in its last year of ownership.

Throwing in the towel, Gannett closed the Gazette after publishing a final edition on Oct. 18, 1991. Later that day the Democrat purchased all the assets, including the subscription list of the Gazette, and renamed the combined newspaper the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette the next day.

"We survived the greatest competitive onslaught in the newspaper business," Hussman said at the time.

Since the Gazette closed in 1991, competing newspapers have also closed in Dallas, Pittsburgh, San Antonio and Tulsa, further reducing the short list of competitive newspaper cities in America. In April 1992, Paul Greenberg, the Pulitzer Prize winning writer from Pine Bluff, was chosen to be the Democrat-Gazette's editorial page editor.

On June 23, 1992, less than a year after the long newspaper war ended, John Robert Starr retired as managing editor of the Democrat-Gazette and Griffin Smith, jr., was named executive editor. One week later Smith appointed Robert Lutgen to be the newspaper's managing editor. Lutgen was succeded as Managing Editor by David Bailey, who was promoted from City Editor, on Dec. 23, 1998.

The Democrat-Gazette's circulation for the first quarter of 2006 was 180,661 daily and 275,991 Sunday. As one of the few remaining statewide newspapers in the United States, with circulation in all 75 Arkansas counties, the Democrat-Gazette has higher circulation than newspapers in many larger cities, such as the Memphis Commercial-Appeal with 161,956.

It also has substantially higher circulation than newspapers in cities about the same size as Little Rock, such as the Shreveport (La.) Times (58,450) and the Jackson (Miss.) Clarion-Ledger (95,403). In fact, measured by penetration in the City Zone -- which consists of the metropolitan area inside Pulaski County -- the Democrat-Gazette's Sunday penetration (total circulation divided by occupied households) is the highest in the nation: 68.55 percent.

As Arkansas' newspaper looks ahead to its third century, the Democrat-Gazette aims to continue building, in the great tradition of its predecessors, a fair, thorough, and courageous newspaper of which all Arkansans can be proud.

Copyright © 2021, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, Inc.

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The Friends of Gillespie County Country Schools are former students and members of the community, interested in preserving the traditions of the rural schools of Gillespie County. These schools were places for learning and centers of communities which no longer exist, but today continue the traditions of schools in rural areas serving as community centers for the surrounding residents. Today, several properties are in need of preservation and the Friends have taken on the responsibility to preserve and ensure that these former schools will be the future parks for the residents of the county. There are a number of fundraisers throughout the year, including the annual Open House in April, when several of the schools are open to the public.

While the city of Fredericksburg is the star of the Texas Hill Country, it is also home to the many talented stars that make up the Fredericksburg Theater Company. See exciting re-creations of popular Broadway shows, Shakespearean plays, and even homegrown productions destined to become classics themselves at this greatly acclaimed regional theater. Tickets can be purchased online or from the box office (888)669-7114. The Steve W. Shepherd Theater is located at 1668 Hwy 87 South, 1.5 miles south of Main Street.

STR References

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503. Iriondo, M., Barbero, M.C., Izaguirre, N., and Manzano, C. (1997) Data on six short-tandem repeat polymorphisms in an autochthonous Basque population. Hum. Hered. 47:131-137.

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507. Ovington, A., Daselaar, P., Sjerps, M., and Kloosterman, A. (1997) A Dutch population study of the STR loci D21S11 and HUMFIBRA. Int. J. Legal Med. 110:14-17.

508. Wiegand, P., Domhover, J., and Brinkmann, B. (1996) DNA degradation in formalin-fixed tissues. Pathologe 17:451-454.

509. Ross, P.L. and Belgrader, P. (1997) Analysis of short tandem repeat polymorphisms in human DNA by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem. 69:3966-3972.

510. Redd, A.J., Clifford, S.L., and Stoneking, M. (1997) Multiplex DNA typing of short tandem repeat loci an the Y-chromosome. Biol. Chem. 378:923-927.

511. Gunn, P.R., Trueman, K., Stapleton, P., and Klarkowski, D.B. (1997) DNA analysis in disputed parentage: The occurrence of two apparently false exclusions of paternity, both at short tandem repeat (STR) loci, in the one child. Electrophoresis 18:1650-1652.

512. Bayoumi, R.A., Al-Gazali, L.I., Jaffer, U., Nur-E-Kamal, M.S.A., Dawodu, A., Bener, A., Eapen, V., and Budowle, B. (1997) United Arab Empirates population data on three DNA tetrameric short tandem repeat loci: HUMTH01, TPOX, and CSF1PO - derived using multiplex polymerase chain reaction and manual typing. Electrophoresis 18:1637-1640.

513. Silva, F., Gusmao, L., Alves, C., Seruca, R., David, L., and Amorim, A. (1997) Tetra- and pentanucleotide short tandem repeat instability in gastric cancer. Electrophoresis 18:1633-1636.

514. Vandenberg, N., van Oorschot, R.A.H., and Mitchell, R.J. (1997) An evaluation of selected DNA extraction strategies for short tandem repeat typing. Electrophoresis 18:1624-1626.

515. Kaska, D.E., van Oorschot, R.A.H., and Mitchell, R.J. (1997) Variation at short tandem repeat (STR) loci in Australians: Forensic and ethnic considerations. Electrophoresis 18:1620-1623.

516. Miscicka-Sliwka, D. and Grzybowski, T. (1997) High microvariation sequence polymorphism at short tandem repeat loci: Human beta-actin related pseudogene as an example. Electrophoresis 18:1613-1619.

517. Wilson-Wilde, L.M., van Oorschot, R.A.H., and Mitchell, R.J. (1997) Genetic diversity at six short tandem repeat loci within the state of Victoria, Australia. Electrophoresis 18:1592-1597.

518. Lorente, M., Lorente, J.A., Alvarez, J.C., Budowle, B., Wilson, M.R., and Villanueva, E. (1997) Sequential multiplex amplification: Utility in forensic casework with minimal amounts of DNA and partially degraded samples. J. Forensic Sci. 42(5):923-925.

519. Klintschar, M. and Crevenna, R. (1997) HUMCD4 - Validation of a STR system for forensic purposes in an Austrian caucasian population sample. J. Forensic Sci. 42(5):907-910.

520. Kline, M.C., Duewer, D.L., Newall, P., Redman, J.W., Reeder, D.J., and Richard, M. (1997) Interlaboratory evaluation of short tandem repeat triplax CTT*. J. Forensic Sci. 42(5):897-906.

521. Brauner, P., Shpitzen, M., Freund, M., and Manny, N. (1997) The effects of blood transfusions on PCR DNA typing at the CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, D1S80, HLA-DQA1, LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8 and GC loci. J. Forensic Sci. 42(6):1154-1156.

522. Busque, L., Desmarais, D., Provost, S., Schumm, J., Zhong, Y., and Chakraborty, R. (1997) Analysis of allele distribution for six short tandem repeat loci in the French Canadian population of Quebec. J. Forensic Sci. 42(6):1147-1153.

523. Ambach, E., Parson, W., Niederstatter, H., and Budowle, B. (1997) Austrian caucasian population data for the quadruplex plus amelogenin: Refined mutation rate for HumvWFA31/A. J. Forensic Sci. 42(6):1136-1139.

524. Schmalzing, D., Koutny, L., Adourian, A., Belgrader, P., Matsudaira, P., and Ehrlich, D. (1997) DNA typing in thirty seconds with a microfabricated device. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:10273-10278.

525. Dupuy, B.M. and Olaisen, B. (1997) A dedicated internal standard in fragment length analysis of hyperpolymorphic short tandem repeats. Forensic Sci. Int. 86(3):207-227.

526. Romero, R.L., Juston, A.C., Ballantyne, J., and Henry, B.E. (1997) The applicability of formalin-fixed and formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues in forensic DNA analysis. J. Forensic Sci. 42(4):708-714.

527. Ricciardone, M.D., Lins, A.M., Schumm, J.W., and Holland, M.M. (1997) Multiplex systems for the amplification of short tandem repeat loci: Evaluation of laser florescence detection. BioTechniques 23:742-747.

528. Watanabe, G., Umetsu, K., Yuasa, I., Vogt, U., and Suzuki, T. (1997) Nucleotide substitution in the 5' flanking region of the D1S80 locus. Forensic Sci. Int. 89:75-80.

529. Tahir, M.A., Caruso, J., Budowle, B., Aziz, N., and Novick, G.E. (1997) Distribution of HLA-DQ alpha and polymarker (LDLR, GC, GYPA, HBGG, and D7S8) alleles in Arab and Pakistani populations living in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. J. Forensic Sci. 42(5):914-918.

530. Budowle, B., Smerick, J.B., Keys, K.M., and Moretti, T.R. (1997) United States population data on the multiplex short tandem repeat loci - HUMTH01, TPOX, and CSF1PO - and the variable number tanddem repeat locus D1S80. J. Forensic Sci. 42(5):846-849.

531. Neuhuber, F. and Radacher, M. (1997) A genetic study of the short tandem repeat systems VWA and TH01 in an Austrian population. Forensic Sci. Int. 87:211-217.

532. Corach, D., Sala, A., Penacino, G., Iannucci, N., Bernardi, P., Doretti, M., Fondebrider, L., Ginarte, A., Inchaurregui, A., Somigliana, C., Turner, S., and Hagelberg, E. (1997) Additional approaches to DNA typing of skeletal remains: The search for "missing" persons killed during the last dictatorship in Argentina. Electrophoresis 18:1608-1612.

533. Miscicka-Sliwka, D., Grzybowski, T., and Wozniak, M. (1997) Optimization of a hexaplex DNA amplification from short tandem repeat and amelogenin loci. Electrophoresis 18:1627-1632.

534. Kayser, M., de Knijff, P., Dieltjes, P., Krawczak, M., Nagy, M., Zerjal, T., Pandya, A., Tyler-Smith, C., and Roewer, L. (1997) Applications of microsatellite-based Y chromosome haplotyping. Electrophoresis 18:1602-1607.

535. Kristensen, V.N. and Borresen-Dale, A.-L. (1997) Improved electrophoretic separation of polymorphic short tandem repeats in agarose gels using bis-Benzimide. BioTechniques 23(4):634-636.

536. Budowle, B., Moretti, T.R., Keys, K.M., Koons, B.W., and Smerick, J.B. (1997) Validation studies of the CTT STR multiplex system. J. Forensic Sci. 42(4):701-707.

537. Kuhnau, W., Bohm, I., Krawczak, M., and Schmidtke, J. (1997) A paternity case with apparently conflicting multilocus and single-locus DNA typing results. Electrophoresis 18(9):1598-1601.

538. Turakulov, R.I., Chistiakov, D.A., Odinokova, O.N., and Nosikov, V.V. (1997) Allelic polymorphism of short tandemly repeating sequences of the HUMF13A1 and HUMCD4 loci in Russian populations from Moscow and Tomsk. Genetika 33(7):979-985. [Article in Russian.]

539. Scheil, H.-G. and Huckenbeck, W. (1995) Use of the systems D1S80, D17S30, ApoB, TC11, VWA, and SE33 for zygosity determination -Letter to the editor. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 44(2):135-137.

540. Huckenbeck, W., Scheil, H.-G., Kaiser, A., Stancu, V., and Bonte, W. (1996) Northrhine Westphalian data on the locus F13B. Anthropologischer Anzeiger 54(3):211-214.

541. Tamaki, Y., Fukuda, M., Wang, W., and Kishida, T. (1996) Microsatellite typing in a paternity case against a deceased man whose two brothers were available for testing. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi (The Japanese Journal of Legal Medicine) 50(2):82-86.

542. Pouchkarev, V.P., Shved, E.F., and Novikov, P.I. (1998) Sex determination of forensic samples by polymerase chain reaction of the amelogenin gene and analysis by capillary electrophoresis with polymer matrix. Electrophoresis 19(1):76-79.

543. Kishida, T., Wang, W., Fukuda, M., and Tamaki, Y. (1996) Two deficiency cases of disputed paternity: Sibling or half-sibling? Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi (The Japanese Journal of Legal Medicine) 50(2):78-81.

544. Karger, B., Meyer, E., and DuChesne, A. (1997) STR analysis on perforating FMJ bullets and a new VWA variant allele. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(2):101-103.

545. Vona, G., Calo, C.M., Mameli, G.E., Marini, E., Morelli, L., Succa, V., Casula, S., and Ristaldi, M.S. (1996) Variability of the CD4 and F13A1 short tandem repeats in Corsicans, Sardinians, and Piaroa Indians. Gene Geography 10(1):51-63.

546. Huckenbeck, W., Demir, K., Scheil, H.-G., Alt, K.W., and Bonte, W. (1996) Dusseldorf data on the PCR-based locus HumFES/FPS (human c-fes/fps proto oncogene). Gene Geography 10(2):113-122.

547. Yamaguchi, H., Takizawa, H., and Shimasaki, C. (1996) Frequency of the three STR loci (TPOX, CSF1PO, TH01), in a Japanese population determined using a Gene Print^TM STR multiplex kit. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi (The Japanese Journal of Legal Medicine) 50(3):163-167.

548. Huckenbeck, W., Scheil, H.-G., Kuntze, K., Stancu, V., and Bonte, W. (1996) VNTR locus D1S80: Allele frequencies and genotype distribution in the region of Dusseldorf. Anthropologischer Anzeiger 54(1):7-17.

549. Kishida, T., Fukuda, M., Okazaki, k., Wang, W., and Tamaki, Y. (1996) DNA typing by triplex affinity capture (TAC) PCR. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi (The Japanese Journal of Legal Medicine) 50(4):255-257.

550. Ciminelli, B.M., Pompei, F., Malaspina, P., Hammer, M., Persichetti, P.F., Pignatti, P.F., Palena, A., Anagnou, N., Guanti, G., Jodice, C., Terrenato, L., and Novelletto, A. (1995) Recurrent simple tandem repeat mutations during human Y-chromosome radiation in caucasian subpopulations. J. Mol. Evol. 41(6):966-973.

551. Perez-Lezaun, A., Calafell, F., Seielstad, M., Mateu, E., Comas, D., Bosch, E., and Bertranpetit, J. (1997) Population gentics of Y-chromosome short tandem repeats in humans. J. Mol. Evol. 45(3):265-270.

552. Kurosaki, K., Matsushita, T., and Ueda, S. (1993) Individual DNA identification from ancient human remains. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 53(3):638-643.

553. de Knijff, P., Kayser, M., Caglia, A., Corach, D., Fretwell, N., Gehrig, C., Graziosi, G., Heidorn, F., Herrmann, S., Herzog, B., Hidding, M., Honda, K., Jobling, M., Krawczak, M., Leim, K., Meuser, S., Meyer, E., Oesterreich, W., Pandya, A., Parson, W., Penacino, G., Perez-Lezaun, A., Piccinini, A., Prinz, M., Schmitt, C., Schneider, P.M., Szibor, R., Teifel-Greding, J., Weichhold, G.M., and Roewer, L. (1997) Chromosome Y microsatellites: population genetic and evolutionary aspects. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(3):134-140.

554. Rodriguez-Alarcon Gomez, J., Martinez de Pancorbo Gomez, M., Santillana Ferrer, L., Castro Espido, A., Melchor Maros, J.C., Linares Uribe, M.A., Fernandez-Llebrez del Rey, L., and Aranguren Duo, G. (1996) DNA prints instead of plantar prints in neonatal identification. Med. Clinn. (Barc.) 107(4):121-123. [Article in Spanish]

555. Dimo-Simonin, N., Grange, F., Kratzer, A., Brandt-Casadevall, C., and Mangin, P. (1998) Forensic validation of the short tandem repeat HUMACTBP2 using capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 19(2):256-261.

556. Chistiakov, D.A., Chelnokova, M.V., Efremov, I.A., Stupakova, M.V., Odinokova, O.I., and Nosikov, V.V. (1997) Distribution of alleles of microsatellite loci HUMCYAR04 and D19S253 in population samples of two Russian cities. Genetika 33(2):262-268. [Article in Russian]

557. Benecke, M. (1997) DNA typing in forensic medicine and in criminal investigations: a current survey. Naturwissenschaften 84(5):181-188.

558. Kayser, M., Caglia, A., Corach, D., Fretwell, N., Gehrig, C., Graziosi, G., Heidorn, F., Herrmann, S., Herzog, B., Hidding, M., Honda, K., Jobling, M., Krawczak, M., Leim, K., Meuser, S., Meyer, E., Oesterreich, W., Pandya, A., Parson, W., Penacino, G., Perez-Lezaun, A., Piccinini, A., Prinz, M., Schmitt, C., Schneider, P.M., Szibor, R., Teifel-Greding, J., Weichhold, G.M., de Knijff, P., and Roewer, L. (1997) Evaluation of Y-chromosomal STRs: a multicenter study. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(3):125-133.

559. Yoshida, K., Sekiguchi, K., Kasai, K., Sato, H., Seta, S., and Sensabaugh, G.F. (1997) Evaluation of new primers for CSF1PO. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(1):36-38.

560. Appendix (1997) Reference tables to: Evaluation of Y-chromosomal STRs: a multicenter study (Kayser, et al.) and Chromosome Y microsatellites: population genetic and evolutionary aspects (de Kniff, et al.). Int. J. Legal Med. 110:141-149.

561. Mansfield, E.S., Robertson, J.M., Vainer, M., Isenberg, A.R., Frazier, R.R., Ferguson, K., Chow, S., Harris, D.W., Barker, D.L., Gill, P.D., Budowle, B., and McCord, B.R. (1998) Analysis of multiplexed short tandem repeat (STR) systems using capillary array elecrophoresis. Electrophoresis 19(1):101-107.

562. Isenberg, A.R., Allen, R.O., Keys, K.M., Smerick, J.B., Budowle, B., and McCord, B.R. (1998) Analysis of two multiplexed short tandem repeat systems using capillary electrophoresis with multiwavelength florescence detection. Electrophoresis 19(1):94-100.

563. Lazaruk, K., Walsh, P.S., Oaks, F., Gilbert, D., Rosenblum, B.B., Menchen, S., Scheibler, D., Wenz, H.M., Holt, C., and Wallin, J. (1998) Genotyping of forensic short tandem repeat (STR) systems based on sizing precision in a capillary electrophoresis instrument. Electrophoresis 19(1):86-93.

564. Meldegaard, M. and Morling, N. (1997) Detection and quantitative characterization of artificial extra peaks following polymerase chain reaction amplification of 14 short tandem repeat systems used in forensic investigations. Electrophoresis 18:1928-1935.

565. Sasaki, M., Shiono, H., Fukushima, T., and Shimizu, K. (1997) Human identification by genotyping of personal artifacts. Forensic Sci. Int. 90:65-75.

566. Dimo-Simonin, N., Grange, F., and Brandt-Casadevall, C. (1997) F13B and CD4 allele frequencies in South West Switzerland. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(2):109.

567. Koh, C.L., Lim, M.E., Ng, H.S., and Sam, C.K. (1997) D1S80 (pMCT118) allele frequencies in a Malay population sample from Malaysia. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(1):39-40.

568. Aoyama, M., Matsuki, T., Kishi, K., Iida, R., and Tsubota, E. (1997) DYS19 marker in Japanese populations. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(2):112-113.

569. Hutz, M.H., Mattevi, V.S., Callegari-Jacques, S.M., Salzano, F.M., Coimbra Jr., C.E.A., Santos, R.V., Carnese, R.F., Goicoechea, A.S., and Dejean, C.B. (1997) D1S80 locus variability in South American Indians. Annals of Human Biology 24(3):249-255.

570. Horst, B., Eigel, A., Sanguansermsri, T., and Rolf, B. (1997) Analysis of the short tandem repeat systems HumVWA and HumF13B in a population sample from northern Thailand. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(4):235-237.

571. Crespillo, M., Luque, J.A., Fernandez, R., Ramirez, E., Garcia, P., and Valverde, J.L. (1997) Allele frequency distributions of 13 PCR-based systems in a population from North-East Spain. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(4):223-225.

572. Szabo, A., Schurenkamp, M., and Huhne, J. (1998) Hungarian population data for six STR loci. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(1):49-51.

573. Harashima, N., Liu, C., Katsuyama, Y., Ota, M., and Fukushima, H. (1997) Sequence variation of allele 27 at the D1S80 locus. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(1):22-26.

574. Sebetan, I.M., Hajar, H.A., and Isobe, E. (1998) Frequency distribution of D1S80 (MCT118) locus polymorphism in a Qatari population. Human Biology 70(1):129-135.

575. Olaisen, B., Bar, W., Brinkmann, B., Budowle, B., Carracedo, A., Gill, P., Lincoln, P., Mayr, W.R., and Rand, S. (1998) DNA Recommendations 1997 of the International Society fo Forensic Genetics. Vox Sanguinis 74(1):61-63.

576. Hammer, M.F., Spurdle, A.B., Karafet, T., Bonner, M.R., Wood, E.T., Novelletto, A., Malaspina, P., Mitchell, R.J., Horai, S., Jenkins, T., and Zequra, S.L. (1997) The geographic disribution of human Y-Chromosome variation. Genetics 145(3):787-805.

577. Brinkmann, B., Junge, A., Meyer, E., and Wiegand, P. (1998) Population genetic diversity in realtion to microsatellite heterogeneity. Human Mutation 11(2):135-144.

578. Rodriguez-Delfin, L., Santos, S.E.B., and Zago, M.A. (1997) Diversity of the human Y-chromosome of South American Ameridians: a comparison of blacks, whites, and Japanese fron Brazil. Annals of Human Genetics 61:439-448.

579. Chen, H., Lowther, W., Avramopoulos, D., and Antonarakis, S.E. (1994) Homologous loci DXYS156X and DXYS156Y conatin a polymorphic pentanucleotide repeat (TAAAA)n and map to human X and Y chromosomes. Human Mutation 4(3):208-211.

580. Poltl, R., Luckenbach, C., Fimmers, R., and Ritter, H. (1997) Typing of the short tandem repeat D8S347 locus with different fluorescence markers. Electrophoresis 18(15):2871-2873.

581. Klintschar, M. and Neuhuber, F. (1998) A study on the short tandem repeat system ACTBP2 (SE33) in an Austrian population sample. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(1):46-48.

582. Janica, J., Pepinski, W., Skawronska, M., and Berent, J.A. (1997) The STR systems FES/FPS and F13B in a Polish population. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(6):329-330.

583. Gene, M., Carracedo, A., Huguet, E., Perez-Perez, A., and Moreno, P. (1998) Population genetics of the D12S391, CSF1PO ans TPOX loci in Catalonia (Northeast Spain). Int. J. Legal Med. 111(1):52-54.

584. Taranenko, N.I., Golovlev, V.V., Allman, S.L., Taranenko, N.V., Chen, C.H., Hong, J., and Chang, L.Y. (1998) Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization for short tandem repeat loci. Rapid Commun.Mass Spectrom. 12(8):413-418.

585. Fischer, D. and Bachmann, K. (1998) Microsatellite enrichment in organisms with large genomes. BioTechniques 24:796-802.

586. Stein, C., Lange, T., Ferencik, S., Grosse-Wilde, H., and HenBge, C. (1998) German population data of three tetrameric short tandem repeat loci - D3S1744, D12S1090, and D18S849. Forensic Sci. Int. 91:103-107.

587. Underhill, P.A., Jin, L., Zemans, R., Oefner, P.J., and Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. (1996) A pre-Columbian Y chromosome-specific transition and its implications for human evolutionary history. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93(1):196-200.

588. White, H.W. and Kusukawa, N. (1997) Agarose-based system for separation of short tandem repeat loci. BioTechniques 22(5):976-980.

589. Roy, R. and Middendorf, L.R. (1997) Infrared fluorescent detection of D1S80 alleles from blood and body fluid collected on IsoCodeTM devices. BioTechniques 23(5):942-945.

590. Ponzano, E., Caenazzo, L., Crestani, C., Bonan, G., and Cortivo, P. (1996) Analysis of the STR polymorphism VWA and FES: Allele frequency and family studies in an Italian population sample. Advances in Forensic Haemogenetics. Carracedo, A., Brinkmann, B., and Bar, W.New York:Springer-Verlag. 6:628-629.

591. Latorra, D. and Schanfield, M.S. (1996) Analysis of human specificity in AFLP systems APOB, PAH, and D1S80. Forensic Sci. Int. 83(1):15-25.

592. Roy, R. (1997) Infrared flourescent detection of D1S80 alleles. Forensic Sci. Int. 87(1):63-71.

593. Bjerre, A., Court, D.S., Lincoln, P., and Morling, N. (1997) A report of the 1995 and 1996 paternity testing workshops of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Haemogenetics. Forensic Sci. Int. 90(1-2):41-55.

594. Gross, A.M., Carmody, G., and Guerrieri, R. (1997) Validation studies for the genetic typing of the D1S80 locus for implementation into forensic casework. J. Forensic Sci. 42(6):1140-1146.

595. Marino, M.A., Devaney, J.M., Smith, J.K., and Girard, J.E. (1998) Sequencing using capillary electrophoresis of sgort tandem repeat alleles separated and purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Electrophoresis 19(1):108-118.

596. Mitchell, J.W. and Walsh, D. (1998) Analysis of the D1S80 locus by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 19(1):80-85.

597. van Hoofstat, D.E., Deforce, D.L., Millecamps, R.E., Brochez, V.M., van Geldre, E.G., Vergauwe, A., Sijs, A., and van de Eeckhout, G. (1998) Population genetic study of our short tandem repeat loci in the Belgian population, using capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 19(5):719-722. [Available on the world wide web at

598. Strom, C.M. and Rechitsky, S. (1998) Use of nested PCR to identify charred human remains and minute amounts of blood. J. Forensic Sci. 43(3):696-700.

599. Cariolou, M.A., Manoli, P., (1998) Christophorou, M., Bashiardes, E., Karagrigoriou, A., and Budowle, B. Greek Cypriot allele and genotype frequencies for Amplitype PM-DQA1 and D1S80 loci. J. Forensic Sci. 43(3):661-664.

600. Budowle, B., Koons, B.W., and Moretti, T.R. (1998) Subtyping of the HLA-DQA1 locus and independence testing with PM and STR/VNTR loci. J. Forensic Sci. 43(3):657-660.

601. Herber, B. and Herold, K. (1998) DNA typing of human dandruff. J. Forensic Sci. 43(3):648-656.

602. Monson, K.L. and Budowle, B. (1998) Effect of reference database on frequency estimates of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA profiles. J. Forensic Sci. 43(3):483-488.

603. Yamamoto, T., Uchihi, R., Kojima, T., Nozawa, H., Huang, X.-L., Tamaki, K., and Katsumata, Y. (1998) Maternal identification from skeletal remains of an infant kept by the alleged mother for 16 years with DNA typing. J. Forensic Sci. 43(3):701-705.

604. Evett, I.W., Foreman, L.A., Lambert, J.A., and Emes, A. (1998) Using a tree diagram to interpret a mixed DNA profile. J. Forensic Sci. 43(3):472-476.

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607. Buscemi, L., Tagliabracci, A., Sassaroli, C., Bianchi, F., Canestrari, S., and Rodriguez, D. (1998) Polymerase chain reaction typing of D21S11 short tandem repeat polymorphism by capillary electrophoresis. Allele frequencies and sequencing data in a population sample from central Italy. Forensic Sci. Int. 92(2-3):251-258.

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612. Lell, J.T., Brown, M.D., Schurr, T.G., Sukernik, R.I., Starikovskaya, Y.B., Torroni, A., Moore, L.G., Troup, G.M., and Wallace, D.C. (1997) Y chromosome polymorphisms in Native American and Siberian populations: Identificaion of Native American Y chromosome haplotypes. Hum. Genet. 100(5-6):536-543.

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614. Santos, F.R., Bianchi, N.O., and Pena, S.D.J. (1996) Worldwide distribution of human Y-chromosome haplotypes. Genome Res. 6(7):601-611.

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617. Mertens, G., Mommers, N., Heylen, H., Gielis, M., Muylle, L., and Vandenberghe, A. (1997) Allele frequencies of nine STR systems in the Flemish population and application in parentage testing. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(4):177-180.

618. Zago, M.A., Silva, W.A., Tavella, M.H., Santos, S.E.B., Guerreiro, J.F., and Figueiredo, M.S. (1996) Interpopulational and intrapopulational genetic diversity of Amerindians as revealed by six variable number of tandem repeats. Hum. Hered. 46(5):274-289.

619. Muller, S., Gomolka, M., and Walter, H. (1996) The Y-specific SSLP of the locus DYS19 in four different European samples. Hum. Hered. 44(5):298-300.

620. Caglia, A., Dobosz, M., Boschi, I., d'Aloja, E., and Pascali, V.L. (1998) Increased forensic effeciency of a STR-based Y-specific haplotype by addition of the highly polymorphic DYS385 locus. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(3):142-146.

621. Furedi, S., Angyal, M., Kozma, Z., Setalo, J., Woller, J., and Padar, Z. (1997) Semi-automatic DNA profiling in a Hungarian Romany population using the STR loci HumVWFA31, HumTH01, HumTPOX, and HumCSF1PO. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(4):184-187.

622. Takeshita, H., Meyer, E., and Brinkmann, B. (1997) The STR loci HumTPO and HumLPL: population genetic data in eight populations. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(6):331-333.

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624. Furedi, S., Woller, J., and Padar, Z. (1997) A population study of the STR loci HUMLPL, HUMF13B, and HUMF13A01 in Hungary. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(2):107-108.

625. Kubat, M., Furac, I., Strinovic, D., and Zecevic, D. (1997) Short tandem repeat polymorphism at the HUMCD4 and HUMF13B loci in a Croatian population. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(4):230-231.

626. Falcone, E., Spadafora, P., de Luca, M., Ruffolo, R., Brancati, C., and de Benedictis, G. (1995) DYS19, D12S67, and D1S80 polymorphisms in population samples from Southern Italy and Greece. Human Biology 67(5):689-701.

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628. Yamamoto, T., Kojima, T., Nazawa, H., Huang, X.-L., Ohtaki, H., Uchihi, R., Tamaki, K., and Katsumata, Y. (1997) A rapid typing system at three STR loci from bloodstains using a simple DNA extraction kit and capillary electrophoresis. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi (The Japanese Journal of Legal Medicine) 51(5):396-400.

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631. Glock, B., Dauber, E.M., Schwartz, D.W.M., and Mayr, W.R. (1997) Additional variability at the D12S391 STR locus in an Austrian population sample: sequencing data and allele distribution. Forensic Sci. Int. 90(3):197-203.

632. Klintschar, M., Kozma, Z., Al Hammadi, N., Fatah, M.A., and Nohammer, C. (1998) A study on the short tandem repeat systems HumCD4, HumTH01, and HumFIBRA in population samples from Yemen and Egypt. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(2):107-109.

633. Garcia, O., Martin, P., Budowle, B., Uriarte, J., Albarran, C., and Alonso, A. (1998) Basque Country autochthonous population data on 7 short tandem repeat loci. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(3):162-164.

634. Fukuda, M. and Tamaki, Y. (1998) Subtyping of D11S488 STR alleles by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis in two cases of disputed parentage. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi (The Japanese Journal of Legal Medicine) 52(1):42-45.

635. Underhill, P.A., Jin, L., Lin, A.A., Mehdi, Q., Jenkins, T., Vollrath, D., Davis, R.W., Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., and Oefner, P.J. (1997) Detection of numerous Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphisms dy denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Genome Res. 7(10):996-1005.

636. Passarino, G., Semino, O., Quintana-Murci, L., Excoffier, L., Hammer, M., and Santachiara-Benerecetti, A.S. (1998) Different genetic components in the Ethiopian population, identified by mtDNA and Y-chromosome polymorphisms. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62(2):420-434.

637. Arrieta, M.I., Martinez, B., Millan, J.M., Gil, A., Monros, E., Nunez, T., Telez, M., and Martinez, F. (1997) Study of a trimeric tandem repeat locus (SBMA) in the Basque population: Comparison with other populations. Gene Geography 11(1):61-72.

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642. Budowle, B., Nhari, L.T., Moretti, T.R., Kanoyangwa, S.B., Masuka, E., Defenbaugh, D.A., and Smerick, J.B. (1997) Zimbabwe black population data on the six short tandem repeat loci - CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, D3S1358, VWA, and FGA. Forensic Sci. Int. 90(3):215-221.

643. Haas-Rochholz, H. and Weiler, G. (1997) Additional primer sets for an amelogenin gene PCR-based DNA-sex test. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(6):312-315.

644. Kurosaki, K., Saitoh, H., Oota, H., Watanabe, Y., Kiuchi, M., and Ueda, S. (1997) Combined polymorphism associated with a 3-bp deletion in the 5'-flanking region of a tetrameric short tandem repeat at the CYP19 locus. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi (The Japanese Journal of Legal Medicine) 51(3):191-195.

645. Kloosterman, A.D., Budowle, B., and Riley, E.L. (1993) Population data of the HLA DQ a locus in Dutch caucasians. Int. J. Legal Med. 105(4):233-238.

646. Vural, B., Poda, M., Atioglu, E., Kolusayin, O., Cenani, A., Morling, N., and Tumer, Z. (1998) Turkish population data on the short tandem repeat locus TPOX. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(2):105-106.

647. Katsuyama, Y., Inoko, H., Imanishi, T., Mizuki, N., Gojobori, T., and Ota, M. (1998) Genetic relatioships among Japanese, Northern Han, Hui, Uygur, Kazakh, Greek, Saudi Arabian, and Italian populations based on allelic frequencies at four VNTR (D1S80, D4S43, COL2A1, D17S5) and one STR (ACTBP2) loci. Hum. Hered. 48(3):126-137

648. Devaney, J.M., Marino, M.A., Smith, J.K., and Girard, J.E. (1998) Seperation and purification of short tandem repeat (STR) DNA fragments using temperature modulated heteroduplex analysis TM (TMHA) TM . Santa Clara, CA:Transgenomic. 102.

649. Halos, S.C., Fortuno, E.S.I., Ferreon, A.C.M., Chu, J.Y., Miranda, J., Harada, S., and Benecke, M. (1998) Allele freauency distributions of the polymorphic STR loci HUMVWA, HUMFES, HUMF12A01 and the VNTR D1S80 in a Filipino population from metro Manila. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(4):224-226.

650. Wiegand, P., Schneider, H.R., Schurenkamp, M., Kleiber, M., and Brinkmann, B. (1998) Tetranucleotide STR system D8S1132: sequencing data and population genetic comparisons. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(4):180-182.

651. Findlay, I., Toth, T., Matthews, P., Marton, T., Quirke, P., and Papp, Z. (1998) Rapid determination of trisomy 18 parental origin using fluorescent PCR and small tandem repeat markers: case reports. Clin. Genet. 53(2):92-95.

652. Neuhuber, F., Klintschar, M., and Radacher, M. (1998) A collaborative genetic study on the STR system FGA in two Austrian population samples. Forensic Sci. Int. 91(1):1-6.

653. Deforce, D.L., Millecamps, R.E., van Hoofstat, D.E., and van de Eeckhout, G. (1998) Comparison of slab gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis for the detection of the fluorescently labeled polymerase chain reaction products of short tnadem repeat fragments. J. Chromatogr. A 806(1):149-155.

654. Findlay, I., Toth, T., Matthews, P., Marton, T., Quirke, P., and Papp, Z. (1998) Rapid trisomy diagnosis (21, 18, and 13) using fluorescent PCR and short tandem repeats: Applications for prenatal diagnosis and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 15(5):266-275.

655. Wenz, H.M., Robertson, J.M., Menchen, S., Oaks, F., Demorest, D.M., Scheibler, D., Rosenblum, B.B., Wike, C., Gilbert, D.A., and Efcavitch, J.W. (1998) High-precision genotyping by denaturing capillary electrophoresis. Genome Res. 8(1):69-80.

656. Lessig, R. and Edelmann, J. (1998) Y chromosome polymorpisms and haplotypes in West Saxony (Germany). Int. J. Legal Med. 111(4):215-218.

657. Ricci, U., Klintschar, M., Neuhuber, F., and Uzielli, M.L.G. (1998) Study on the STR TPOX in an Italian and an Austrian population using two different primer pairs and three different electrophoretic methods. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(2):212-214.

658. Arakura, A., Liu, C., Ota, M., and Fukushima, H. (1998) Subtyping and characterization of D1S80 alleles in a Japanese population using PCR-RFLP. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(4):183-187.

659. Kozma, Z., Nagai, A., Woller, J., Furedi, S., Setalo, J., Ohya, I., and Nishi, K. (1998) Fluorescence based co-amplification and automated detection of the STR loci HUMFIBRA and HUMD21S11 in a Hungarian Caucasian population sample. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(2):103-104.

660. Chowdhury, M.R., Mathur, R., and Verma, I.C. (1998) Utility of XY-amelogenin gene primers for detection of sex chromosomes. Indian J. Med. Res. 107:182-186.

661. Saitoh, H., Ueda, S., Kurosaki, K., and Kiuchi, M. (1998) The different mobility of complementary strands depends on the proportion AC/GT. Forensic Sci. Int. 91(2):81-90.

662. Waiyawuth, W., Zhang, L., Rittner, C., and Schneider, P.M. (1998) Genetic analysis of the short tandem repeat systen D12S391 in the German and three Asian populations. Forensic Sci. Int. 94(1):25-31.

663. Silva, R. and Mourna-Neto, R.S. (1998) Allelic frequency distribution for three VNTR markers - D6S132, D7S467, D17S26 - in Rio de Janeiro population, Brazil. Forensic Sci. Int. 94(1):33-38.

664. Xiao, F.-X., Gilissen, A., Cassiman, J.-J., and Decorte, R. (1998) Quadraplex fluorescent STR typing system (HUMVWA, HUMTH01, D21S11 and HPTR) with sequnece-defined allelic ladders: Identification of a new allele at D21S11. Forensic Sci. Int. 94(1):39-40.

665. Buel, E., Schwartz, M., and LaFountain, M.J. (1998) Capillary electrophoresis STR analysis: Comparison to gel-based systems. J. Forensic Sci. 43(1):164-170.

666. Brinkmann, B., Klintschar, M., Neuhuber, F., Huhne, J., and Rolf, B. (1998) Mutation rate in human microsatellites: Influence of the structure and length of the tandem repeat. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62(6):1408-1415.

667. Rolf, B., Moller, K., Schurenkamp, M., and Brinkmann, B. (1997) Automated analysis of highly efficient STRs. Rechtsmedizin 7:157-161.

668. Szibor, R., Lautsch, S., Plate, I., Bender, K., and Krause, D. (1998) Population genetic data of the STR HUMD3S1358 in two regions of Germany. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(3):160-161.

669. Chikhi, L., Destro-Bisol, G., Bertorelle, G., Pascali, V.L., and Barbujani, G. (1998) Clines of nuclear DNA markers suggest a largely Neolithic ancestry of the European gene pool. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95(15):9053-9058.

670. Hoff-Olsen, P., Meling, G.I., and Olaisen, B. (1998) Variation in mutation rate and direction between tetranucleotide STR loci in human colorectal carcinomas. Annals of Human Genetics 62(1):1-7.

671. Olaisen, B., Bar, W., Mayr, W.R., Lincoln, P., Carracedo, A., Brinkmann, B., Budowle, B., and Gill, P. (1997) DNA recomendations - further report of the DNA Commission of the ISFH regarding the use of short tandem repeat systems. Forensic Sci. Int. 87(3):179-184.

672. Bar, W., Brinkmann, B., Budowle, B., Carracedo, A., Gill, P., Lincoln, P., Mayr, W.R., and Olaisen, B. (1997) DNA recommendations: Further report of the DNA Commission of the ISFH regarding the use of short tandem repeat systems. Int. J. Legal Med. 110(4):175-176.

673. Magnuson, V.L., Ally, D., Nylund, S.J., Karanjawala, Z.E., Rayman, J.B., Knapp, J.I., Lowe, A.L., Ghosh, S., and Collins, F.S. (1996) Substrate nucleotide-determined non-templated addition of adenine by Taq DNA polymerase: Implications for PCR-based genotyping and cloning. BioTechniques 21:700-709.

674. Warne, D., Watkins, C., Bodfish, P., Nyberg, K., and Spurr, N.K. (1991) Tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism at the human beta-actin releated pseudogene 2 (ACTBP2) detected using the polymerase chain reaction. Nucleic Acids Res. 19(24):6980.

675. Buscemi, L., Tagliabracci, A., Sassaroli, C., Paoli, M., Bianchi, F., Giorgetti, R., and Rodriguez, D. (1997) PCR analysis of the STR HUMF13A01 in a population sample of central Italy. J. Biol. Res. 73(1-2):9-14.

676. Watanabe, G., Umetsu, K., Yuasa, I., and Suzuki, T. (1998) Simultaneous determination of STR polymorphism and a new nucleotide substitution in its flanking region at the CD4 locus. J. Forensic Sci. 43(4):733-737.

677. Garofano, L., Lago, G., Vecchio, C., Pizzamiglio, M., Zanon, C., Virgili, A., Albonici, L., Manzari, V., and Budowle, B. (1998) Italian population data on the polymarker system and on the five short tandem repeat loci CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, F13B, and vWA. J. Forensic Sci. 43(4):837-840.

678. Tagliabracci, A., Buscemi, L., Bianchi, F., Sassaroli, C., Ricci, U., Neri, T.M., and Rodriguez, D. (1998) Polymorphism ans sequence variations of the HumCD4 pentameric microsatellite in an Italian population sample. J. Forensic Sci. 43(4):841-844.

679. Klintschar, M., Al Hammadi, N., Lux, T., and Reichenpfader, B. (1998) Genetic variation at the short tandem repeat loci HumvWA, HumFXIIIB, and HumFES/FPS in the Egyptian and Yemenian populations. J. Forensic Sci. 43(4):850-853.

680. Wallin, J.M., Buoncristiani, M.R., Lazaruk, K., Fildes, N., Holt, C., and Walsh, P.S. (1998) TWGDAM validation of the AmpFlSTR TM Blue PCR Amplification Kit for forensic casework analysis. J. Forensic Sci. 43(4):854-870.

681. Alessio, A. and Claudio, C. (1998) The distribution of D1S80 (pMCT118) alleles in a southern Italian population sample. J. Forensic Sci. 43(4):911-912.

682. Zehner, R., Mebs, D., and Bratzke, H. (1998) Population genetic study of the simultaneously amplified loci HLA DQA1, LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, and GC in a German popoulation sample. J. Forensic Sci. 43(4):913-914.

683. Tishkoff, S.A., Dietzsch, E., Speed, W., Pakstis, A.J., Kidd, J.R., Cheung, K., Bonne-Tamir, B., Santachiara-Benerecetti, A.S., Moral, P., Krings, M., Paabo, S., Watson, E., Risch, N., Jenkins, T., and Kidd, K. (1996) Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins. Science 271:1380-1387.

684. Butler, J.M. (1998) The use of capillary electrophoresis in genotyping STR loci. Methods Mol. Biol. 98:279-289.

685. Watts, D. (1998) Genotyping STR loci using an automated DNA sequencer. Methods Mol. Biol. 98:193-208.

686. Schneider, A., Westwood, B., Yim, C., Cohen-Solal, M., Rosa, R., Labotka, R., Eber, S., Wolf, R., Lammi, A., and Beutler, E. (1996) The 1591C mutation in trisephosphate isomeric (TPI) deficiency. Tightly linked polymorphisms and a common haplotype in all known families. Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases 22(12):115-125.

687. Phillips, C.P., Carracedo, A., and Lareu, M.V. (1998) Manual electrophoretic methods for genotyping amplified STR loci. Methods Mol. Biol. 98:181-192.

688. Akane, A. (1998) Sex determination by PCR analysis of the X-Y amelogenenin gene. Methods Mol. Biol. 98:245-249.

689. Morling, N. (1998) Amplification of short andem repeat loci using PCR. Methods Mol. Biol. 98:173-180.

690. Budowle, B. and Allen, R.C. (1998) Analysis of amplified fragment-length polymorphisms (VNTR/STR loci) for human identity testing. Methods Mol. Biol. 98:155-171.

691. Lorente, M., Entrala, C., Lorente, J.A., Alvarez, J.C., Villanueva, E., and Budowle, B. (1998) Dandruff as a potential source of DNA in forensic casework. J. Forensic Sci. 43(4):901-902.

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693. Bender, K., Beller, G., and Lautsch, S. (1998) Tetranucleotide short tandem repeat polymorphisms and their possible mode of origin. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 80(1-4):34-36.

694. Brinkmann, B., Butler, R., Lincoln, P., Mayr, W.R., and Rossi, U. (1998) Second DNA recomendations: 1991 report concerning recommendations of the DNA commission of the International Society for Forensic Haemogenetics relating to the use of DNA polymorphisms. Int. J. Legal Med. 104(6):361-364.

695. Brega, A., Scacchi, R., Cuccia, M., Kirdar, B., Peloso, G., and Corbo, R.M. (1998) Study of 15 protein polymorphisms in a sample of the Turkish population. Human Biology 70(4):715-728.

696. Burgert, E., Crocq, M.-A., Bausch, E., Macher, J.-P., and Morris-Rosendahl, D.J. (1998) No association between the tyrosine hydroxylase microsatellite marker HUMTH01 and schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. Psychiatric Genetics 8(2):45-48.

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698. Klemme, L., Fish, A.J., Rich, S., Greensberg, B., Senske, B., and Segall, M. (1998) Familial ureteral abnormalities syndrome: genomic mapping, clinical findings. Pediatr. Nephrol. 12:349-356.

699. Lum, J.K., Cann, R.L., Martinson, J.L., and Jorde, L.B. (1998) Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic relationships among Pacific Island and Asian populations. Annals of Human Genetics 63(2):613-624.

700. Rossi, E., Rolf, B., Schurenkamp, M., and Brinkmann, B. (1998) Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in an Italian population sample. Int. J. Legal Med. 112(1):78-81.

701. Lareu, M.V., Barral, S., Salas, A., Pestoni, C., and Carracedo, A. (1998) Sequence variation of a hypervariable short tandem repeat at the D1S1656 locus. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(5):244-247.

702. Gene, M., Pique, E., Borrego, N., Carracedo, A., Huguet, E., and Moreno, P. (1998) Catalonian population study of the tetranucleotide repeat loci D3S1358, D8S1179, D18S51, and D19S253. Int. J. Legal Med. 112(1):75-77.

703. Furedi, S., Kozma, Z., Padar, Z., Angyal, M., Bajnoczky, I., and Nishi, K. (1998) Population genetic data on four STR loci in a Hungarian Romany population. Int. J. Legal Med. 112(1):72-74.

704. Martin, P., Garcia, O., Albarran, C., Sancho, M., and Alonso, A. (1998) A Spanish population study of the STR loci HumLPL, D5S818, D7S820, and D13S317. Int. J. Legal Med. 112(1):70-71.

705. Junge, A. and Madea, B. (1998) Validation studies and characterization of variant alleles at the short tandem repeat locus D12S391. Int. J. Legal Med. 112(1):67-69.

706. Klintschar, M., Glock, B., Dauber, E.M., and Mayr, W.R. (1998) Genetic variation and sequence studies of a highly variable short tandem repeat at the D17S976 locus. Int. J. Legal Med. 112(1):50-54.

707. Butler, J.M., Li, J., Shaler, T.A., Monforte, J.A., and Becker, C.H. (1998) Reliable genotyping of short tandem repeat loci without an allelic ladder using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Int. J. Legal Med. 112(1):45-49.

708. Pestoni, C., Cal, M.L., Lareu, M.V., Rodriguez-Calvo, M.S., and Carracedo, A. (1998) Y chromosome STR haplotypes: genetic and sequencing data of the Galician population (NW Spain). Int. J. Legal Med. 112(1):15-21.

709. Pascali, V.L., Dobosz, M., and Brinkmann, B. (1998) Coordinating Y-chromosomal STR research for the courts. Int. J. Legal Med. 112(1):1.

710. Xiao, F.-X., Gilissen, A., Gu, X.-X., Cassiman, J.-J., and Decorte, R. (1998) Genetic data obtained for two Chinese Han populations with a quadruplex flourescent STR typing system (HUMVWA, HUMTH01, D21S11, and HPRT). Int. J. Legal Med. 111(6):343-345.

711. Lee, D.H., Han, J.S., Lee, W.G., and Rho, H.M. (1998) Quadraplex amplification of polymorphic STR loci in a Korean population. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(6):320-322.

712. Banaschak, S., Moller, K., and Pfeiffer, H. (1998) Potential DNA mixtures introduced through kissing. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(5):284-285.

713. Asmundo, A. and Crino, C. (1998) Population study of the short tandem repeat polymorphisms HumTH01, HumvWA31, HumFESFPS and HumF13A01 in Sicily (Southern Italy). Int. J. Legal Med. 111(5):281-283.

714. Balamurugan, K., Abdel-Rehman, H., Duncan, G.T., Budowle, B., Anderson, S., Macechko, J., and Tahir, M.A. (1998) Distribution of D1S80 alleles in the Jordanian population. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(5):276-277.

715. Zupanic, I., Balazic, J., and Komel, R. (1998) Analysis of nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci in the Slovenian population. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(5):248-250.

716. Griffiths, R.A.L., Barber, M.D., Johnson, P.E., Gillbard, S.M., Haywood, M.D., Smith, C.D., Arnold, J., Burke, T., Urquhart, A., and Gill, P. (1998) New reference allelic ladders to improve allelic designation in a multiplex STR system. Int. J. Legal Med. 111(5):267-272.

717. Greenspoon, S.A., Scarpetta, M.A., Drayton, M.L., and Turek, S.A. (1998) QIAamp spin columns as a method of DNA isolation for forensic casework. J. Forensic Sci. 43(5):1024-1030.

718. Brito, R.M., Ribeiro, T., Espinheira, R., and Geada, H. (1998) South Portuguese population data on the loci HLA-DQA1, LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, Gc. J. Forensic Sci. 43(5):1031-1036.

719. Desmarais, D., Zhong, Y., Chakraborty, R., Perreault, C., and Busque, L. (1998) Development of a highly polymorphic STR marker for identity testing purposes at the human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA). J. Forensic Sci. 43(5):1046-1049.

720. Martinez-Jarreta, B., Budowle, B., Abecia, E., Bell, B., Casalod, Y., and Castellano, M. (1998) PM and D1S80 loci gene frequencies in the Zaragoza population of Northern Spain. J. Forensic Sci. 43(5):1094-1096.

721. Lins, A.M., Micka, K.A., Sprecher, C.J., Taylor, J.A., Bacher, J.W., Rabbach, D., Bever, R.A., Creacy, S., and Schumm, J.W. (1998) Development and population study of an eight-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system. J. Forensic Sci. 43(6):1168-1180.

722. de Pancorbo, M.M., Castro, A., Fernandez-Fernandez, I., and Garcia-Orad, A. (1998) Population genetics and forensic applications using multiplex PCR (CSF1PO, TPOX, and TH01) loci in the Basque Country. J. Forensic Sci. 43(6):1181-1187.

723. LaFountain, M.J., Schwartz, M., Cormier, J., and Buel, E. (1998) Validation of capillary electrophoresis for analysis of the X-Y homologous amelogenin gene. J. Forensic Sci. 43(6):1188-1194.

724. Budowle, B., Baechtel, F.S., and Fejeran, R. (1998) Polymarker, HLA-DQA1, and D1S80 allele frequency data in Chamorro and Filipino populations from Guam. J. Forensic Sci. 43(6):1195-1198.

725. Schneider, P.M., Meuser, S., Waiyawuth, W., Seo, Y., and Rittner, C. (1998) Tandem repeat structure of the duplicated Y-chromosomal STR locus DYS385 and frequency studies in the German and three Asian populations. Forensic Sci. Int. 97(1):61-70.

726. Garofano, L., Pizzamiglio, M., Vecchio, C., Lago, G., Floris, T., D'Errico, G., Brembilla, G., Romano, A., and Budowle, B. (1998) Italian population data on thirteen short tandem repeat loci: HUMTH01, D21S11, D18S51, HUMVWFA31, HUMFIBRA, D8S1179, HUMTPOX, HUMCSF1PO, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, D5S818, D3S1358. Forensic Sci. Int. 97(1):53-60.

727. Pu, C.-E., Wu, F.-C., Cheng, C.-L., Wu, K.-C., Chao, C.-H., and Li, J.-M. (1998) DNA short tandem repeat profiling of Chinese population in Taiwan determined by using an automated sequencer. Forensic Sci. Int. 97(1):47-51.

728. Klintschar, M., Ricci, U., Al Hammadi, N., Reichenpfader, B., Ebner, A., and Uzielli, M.L.G. (1998) Genetic variation at the STR loci D12S391 and CSF1PO in four populations from Austria, Italy, Egypt and Yemen. Forensic Sci. Int. 97(1):37-45.

729. Mornhinweg, E., Luckenbach, C., Fimmers, R., and Ritter, H. (1998) D3S1358: Sequence analysis and gene frequency in a German population. Forensic Sci. Int. 95(2):173-178.

730. Sebetan, I.M. and Hajar, H.A. (1998) Analysis of the short tandem repeat (STR) locus HumVWA in a Qatari population. Forensic Sci. Int. 95(2):169-171.

731. Poltl, R., Luckenbach, C., and Ritter, H. (1998) The short tandem repeat locus D3S1359. Forensic Sci. Int. 95(2):163-168.

732. Phillips, C.P., Court, D.S., Lareu, M.V., Hasskamp, J., and Carracedo, A. (1998) Band shift analysis of three base-pair repeat alleles in the short tandem repeat locus D12S391. Forensic Sci. Int. 93(2-3):79-88.

733. Benecke, M., Knopf, M., Voll, W., Oesterreich, W., Jacobi, Y., and Edelmann, J. (1998) Short tandem repeat (STR) locus HUMD8S306 in a large population sample from Germany. Electrophoresis 19(4):2396-2397.

734. Tereba, A., Micka, K.A., and Schumm, J.W. (1998) Reuse of denaturing polyacrylamide gels for short tandem repeat analysis. BioTechniques 25(5):892-897.

735. Moretti, T., Koons, B., and Budowle, B. (1998) Enhancement of PCR amplification yield and specificity using AmpliTaq Gold TM DNA polymerase. BioTechniques 25(4):716-722.

736. Marino, M.A., Devaney, J.M., Davis, P.A., Smith, J.K., and Girard, J.E. (1998) Spectral measurements of intercalated PCR-amplified short tandem repeat alleles. Anal. Chem. 70(21):4514-4519.

737. Rolf, B., Horst, B., Eigel, A., Sanguansermsri, T., Brinkmann, B., and Horst, J. (1998) Microsatellite profiles reveal an unexpected genetic relationship between Asian populations. Hum. Genet. 102(6):647-652.

738. Lareu, V., Pestoni, C., Phillips, C., Barros, F., Court, D.S., Lincoln, P., and Carracedo, A. (1998) Normal and anomalous electrophoretic behavior of polymerase chain reaction-based DNA polymorphisms in polyacrylamide gels. Electrophoresis 19(10):1566-1572.

739. Lum, J.K., Cann, R.L., Martinson, J.J., and Jorde, L.B. (1998) Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic relationships among Pacific Island and Asian populations. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 63(2):613-624.

740. Takeshita, H., Yashuda, T., Nakajima, T., Hosomi, O., Nakasuima, Y., Tsutsumi, S., and Kishi, K. (1998) Detection of the two short tandem repeat loci (HUMTPO and HUMLPL) in Japanese populations using discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi (The Japanese Journal of Legal Medicine) 52(2):139-143.

741. Poltl, R., Luckenbach, C., Hixson, J., and Ritter, H. (1998) The short tandem repeat loci hTPO, TH01and FGA. Hum. Hered. 48(6):318-324.

742. Tamaki, Y. (1998) DNA polymorphism analysis and some hints for oral presentation in English and the international meeting. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi (The Japanese Journal of Legal Medicine) 51(5):339-347.

743. Calafell, F., Shuster, A., Speed, W., Kidd, J.R., and Kidd, K. (1998) Short tandem repeat polymorphism evolution in humans. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 6(1):38-49.

744. Bianchi, N.O., Catanesi, C.I., Baillet, G., Martinez-Marignac, V.L., Bravi, C.M., Vidal-Rioja, L.B., Herrera, R.J., and Lopez-Camelo, J.S. (1998) Characterization of ancestral and derived Y-chromosome haplotypes of New World native populations. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 63(6):1862-1871.

746. Sala, A., Penacino, G., and Corach, D. (1998) Comparison of allele frequencies of eight STR loci from Argentinian Amerindian and European populations. Human Biology 70(5):937-947.

747. Watson, E., Gill, P., and Mastana, S.S. (1998) Genetic diversity at the HUMTH01 locus. Annals of Human Biology 25(6):563-580.

748. Forster, P., Kayser, M., Meyer, E., Roewer, L., Pfeiffer, H., Benkmann, H., and Brinkmann, B. (1998) Phylogenetic resolution of complex mutational features at Y-STR DYS390 in Aboriginal Australians and Papuans. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15(9):1108-1114.

749. Kim, W., Shin, D.J., You, S.A., and Kim, Y.J. (1998) Y-specific DNA polymorphisms of the YAP element and the locus DYS319 in the Korean population. J. Hum. Genet. 43(3):195-198.

750. Tzeng, C.-H., Lyou, J.-Y., Chen, Y.-R., Hu, H.-Y., Lin, J.-S., Yung, C.-H., Choo, K.-B., Wang, S.-Y., and Lee, J.C.-I. (1998) Polymorphisms of twelve short tandem repeat loci in a Taiwanese population and their application in parentage testing. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 97(11):738-744.

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[Luckenbach Schoolhouse]

Photograph of a schoolhouse in Luckenbach, Texas. The schoolhouse is a stone building with rectangular windows and a porte-cochère extending from its wall. There are trees and other buildings in the surrounding area and a person is located in the background.

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Photograph of a schoolhouse in Luckenbach, Texas. The schoolhouse is a stone building with rectangular windows and a porte-cochère extending from its wall. There are trees and other buildings in the surrounding area and a person is located in the background.

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Evelyn Streng Slide Collection

Images of mid- to late 20th century Texas and the Southwestern United States. More than 700 items from the 35 mm slide collection have been digitized and made accessible here, under a 2017 grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and the Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

The Top Texas 40

"I'm a Ding Dong Daddy (From Dumas)" got stuck in my head last April. Besides making me crazy, it got me thinking about the phenomenon of a state that inspires so many songs. This Ding Dong moment happened in the wake of the Chronicle's Texas Top 40 last November, an effort that was so much fun to be part of that it didn't take long to marry the two in concept. Texas -- like New York, California, and the whole South -- just seems to inspire music.

And here's something that became obvious in listening to hundreds and hundreds of songs. Songs about Texas towns and places usually involve love -- unrequited, young, old, lost, newfound, enduring. Songs about the state of Texas generally celebrate its spirit and geography -- and love. Murder ballads, disco tunes, school anthems, television show themes, post punk, classic country, hot jazz, smokin' blues, New Wave . name a genre, and someone is singing about Texas in it.

Besides the majority of the Chronicle Music staff, voters included a number of esteemed musicos not even based in Texas. Jody Denberg, for one, almost begged off, saying, "As a New Yorker I feel so unqualified to participate," yet his sensibility in programming KGSR belies his origins. Non-Texas based critics admitted being daunted by the "overwhelming selection" of songs suggested the honed-down list of 500 or so titles considered was a drop in the bucket to the estimated 3,500 songs that mention the state, a city, or place in its title. And that was one of the few rules: The title had to say "Texas." Rules, of course, were made to be broken, so there's one notable exception.

Age reflected strongly in choices, too. No one older than 35 voted for Duran Duran's "Rio," and the flak from one voter made ears scorch. "Get a fucking life," he squawked, but when Simon LeBon sings "dance across the Rio Grande," he's name-checking the Lone Star State. No one younger than 35 voted for the Johnny Mercer-Harry Warren chestnut "I'm an Old Cowhand (From the Rio Grande)." All ages voted for the Doobie Brothers' "China Grove."

There's no doubt that what critics do best is argue. "Does 'Nuevo Laredo' count?" asked Joe Nick Patoski of the Doug Sahm favorite. "No!" was the resounding reply, mostly from youthful critics, with one veteran saying, "It's not in Texas." Yet three people nominated the song, doubtless reflecting Dave Marsh's sentiment: "Texas is stolen Mexican territory anyhow!"

And what of "I'm a Ding Dong Daddy (From Dumas)," the bouncy swing ditty by Bob Wills & His Texas Playboys that inspired this survey? It didn't place in the Top 10, but it was the 12th favorite song on the list, just behind the 11th, "Streets of Laredo" by Marty Robbins. It did beat out "Texarkana," "Asshole From El Paso," and "Rio," however. And if the images of Dumas and Laredo are as opposite as the sound of "Asshole" and "Rio," well . that's Texas. -- Margaret Moser

Texas Towns & Places

14 "Asshole From El Paso," Kinky Friedman & the Texas Jewboys
Songwriters: Chinga Chavin, Kenny "Snakebite" Jacobs
Year Written: 1975
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
"Asshole From El Paso" skewered Merle Haggard's "Okie From Muskogee" and the Seventies country establishment with crude aplomb that still packs a punch. Co-written with Jewboy horn player Kenny "Snakebite" Jacobs and dirty ditty purveyor Chinga Chavin (Country Porn), it was an antidote to Cosmic Cowboy fatuousness and became as instant a classic as the other fuck-you anthem of the day, Ray Wylie Hubbard's "Redneck Mother." It made a cult star of its performer-turned-author Richard "Kinky" Friedman.

13 "Texarkana," R.E.M.
Songwriters: Bill Berry, Peter Buck, Mike Mills, Michael Stipe
Year Released: 1991
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
An unlikely entry from an unlikely source, "Texarkana" was R.E.M. at its peak in 1991 on Out of Time. Its monster hit was "Losing My Religion," but "Texarkana" is typical of their shimmering, orchestral pop of the time, with a lead vocal by Mike Mills, who probably wrote it. The only apparent connection to the titular city is the presence of steel guitar.

12 "I'm a Ding Dong Daddy (From Dumas)," Bob Wills & His Texas Playboys
Songwriter: Phil Baxter
Year Written: 1935(?)
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
The Panhandle town of Dumas boasted "Population: 571" in the late Twenties, about the time bandleader/songwriter Phil Baxter, himself from Navarro County, passed through and then immortalized it in song. Baxter's own success was little more than regional, but he had a knack for novelty tunes, such as "Piccolo Pete." On the Jack Benny Radio Show, bandleader Phil Harris took a liking to Baxter's tune and played it on the show, encouraging versions by Benny Goodman, Louis Armstrong, and of course Bob Wills.

11 "Streets of Laredo," Marty Robbins
Year Charted: 1960
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 25
Close your eyes and imagine "Streets of Laredo" performed with fiddle and bagpipes. That's a nugget of American country music, where Irish ballads such as "The Bard of Armagh" and "A Handful of Laurel" were turned into a Western classic about a Texas border town by Marty Robbins as a follow-up to "El Paso." The film Bang the Drum Slowly was named for a line in the song, which was also covered by Johnny Cash, Willie Nelson, John Cale, and Roy Rogers & Dale Evans.

10 "I'm an Old Cowhand (From the Rio Grande)," Dan Hicks & His Hot Licks
Songwriters: Johnny Mercer, Harry Warren
Original Released: 1936
Johnny Mercer wrote the elegant music and Harry Warren the tongue-in-cheek lyrics for the loping ditty that first appeared in 1936's Rhythm on the Range musical. It was snatched up by every Western singing star of the era including Tex Ritter, and maintained its whimsical appeal through the decades. Sonny Rollins and Bing Crosby also saddled up to the song, but it's Dan Hicks' 1972 version with Austinite Maryann Price's unforgettable croon that's most beloved.

9 "China Grove," the Doobie Brothers
Songwriter: Tom Johnston
Year Charted: 1973
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 15
When the sun came up one morning in 1973, the people of San Antonio's China Grove were surprised to find their bedroom community celebrated by the Doobie Brothers. The lyrics are nonsense, but the music was an irresistible command to rock out, duuuude, with chunky chords and a steam-engine rhythm that helped establish the band's string of hits. A well-placed rumor has it that the song was inspired by a late-night hunt for drugs after the band's San Antonio debut.

8 "Amarillo by Morning," George Strait
Songwriters: Terry Stafford, Paul Fraser
Year Charted: 1982
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 3
Songwriter Terry Stafford (1941-1996), born in Oklahoma and raised in Amarillo, was barely 23 when Elvis Presley had a hit with his co-written song "Suspicion." Ten years later, he helped pen the lonesome, tender "Amarillo by Morning," inspired by a San Antonio rodeo gig and his drive back home. Stafford recorded it as a single on Atlantic, but "Amarillo" languished as a Panhandle favorite until George Strait recorded the definitive version in 1982.

7 "Galveston," Glen Campbell
Songwriter: Jimmy Webb
Year Charted: 1969
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 1
Oklahoma's Jimmy Webb was a one-man music-making machine. A lyricist and tunesmith of the first order, he already had hits with the 5th Dimension ("Up, Up and Away") and Richard Harris ("MacArthur Park") when he got in Glen Campbell what songwriters dream for: the right voice and personality for the music. Besides making a country-flavored pop hit about the Gulf Coast resort, Campbell scored with Webb's "By the Time I Get to Phoenix" and "Wichita Lineman."

6 "Luckenbach, Texas (Back to the Basics of Love)," Waylon Jennings with Willie Nelson
Songwriters: Bobby Emmons, Chips Moman
Year Released: 1977
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 1
The only song to place in both lists. See Texas 25 list, below.

5 "La Grange," ZZ Top
Songwriters: Billy Gibbons, Frank Beard, Dusty Hill
Year Released: 1973
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
ZZ Top didn't invent boogie rock, but in 1973, they blasted it into national consciousness with a raucous song about a Texas whorehouse. "La Grange" owes it all to John Lee Hooker's "Boogie Chillen," but the little ol' band from Texas grabbed the blues master's mojo and made three-chord history. The lyrics are mumbled, but who doesn't punch air when singing along to, "haw haw haw haw"?

4 "Dallas," Joe Ely
Songwriter: Jimmie Dale Gilmore
Originally Released: 1972
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
In reply to his opening, "Have you ever seen Dallas from a DC-9 at night?" Jimmie Dale Gilmore explains simply that "it told the whole song" and "took me a long time to write the rest of that song, because it had to live up to that line." First recorded in 1972 by the Flatlanders, "Dallas" thrives in the repertoires of Gilmore, Joe Ely, and others without fading or losing its dark mystique.

3 "(Is Anybody Going to) San Antone," Doug Sahm
Songwriters: Dave Kirby, Glen Martin
Year Charted: 1970
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 1
"This is a song now about my hometown." With those eight words not written into the lyrics, Doug Sahm (1941-1999) owned Charley Pride's No. 1 hit, "(Is Anybody Going to) San Antone." The song was written in the late Sixties by Nashville songwriter Glen Martin and Brady, Texas, native Dave Kirby, nephew of Big Bill Lister. Pride, the first (and pretty much only) black country star, made it a hit in 1970 Doug Sahm made it his on Doug Sahm & Friends in 1972.

2 "San Antonio Rose," Bob Wills & His Texas Playboys
Songwriter: Bob Wills
Year Written: 1935
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
Bob Wills (1905-1975) wrote "San Antonio Rose" as a one-off in the mid-Thirties to capitalize on the popularity of his first song, "Spanish Two Step," a staple in the Playboys' set. "San Antonio Rose" became one of the most beloved of Wills' more than 500 compositions. Ironically, Wills once claimed the Texas swing classic was "a mistake. We just did it! Nobody knew what we were doing. We just did something to get out of there."

1 "El Paso," Marty Robbins
Songwriter: Marty Robbins
Year Charted: 1959
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 1
In the late Fifties, Marty Robbins (1925-1982) topped off a successful career with a No. 1 pop and country hit, "A White Sport Coat (and a Pink Carnation)," while also playing bit parts in Westerns. The experience moved his songwriting toward Old West myths and legends (inspired in part by "Texas" Bob Heckle, his cowboy grandfather), as he penned the theme for Gary Cooper's The Hanging Tree. "El Paso" shot up the charts, stayed at the top spot for seven weeks and on the charts for six months, and went platinum in the mid-Sixties.

Despite its obvious appeal, Columbia A&R head Mitch Miller rejected the story-song as long at four minutes and too wordy. Robbins countered by citing Johnny Horton's "The Battle of New Orleans" as an example of a mold-breaking hit. Columbia relented, releasing a radio edit for deejays, who rejected it for the full version, vindicating Robbins.

Romantic, tragic, elegiac, "El Paso" won a Grammy and became Marty Robbins' signature tune, forever a part of American music.

annotated by Margaret Moser

Texas in the Title

24 "Northeast Texas Women," Willis Alan Ramsey
Songwriter: Willis Alan Ramsey
Year Released: 1972
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
With just one album recorded more than 30 years ago, Willis Alan Ramsey found his place in the annals of great Texas songwriters. "Northeast Texas Women" closes that album with a raucous tongue-in-cheek ode to big-haired Texas gals with "cast-iron curls" and "aluminum dimples." Ramsey is now putting the finishing touches on his second album, three decades in the making, at his studio in Wimberley.

23 "Long Tall Texan," Murry Kellum
Songwriter: Henry Strezlecki
Year Released: 1963
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 51
The Sixties were the golden age of cornpone, and Murry Kellum's "Long Tall Texan" rates just below better-known tunes like Ray Stevens' "Ahab the Arab" and Sheb Wooley's "Purple People Eater" on the guffaw-o-meter. Some have theorized "Long Tall Texan" would've been a bigger hit if not for the Kennedy assassination's chilling effect on funny songs about Texans with guns. Lyle Lovett resurrected it for 1996's The Road to Ensenada.

22 "Under the 'X' in Texas," Johnny Gimble
Songwriter: Johnny Gimble
Year Released: 1976
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
In 1976, master swing fiddler Johnny Gimble established himself as the go-to session man in Nashville. First distinguishing himself nationally as Bob Wills' fiddle and mandolin player in the Fifties, Gimble was ready to settle down and let the work come to him. He sure missed Texas, though, so utilizing map imagery to illustrate his longing, Gimble wrote this sprightly song. Now 76, Gimble resides in Dripping Springs and still plays regularly.

21 "At the Crossroads," Sir Douglas Quintet
Songwriter: Doug Sahm
Year Released: 1969
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
A lot was going on in Doug Sahm's life during the success of "Mendocino," and his personal concerns were often revealed in lyrics. Estranged from his beloved home state, he sang what may be the most heartfelt lines in any of his songs, inspiring critics to ignore the "Texas in the Title" rule and vote the song in. And who are we to argue with the sentiment, "You can teach me lots of lessons, you can bring me lots of gold, but you just can't live in Texas if you don't have a lotta soul."

20 "Texas (When I Die)," Tanya Tucker
Songwriters: Bobby Borchers, Ed Bruce, Patsy Bruce
Year Released: 1978
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 5
Upon its 1978 release, 19-year-old Tanya Tucker's TNT had all of Nashville aflutter with its overt rock aspirations and sexy gatefold pinup. While the album failed to break Tucker as a rock artist, it did spawn a lasting country classic with "Texas (When I Die)." Tucker realizes she may not go to heaven when she dies, but as long as the Almighty lets her go to Texas, she won't complain.

19 "Good Texan," the Vaughan Brothers
Songwriters: Nile Rodgers, Jimmie Vaughan
Year Released: 1990
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
"Do it to me like I know you could, so I can do it to you baby like a Texan should." The grand tradition of Lone Star braggadocio reaches a new level of macho oafishness with this lyric. Only a vocalist as laid back and assuredly un-self-conscious as Jimmie Vaughan could pull "Good Texan" off without playing it for hardcore prurience or cheap irony.

18 "Texas in My Rear View Mirror," Mac Davis
Songwriter: Mac Davis
Year Released: 1980
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 9
Some people have to leave Texas to figure out they love it. Such is the case with the restless protagonist in this Mac Davis classic. Feeling he'll wind up in jail or dead if he doesn't escape Lubbock, he sets out for Hollywood, thinking happiness is "Lubbock, Texas, in my rear view mirror." But L.A. turns out to be tougher than he thought, so he returns to Lubbock with a renewed appreciation for his hometown.

17 "The WASP (Texas Radio and the Big Beat)," the Doors
Songwriters: John Densmore, Robbie Krieger, Ray Manzarek, Jim Morrison
Year Released: 1971
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
"I love the friends I've gathered together on this thin raft," muses Jim Morrison. "We have constructed pyramids in honor of our escaping." Said raft sinks like a stone under the weight of turgid spoken lyrics about brightly feathered Negroes and blues-rock bloat. This is hardly the high point of L.A. Woman, the Doors' last album before Morrison's death. Nevertheless, "The WASP (Texas Radio and the Big Beat)" has become a Two-for-Tuesday staple, especially in the state it name-checks.

16 "Screw You, We're From Texas," Ray Wylie Hubbard
Songwriter: Ray Wylie Hubbard
Year Released: 2003
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
While not quite as direct as the Loco Gringos' infamous T-shirts, Ray Wylie Hubbard's "Screw You, We're From Texas," from this year's Growl, works simultaneously as a rebellious middle finger and a celebration of Texas music. Hubbard growls the praises of Willie, Stevie Ray, and the 13th Floor Elevators over a swampy, blues-rock choogle. Highlights include snare shots punctuating the Dallas and Waco reference, and Hubbard's dismissal of the other 49 states with the line, "I don't care if I ever go to Delaware anyway."

15 "Memories of East Texas," Michelle Shocked
Songwriter: Michelle Shocked
Year Released: 1988
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
The cover of Michelle Shocked's 1988 breakthrough, Short Sharp Shocked, is a news photo of her being dragged away by San Francisco police during a fair housing protest. The bucolic "Memories of East Texas" reconciles the pain of being an adolescent outcast with a bittersweet lyrical mix of fondness and frustration familiar to anyone who ever felt compelled to flee their hometown.

14 "The Eyes of Texas," Milton Brown
Songwriter: John Lang Sinclair (lyrics)
Year Released: 1903
First sung at Austin's Hancock Opera House on May 12, 1903, at a minstrel show to benefit the University of Texas track team, the origin of UT's official song is a legend in and of itself. According to the Handbook of Texas, John Lang Sinclair wrote "The Eyes of Texas" to the tune of "I've Been Working on the Railroad" at the behest of his roommate, UT band director Louis Johnson. The song instantly became a campuswide smash and has since been played by everyone from Kostelanetz to Elvis.

13 "Texas Me," Sir Douglas Quintet
Songwriters: Doug Sahm, Frank Morin, John Perez, Augie Meyers
Year Released: 1969
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
It's hard to imagine a more poignant expatriate's lament than "Texas Me." Doug Sahm was one of many musicians who fled Texas for San Francisco during the Sixties, but he never stopped celebrating his home state. "Texas Me" combines Augie Meyers' swirling organ with steel guitar, fiddle, and Sahm's homesickness as he asks, "I wonder what happened to the man inside, the real old Texas me?"

12 "Luckenbach, Texas (Back to the Basics of Love)," Waylon Jennings with Willie Nelson
Songwriters: Bobby Gene Emmons, Chips Moman
Year Released: 1977
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 1
Oddly enough, this song represents the one and only appearance by unofficial state musician Willie Nelson, who sings backup here, on the Top Texas 40 chart. Moreover, "Luckenbach, Texas" wasn't written by Waylon, Willie, or the boys. It was penned by famed Memphis producer/songwriter Chips Moman and his American Sound Studios house band organist, Bobby Emmons. Nevertheless, the song's success in the summer of '77 put Luckenbach on the map. Souvenir-seeking thieves have been trying to take it back off ever since.

11 "West Texas Waltz," Butch Hancock
Songwriter: Butch Hancock
Year Released: 1978
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
In 1978, long before Americana became a viable musical genre, Lubbock Renaissance man Butch Hancock released West Texas Waltzes & Dust-Blown Tractor Tunes on his own Rainlight Records label. Intimately informed by the sparse South Plains landscape and tales of people living there, modern country-folk songs like "West Texas Waltz" have garnered Hancock a devoted following. Emmylou Harris and Hancock's Flatlanders bandmate Joe Ely helped introduce the song to an even wider audience with their respective versions of the song.

10 "Texas Tornado," Sir Douglas Quintet
Songwriter: Doug Sahm
Year Released: 1973
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
More tornadoes touch down in Texas each year than in any other state. While the tourist bureau would pooh-pooh this statistic by saying it's only because of Texas' overwhelming land mass, true Texans take a perverse sort of pride even in the state's most terrifying natural disasters. Doug Sahm illustrates this on the much-loved title track of his second and final album for Atlantic.

9 "The Yellow Rose of Texas," Gene Autry
Songwriter: Unknown
Year Written: 1836
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 1
Legend has it that this 1830s folk song was written about Emily D. West, an indentured mulatto servant of James Morgan, an entrepreneur settler of the lowlands east of present-day Houston. On April 18, 1836, Santa Anna's troops captured West as they moved into the area to battle Sam Houston's army. Santa Anna became so enamored of West that he left his troops vulnerable to Houston's surprise attack. West's alleged carnal distraction made her a "sung" hero of Texas independence. Some historians now say the song had nothing to do with West, but the legend lives on.

8 "Rolling Stone From Texas," Don Walser
Songwriter: Don Walser
Year Originally Recorded: 1964
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
Beloved Austin troubadour Don Walser wrote his calling card, "Rolling Stone From Texas" in 1952 at age 18. Growing up on the West Texas plains, Walser absorbed the Western swing of Bob Wills, the blue yodel of Jimmie Rodgers, and the honky-tonk heartache of Lefty Frizzell. After serving in the Texas National Guard for 45 years, he began pursuing music full-time with his "Pure Texas" sound. Health problems forced Walser to retire from performing earlier this year.

7 "Miles and Miles of Texas," Asleep at the Wheel
Songwriters: Tommy Camfield, Diane Johnston
Year Released: 1976
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 38
Although "Miles and Miles of Texas" was recorded as a demo around 1950, the song didn't see the light of day until Asleep at the Wheel's Ray Benson and producer Tommy Allsup discovered it at Hank Thompson's publishing company in the mid-Seventies. Recognizing a potential new Texas anthem when they heard it, Asleep at the Wheel recorded "Miles and Miles of Texas" for 1976's Wheelin' and Dealin'. The song's use in a mid-Nineties mobile phone ad campaign further solidified its place in the collective Lone Star psyche.

6 "T for Texas (Blue Yodel No. 1)," Jimmie Rodgers
Songwriter: Jimmie Rodgers
Year Released: 1927
Country music as we know it began in 1927 when RCA Victor A&R man Ralph Peer recorded Jimmie Rodgers singing the country-blues hybrid, "T for Texas" in Bristol, Tenn. The million-selling song, re-recorded at the Victor studios in Camden, N.J., introduced America to Rodgers' trademark "blue yodel" and catapulted him to a fleeting stardom that was cut short by the Depression and his death from tuberculosis-related complications in 1933.

5 "That's Right (You're Not From Texas)," Lyle Lovett
Songwriters: Lyle Lovett, Willis Alan Ramsey, Alison Rogers
Year Released: 1996
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
"That's Right (You're Not From Texas)" hasn't been around long enough to be deemed classic, but it's definitely a contender. Lyle Lovett takes us on a westward swinging ride through Texas musical history that touches on a wide array of cultural signifiers. There's the zealous transplant in an ill-fitting hat, the out-of-state girlfriend who just doesn't get Texas, and the reference to Uncle Walt's Band, to name a few. The title might strike non-natives as arrogant, but as Lyle himself so amicably concludes, "Texas wants you anyway."

4 "Waltz Across Texas," Ernest Tubb
Songwriters: Ernest Tubb, Quanah Talmadge "Billy" Tubb
Year Released: 1965
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 34
One of country music's best loved performers, crisp, Texas-born Ernest Tubb started out yodeling like his idol Jimmie Rodgers but eventually developed his own unique vocal style while plying his trade in honky-tonks across the South. Tubb's twang-laden drawl and the faraway steel guitar on "Waltz Across Texas" capture the fleeting nature of passion, adding pathos to the memorable lyric, "Like a storybook ending, I'm lost in your charms."

3 "Texas Flood," Stevie Ray Vaughan & Double Trouble
Songwriters: Larry Davis, Joseph Scott
Year Originally Released: 1958
Highest Billboard Chart Position: none
"Texas Flood" is best known today as the incendiary Albert King/Jimi Hendrix-style workout that introduced Stevie Ray Vaughan to the world beyond Texas in 1983. However, the song's history goes back to 1958, when Arkansas-bred Larry Davis cut the original version with Fenton Robinson on guitar for Don Robey's Houston-based Duke-Peacock label. Opinions vary as to which version is definitive, but Texas can proudly claim both as milestones in electric blues.

2 "All My Ex's Live in Texas," George Strait
Songwriters: Lyndia Jean Shafer, Sanger D. Shafer
Year Released: 1987
Highest Billboard Chart Position: No. 1
Combining shades of Western swing with a clever, sing-along lyric, "All My Ex's Live in Texas" is one of George Strait's most memorable hits in a career filled with them. The Hill Country native approaches the song good-naturedly, refusing to go too deeply into why Allison from Galveston or Dimple from Temple turned on him like Texas weather, but one gets the unspoken sense that more than one thrown plate hastened our hero's Tennessee flee.

1 "Deep in the Heart of Texas," Gene Autry
Songwriters: June Hershey, Don Swander
Year Released: 1941
One of the first things Texas schoolchildren learn is to clap-clap-clap-clap along with "Deep in the Heart of Texas." June Hershey wrote the lyrics and Don Swander wrote the music to the song in 1941, and it was No. 1 on Your Hit Parade for five straight weeks in 1942. Tioga, Texas-born Gene Autry's version, featured in the movie Heart of the Rio Grande, remains the definitive version of the song, though Bing Crosby, Bob Wills, Ella Fitzgerald, Woody Herman, Duane Eddy, Ray Charles, George Strait, and countless others covered it.

annotated by Greg Beets

Texas Towns & Places: Top 15

2 "San Antonio Rose," Bob Wills & His Texas Playboys

3 "(Is Anybody Going to) San Antone," Doug Sahm

6 "Luckenbach, Texas (Back to the Basics of Love)," Waylon Jennings with Willie Nelson

7 "Galveston," Glen Campbell

8 "Amarillo by Morning," George Strait

9 "China Grove," the Doobie Brothers

10 "I'm an Old Cowhand (From the Rio Grande)," Dan Hicks & His Hot Licks

11 "The Streets of Laredo," Marty Robbins

12 "I'm a Ding Dong Daddy (From Dumas)," Bob Wills & His Texas Playboys

14 "Asshole From El Paso," Kinky Friedman & the Texas Jewboys

Texas in the Title: Top 25

2 "All My Ex's Live in Texas," George Strait

3 "Texas Flood," Stevie Ray Vaughan & Double Trouble

4 "Waltz Across Texas," Ernest Tubb

5 "That's Right (You're Not From Texas)," Lyle Lovett

6 "T for Texas (Blue Yodel No. 1)," Jimmie Rodgers

7 "Miles and Miles of Texas," Asleep at the Wheel

8 "Rolling Stone From Texas," Don Walser

9 "Yellow Rose of Texas," Gene Autry

10 "Texas Tornado," Sir Douglas Quintet

11 "West Texas Waltz," Butch Hancock

12 "Luckenbach, Texas (Back to the Basics of Love)," Waylon Jennings with Willie Nelson

13 "Texas Me," Sir Douglas Quintet

14 "The Eyes of Texas," Milton Brown

15 "Memories of East Texas," Michelle Shocked

16 "Screw You, We're From Texas," Ray Wylie Hubbard

17 "The WASP (Texas Radio and the Big Beat)," the Doors

18 "Texas in My Rear View Mirror," Mac Davis

19 "Good Texan," the Vaughan Brothers

20 "Texas (When I Die)," Tanya Tucker

21 "At the Crossroads," Sir Douglas Quintet

22 "Under the 'X' in Texas," Johnny Gimble

23 "Long Tall Texan," Murry Kellum

24 "Northeast Texas Women," Willis Alan Ramsey

25 "Texas Flyer," Freddie King

Texas Towns & Places

"Abilene," George Hamilton IV

"Across the Alley from the Alamo," Asleep at the Wheel

"Alleys of Austin," Michael Martin Murphy

"Amarillo by Morning," George Strait

"Amarillo Highway," Doug Sahm

"Anahuac," Austin Lounge Lizards

"Asshole from El Paso," Kinky Friedman

"Austin Breakdown," Bill Neely

"Austin Pickers," Gary P. Nunn

"Austin Texas Mental Hospital," Stars of the Lid

"Bandera Waltz," Ernest Tubb

"Beaumont Bag," Bob Wills & the Texas Playboys

"Beeville by Morning," Michael Hall

"Big D Blues," Hot Lips Page

"Big Rio Grande River," Austin Lounge Lizards

"Bosque Bandit," Johnny Gimble

"Brazos River Blues," Michael Fracasso

"Broke Down South of Dallas," Junior Brown

"Brown Arms in Houston," Orpheus

"Brownsville," Sleepy John Estes

"Brownsville Girl," Bob Dylan

"Chester Nimitz Oriental Garden Waltz," Austin Lounge Lizards

"China Grove," Doobie Brothers

"Coming Back to Texas," Kenneth Threadgill

"Corpus Christi," Angkor Wat

"Corpus Christi Bay," Robert Earl Keen

"Corpus Christi Waltz," Harry Choates

"Corsicana Daily Sun," Billy Joe Shaver

"Driving Around Houston," Tom House

"Dallas," Jimmie Dale Gilmore

"Dallas Blues," Louis Armstrong

"Dallas Country Jail Blues," Gene Autry

"Dallas Darling," Tex Ritter

"Dallas, Houston, San Antone," David Allen Coe

"Dallas, Texas," Austin Lounge Lizards

"Dance by the Rio Grande," Corey Morrow

"De San Antonio a Penjamo," Flaco Jimemez

"Deep Ellum Blues," traditional

"Devil Lives in Dallas," Rusty Wier

"Dobro Daddio from Del Rio," Ray Campi

"Does Fort Worth Ever Cross Your Mind?," George Strait

"Down the Trail to San Antone," Sons of the Pioneers

"Dracula from Houston," Butthole Surfers

"El Paso Cowboy," Don Walser

"Excitement in Nacogdoches," Bob Murphey

"Fair to Midland," Dwight Yoakam

"Fort Worth Blues," Steve Earle

"Fort Worth Jail," Gene Autry, Tex Ritter

"Fort Worth Stomp," Crystal Springs Ramblers

"Fort Worth Thursday Night," Chip Taylor

"Fort Worth, Dallas or Houston," George Hamilton IV

"Fort Worth, Texas," Johnny Dowd

"Gallivantin' Galveston Gal," Gene Autry

"Garner State Park," the Triumphs

"Heaven, Hell or Houston," ZZ Top

"Home in San Antone," Johnny Bush

"Hot Nite in Dallas," Moon Martin

"Hour in Texarkana," Don Cognoscenti

"Houston (Means I'm One Day Closer To You) Gatlin Brothers

"Houston Bound," Lightnin' Hopkins

"Houston El Mover," Joe King Carraso

"Houston Solution," Ronnie Milsap

"I Can't Go Back To Austin," Doug Sahm

"I Don't Care What it is That You Did In Fort Worth," Cornell Hurd Band

"I Walked from Dallas," L'il Son Jackson

"I'll be Your San Antone Rose," Jerry Jeff Walker

"I'm a Ding Dong Daddy from Dumas," Bob Wills

"I'm An Old Cowhand from the Rio Grande," Dan Hicks & His Hot Licks

"If I Can't Be In Austin," Chip Taylor

"If You Ever Get Back to Amarillo," Alan Jackson

"I'm An Old Cowhand from the Rio Grande," Dan Hicks

"(Is Anybody Going to) San Antone," Charley Pride, Doug Sahm

"Laredo," Chip Taylor & Carrie Rodriguez

"Laredo," Sir Douglas Quintet

"Layover in Pecos," Billy Walker

"Learning to P'like and Luckenbach Women," Jerry Jeff Walker

"Leavin' Amarillo," Billy Joe Shaver

"Life in Amarillo," Li'l Cap'n Travis

"Livin' on the Edge (of Houston)," the Reverend Horton Heat

"Lonely Lubbock Nights," Aaron Watson

"Lost in Austin," Bobby Bare

"Lubbock Texas," Terry Edwards

"Lubbock Tornado," Terry Allen

"Lubbock Woman," Terry Allen

"Luckenbach, Texas," Waylon Jennings

"(Making the Run to) Gladewater," Michelle Shocked

"Man From Houston," Mark Lindsay

"Marfa Lights," Tom X. Hancock

"Meet Me in Seguin," Augie Meyers

"My Galveston Gal," Milton Brown

"No More the Moon Shines on Lorena," Alex Chilton

"Panhandle Rag," Hank Thompson

"Pflugerville," Austin Lounge Lizards

"Pine Island Bayou," The Gourds

"Port Arthur Waltz," Harry Choates

"Possum Kingdom," the Toadies

"Pretty Little Lady from Beaumont," George Jones

"Raining in Port Arthur," the Gourds

"Red River Valley," Gene Autry

"Remember the Alamo," Asleep at the Wheel

"San Angelo Swing," Joe Carr

"San Antonio," Willie Nelson

"San Antonio Blues," Big Bill Broonzy

"San Antonio Girl," Lyle Lovett

"San Antonio Romeo," Tish Hinojosa

"San Antonio Rose," Bob Wills & the Texas Playboys

"San Antonio Waltz," Harry Choates

"Sleepy Rio Grande," Gene Autry

"Snowin' Again in Lubbock," Andy Wilkinson

"South of Round Rock, Texas," Dale Watson

"Streets of Laredo," Marty Robbins (Trad)

"Stupid Texas Song," Austin Lounge Lizards

"Texarkana," Claude Williams

"Texarkana, Pecos or Houston," George Hamilton IV

"The Alamo (Green Leaves of Summer)

"The Night Flight from Houston," Laurie Anderson

"The Wolfman of Del Rio," Terry Allen

"There's a Rainbow on the Rio Colorado," Gene Autry

"Tim Moore's Farm," Lightnin' Hopkins

"Truckstop in La Grange," Dale Watson

"Uvalde County," Mike Blakely

"Uvalde Polka," Hank Thompson

"Velma from Selma," Augie Meyers

"Viva Luckenbach," Jerry Jeff Walker

"Viva Seguin," Santiago Jimenez

"Waco Express," Waco Brothers

"West of Pecos," Donald Byrd

"What's Fort Worth Worth?," Lawton Williams

"Who Do I Know in Dallas," Willie Nelson, Merle Haggard

"Wichita Falls," Houston Marchman

"Wichita Falls Blues," T-Bone Walker

"Young Dallas Cowboy," David Allen Coe

Texas in the Title

"A Heart As Big As Texas," Gene Autry

"All My Exes Live In Texas," George Strait

"All Night Texas Turnaround," Ted Roddy & Tearjoint Troubadours

"And God Created Texas," Johnny Bush

"Beautiful Texas," Gene Autry

"Beautiful Texas," Willie Nelson

"Beautiful Texas Sunshine," Doug Sahm

"Beneath a Texas Moon," J.C. Crowley

"Big Beautiful Texas," Gene Autry

"Big Texas Moon," Red Steagall

"Big Yellow Moon Over Texas," Bill Neely

"Blame it on Texas," Mark Chesnutt

"Blue Texas Moonlight," Elton Britt

"Blue Texas Waltz," Billy Joe Shaver

"Blues Come to Texas," L'il Son Jackson

"Texas and Pacific Blues," Frenchy's String Band

"Boogie Back To Texas," Asleep at the Wheel

"Breathe Across Texas," Lisa Germano

"Bury Me in Texas," Choreboy

"But I've Got Texas," Jon Wayne

"Cactus, Texas," Waylon Jennings

"Can't Shake the Sand of Texas from My Shoes," Gene Autry

"Christmas Time in Texas," Dale Watson

"Come on Down to Texas," Steven Fromholz

"Coming Back to Texas," Willie Nelson

"Dad's Little Texas Lad," Montana Slim

"Dallas, Texas," Austin Lounge Lizards

"Dance Time in Texas," George Strait

"Deep in the Heart of Texas," Gene Autry

"Dirty Little Texas Story," Chip Taylor & Carrie Rodriguez

"Don't Sing Me No Songs About Texas," Johnny Bush

"Down in Texas," Jerry Jeff Walker

"Down Texas Way," Gene Autry

"Down the Trail to San Antone," Gene Autry

"Driftin' Texas Sand," Webb Pierce

"East Texas Blues," Dave Alvin

"East Texas Drag," East Texas Serenaders

"East Texas Pines," Libbi Bosworth

"Even Texas Isn't Big Enough Now," Riders In The Sky

"Eyes of Texas," Milton Brown, Tex Ritter

"Flower of Texas," Pee Wee King

"Fort Worth, Texas," Johnny Dowd

"Fuck You, We're From Texas," DJ Rob-E, Southside Reverb

"God Blessed Texas," Little Texas

"Goin' Back to Texas," Gene Autry

"Going Back to My Texas Home," Bill Boyd

"Gone to Texas," Terry Allen

"Gonna Build a Big Fence Around Texas," Gene Autry

"Good Texan," the Vaughan Brothers

"Great State of Texas," Pine Valley Cosmonauts

"Headin' for the Texas Border," Flamin' Groovies

"Heart of Texas," Billy Joe Shaver

"Heaven's Almost As Big As Texas," Johnny Paycheck

"High Texas Rider," Augie Meyers & the Western Head Band

"Home to Texas," Cornell Hurd Band

"Hot Texas Christmas day," Dale Watson

"Hot Texas Night," Mac Davis

"I Can't See Texas from Here," George Strait

"I Do (Waltz Across Texas)," Midnight Rodeo

"I Got Texas in My Soul," Tex Williams

"I Left My Heart in Texas," Moon Mullican

"I Love Texas," Michael Ballew

"I Meet Texas Alexander," Lightnin' Hopkins

"I'd Like to be in Texas," Don Edwards

"I'd Like to Say A Word About Texas," Flatt & Scruggs

"Ides of Texas," Chad Mitchell Trio

"If You're Gonna Play In Texas (You've Gotta Have A Fiddle In The Band)," Alabama

"I'll Go Riding Down That Old Texas Trail," Gene Autry

"I'm Going Back to You My Texas," Kenneth Threadgill

"It's a Texas Thing," Gary P. Nunn

"I've Been Down to Texas," Deuce Spriggins

"I've Got a Heart as Big as Texas," Gene Autry

"Jesus Lives in Texas (With a Machine Gun)," Dark Black Past

"Jimmie's Texas Blues," Jimmie Rodgers, Merle Haggard

"Keep Texas Beautiful," Jerry Jeff Walker

"Leavin' Texas," Jerry Jeff Walker

"Lonesome Texas," Randy Banks

"Long Tall Texan," Lyle Lovett

"Love You Big as Texas," Tex Ritter

"Luckenbach, Texas," Waylon Jennings

"Memories of East Texas," Michelle Shocked

"Memphis, Texas," Cooder Graw, Chip Taylor & Carrie Rodriguez

"Merry Texas Christmas, Y'all!," Asleep at the Wheel

"Miles of Miles of Texas," Asleep at the Wheel

"Movin' On to Texas," Goin' Postal

"Mr. Moon Over Texas," Texas Playboys

"My Brown Eyed Texas Rose," Tex Ritter

"My First Taste of Texas," Ed Bruce

"East Texas Blues," Dave Alvin

"Beautiful Texas Sunshine," Doug Sahm

"My Texas Dream," Ben Atkins Band

"My Texas Girl," The Carter Family

"My Texas Sweetheart," Montana Slim

"New San Antonio Rose," Bob Wills

"Northeast Texas Women," Willis Allen Ramsey

"Nowhere Texas," Cross Canadian Ragweed

"On Earth As it is in Texas," Deryl Dodd

"Put Me on a Train Back to Texas," Waylon Jennings/Willie Nelson

"Raisin' Cane in Texas," Gene Watson

"Roll on Texas Moon," Roy Rogers

"Rolling Stone from Texas," Don Walser

"Screw You, We're From Texas," Ray Wylie Hubbard

"Ship Me Back to Texas," Chris Wall

"Somewhere Down in Texas," Jason Boland & the Stragglers

"Somewhere in Texas," Willie Nelson

"Songs About Texas," Pat Green

"South Texas Highway," Libbi Bosworth

"South Texas Night," Neal Coty

"South Texas Swing," Adolph Hofner

"Starry Eyed Texas Girl," Hank Thompson

"Stars Over Texas," Tracy Lawrence

"Stupid Texas Song," Austin Lounge Lizards

"Sweet Mother Texas," Waylon Jennings

"T For Texas (Blue Yodel #1)," Jimmie Rodgers

"Tail Lights to Texas," the Controllers

"Take Me Back to Texas," Katy Moffatt

"Take Me Back to Texas," Roy Rogers

"Talk To Me, Texas," Keith Whitley

"Tears in the Eyes of Texas," Sonny Burgess

"Texans Never Cry," Gene Autry

"Texas (Blatant Localism)," Bad Mutha Goose

"Big Yellow Moon Over Texas," Bill Neely

"Blue Texas Waltz," Billy Joe Shaver

"Texas Rangers," traditional

"Texas (Bold As Love)," Opie Hendrix

"Texas (When I Die)," Tanya Tucker

"Texas and Norma Jean," Brooks & Dunn

"Texas and Pacific," Louis Jordan

"Texas Barbeque," Bela Fleck

"Texas Blacktop Highway," Django Walker

"Texas Blue Water," Michael Ballew

"Texas Blues," Lowell Fulsom

"Texas Blues," Mance Lipscomb

"Texas Blues," Oscar Peterson

"Texas Blues," Vassar Clements

"Texas Special," Texas Alexander

"Texas Easy Street," Henry Thomas

"Texas Worried Blues," Henry Thomas

"Texas Bound," Harris & Ryden

"Texas Bound and Flyin'," Jerry Reed

"Texas Bound Blues," Margaret Thornton

"Texas Bound Train," Corey Morrow

"Texas Chatter," Harry James

"Texas Clover," Paul Ray & the Cobras

"Texas Cowboy Night," Mel Tillis & Nancy Sinatra

"Texas Fiddle Man," Asleep at the Wheel

"Texas Fiddle Song," Merle Haggard

"Texas Fiddler," Texas Playboys

"Texas Flood," Larry Davis/Stevie Ray Vaughan

"Texas for Christmas," Mickey Gilley

"Texas Girl at the Funeral," Randy Newman

"Texas Has a Whorehouse in it -"Best Little Whorehouse in Texas"

"Texas I Love You," Marty Robbins

"Texas Ida Red," David Houston

"Texas in 1880," Foster & Lloyd

"Texas in My Rearview Mirror," Mac Davis

"Texas in My Soul," Ernest Tubb

"Texas is a State of Mind," Ray Wylie Hubbard

"Texas is Bigger Than it Used to be," Mark Chesnutt

"Texas is for Lovers," Curbside Service

"Texas Jail Cell," Jon Wayne

"Texas Kid's Retirement Run," Alvin Crow

"Texas Kinda Attitude," Dan Hicks & His Hot Licks

"Texas Lady," Les Paul & Mary Ford

"Texas Law & Justice," Bill Neely

"Texas Law Sez," Tompall Glasser

"Texas Little Darlin'," Johnny Mercer

"Texas Lonesome," Gary P. Nunn

"Texas Love Kit," Gary Primich

"Texas Love Song," Elton John

"Texas Lullabye," David Allen Coe

"Texas Man Blues," Monette Moore

"Texas Me and You," Asleep at the Wheel

"Texas Memories," Max Steiner

"Texas Moaner," Louis Armstron

"Texas Mood," Rampart Street Paraders

"Texas Moonbean Waltz," (trad polka)

"Texas Morning," Michael Martin Murphy

"Texas Morning," Michael Nesmith

"Texas Never Fell in Love with Me," Tom T. Hall

"Texas Nite Train," Cornell Hurd

"Texas on a Saturday Night," Willie Nelson

"Texas on My Mind," Jerry Jeff Walker, Pat Green

"Texas or New Mexico," Bruce Henderson

"Texas Panhandle Rag," Bob Wills

"Texas Playboy Rag," Bob Wills

"Texas Polka," Riders in the Sky

"Texas Ranger Man," Doug Sahm

"Texas River Song," Townes Van Zandt

"Texas Rose Café," Little Feat

"Texas Sand," Tune Wranglers

"Texas Saturday Night," Moe Bandy

"Texas Shuffle," Count Basie

"Texas Sized Heartache," Joe Diffie

"Texas Skies," Uranium Savages

"Texas Song," Calvin Russell

"Texas State of Mind," Monty and the Pythons

"Texas Sun," Bastard Sons of Johnny Cash

"Texas Tattoo," Gibson/Miller Band

"Texas Tea Party," Benny Goodman

"Texas Thing," Doug Moreland

"Texas Time Travelin'," Cory Morrow

"Texas Top Hand," Don Walser

"Texas Tornado," Big Bill Broonzy

"Texas Tornado," Judy Garland

"Texas Town," String Cheese Incident

"Texas Troubadour Stomp," Ernest Tubb

"Texas Twister," Little Feat

"Texas Up Here Tennessee," Billy Joe Shaver

"Texas Women," Hank Williams Jr.

"Texas Yodel," Wesley Tuttle

"Texas You & Me," Asleep at the Wheel

"That's Right (You're Not From Texas)," Lyle Lovett

"That's What I Like About Texas," Dale Watson

"The Bluest Eyes in Texas," Restless Heart

"The Flies of Texas Are Upon You," Ray Stevens

"The Night Before Christmas, In Texas, that is," Gene Autry

"The Streets of San Laredo," Gene Autry

"The Texas Crapshooter," Sons of the Pioneers

"The Texas Rangers," Tex Ritter

"The WASP (Texas Radio and the Big Beat)," the Doors

"There Ain't A Cow in Texas," Merle Travis

"There's A Girl in Texas," Trace Adkins

"There's A Little Bit of Everything In Texas," Ernest Tubb

"To Japan from Texas," the 1-4-5's

"Too Much Texas," Rhett Akins

"Touch of Texas," Kay Kyser, Stan Kenton

"Twilight Over Texas," Ernest Tubb

"Two-Bit Texas Town," Angela Strehli

"Two More Tears in Texas," Cooder Graw

"Under the Light of the Texas Moon," Montana Slim

"Under The X in Texas," Johnny Gimble

"Walked Over Texas," Cakekitchen

"Waltz Across Texas," Ernest Tubb

"Way Down Texas Way," Asleep at the Wheel

"Way Out West in Texas," Gene Autry

"West Texas High and Me," Gary Morris

"West Texas Highway," Lyle Lovett

"West Texas Holiday," Pat Green

"West Texas Sun," Nanci Griffith

"West Texas Teardrops," the Old 97s

"West Texas Trucking Board," by Ducks Deluxe

"West Texas Waltz," Billy Joe Shaver

"West Texas Waltz," Butch Hancock

"West Texas Wind," Cooder Graw

"What I Like About Texas," Jerry Jeff Walker

"When in Texas," Sonny Burgess

"When it's Round-up Time in Texas," Gene Autry

"Who Put All My Exes in Texas?," Willie Nelson

"Wingin' it Home to Texas," Jerry Jeff Walker

"Women in Texas," Jerry Jeff Walker

"Yellow Rose of Texas," Gene Autry

"You Can't Texas Out of Me," Spade Cooley

"You'll Never Take Texas Out of Me," Waylon Jennings

"You're from Texas," Bob Wills, Asleep

1) Toadies, "Tyler"

2) Jon Wayne, "Texas Funeral"

3) Scarface, "Southside: Houston, Texas"

4) The Reverend Horton Heat, "Livin' on the Edge (of Houston)"

5) Molly Hatchet, "T for Texas (Blue Yodel No. 1)"

6) Butthole Surfers, "Dracula From Houston"

7) Big Black, "Texas"

8) Boss Hog, "Texas"

9) Junkyard, "Texas"

10) Ünloco, "Texas"

Gene Autry, the singing cowboy and entrepreneur who recorded more songs about Texas than anyone else, was born Sept. 29, 1907, in the North Texas community of Tioga. As a telegraph operator in Oklahoma, a chance meeting with Will Rogers eventually led him to New York City and a deal with the American Record Corp. In 1931, Autry's "That Silver Haired Daddy of Mine" sold more than 500,000 copies, and he began appearing on Chicago radio station WLS' National Barn Dance program. He broke into the movies with a cameo in 1934's In Old Santa Fe and, atop his faithful horse Champion, was soon a leading box-office draw of the Thirties and Forties. After 1949's smash "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer," Autry slowly began phasing out his performing career in favor of business interests, owning hotels, radio and TV stations, oil wells, and the California (now Anaheim) Angels. He died Oct. 2, 1998, at age 91.

1) "Miles and Miles of Texas"

7) "Screw You, We're from Texas"

10) "There's a Little Bit of Everything in Texas"

Deep in the heart of Texas.

The prairie sky is wide and high,

Deep in the heart of Texas.

The sage in bloom is like perfume,

Deep in the heart of Texas.

Reminds me of the one I love,

Deep in the heart of Texas.

The coyotes wail along the trail,

Deep in the heart of Texas.

The rabbits rush around the brush,

Deep in the heart of Texas.

The cowboys cry, "Ki-yip-pee-yi,"

Deep in the heart of Texas.

The doggies bawl and bawl and bawl,

Deep in the heart of Texas.

Deep in the heart of Texas.

The prairie sky is wide and high

Deep in the heart of Texas.

The sage in bloom is like perfume

Deep in the heart of Texas.

Reminds me of the one I love

Deep in the heart of Texas.

The coyotes wail along the trail

Deep in the heart of Texas.

The rabbits rush around the brush

Deep in the heart of Texas.

The cowboys cry, "Ki-yip-pee-yi"

Deep in the heart of Texas.

The doggies bawl and bawl and bawl

Deep in the heart of Texas.

I fell in love with a Mexican girl.

Nighttime would find me in Rosa's cantina,

Music would play and Felina would whirl.

Blacker than night were the eyes of Felina,

Wicked and evil while casting a spell.

My love was deep for this Mexican maiden,

I was in love, but in vain I could tell.

One night a wild young cowboy came in,

Wild as the West Texas wind.

Dashing and daring, a drink he was sharing,

With wicked Felina, the girl that I loved.

So in anger, I challenged his right for the love of this maiden.

Down went his hand for the gun that he wore.

My challenge was answered in less than a heartbeat,

The handsome young stranger lay dead on the floor.

Just for a moment I stood there in silence,

Shocked by the foul evil deed I had done.

Many thoughts raced through my mind as I stood there,

I had but one chance and that was to run.

Out through the back door of Rosa's I ran,

Out where the horses were tied.

I caught a good one it looked like it could run.

Up on its back and away I did ride,

Just as fast as I could from the West Texas town of El Paso,

Out to the badlands of New Mexico.

Back in El Paso my life would be worthless.

Everything's gone in life nothing is left.

It's been so long since I've seen the young maiden,

My love is stronger than my fear of death.

I saddled up and away I did go,

Maybe tomorrow a bullet will find me,

Tonight nothing's worse than this pain in my heart.

And at last here I am on the hill overlooking El Paso,

I can see Rosa's Cantina below.

My love is strong and it pushes me onward,

Down off the hill to Felina I go.

Off to my right I see five mounted cowboys,

Off to my left ride a dozen or more.

Shouting and shooting, I can't let them catch me.

I have to make it to Rosa's back door.

Something is dreadfully wrong, for I feel

A deep burning pain in my side.

Though I am trying to stay in the saddle,

I'm getting weary, unable to ride.

But my love for Felina is strong, and I rise where I've fallen.

Though I am weary, I can't stop to rest.

I see the white puff of smoke from the rifle,

I feel the bullet go deep in my chest.

From out of nowhere Felina has found me,

Kissing my cheek as she kneels by my side.

Cradled by two loving arms that I'll die for,

One little kiss, then Felina goodbye.

Kent Benjamin: Features editor, Pop Culture Press

Michael Bertin: Contributor, The Austin Chronicle

Jim Caliguiri: Contributor, The Austin Chronicle

Michael Chamy: Associate Music editor, The Austin Chronicle

Jody Denberg: Program director, KGSR

Matt Dentler: Contributor, The Austin Chronicle

Ben Fong-Torres: Author, The Hits Just Keep on Coming: The History of Top 40 Radio

David Fricke: Senior editor, Rolling Stone

Christopher Gray: Columnist, The Austin Chronicle

Michael Hall: Senior editor, Texas Monthly

Melanie Haupt: Contributor, The Austin Chronicle

Raoul Hernandez: Music editor, The Austin Chronicle

Christopher Hess: Contributor, The Austin Chronicle

John Kunz: Owner, Waterloo Records

Terry Lickona: Producer, Austin City Limits

David Lynch: Contributor, The Austin Chronicle

Dave Marsh: Author, The Heart of Rock & Soul: The 1001 Greatest Singles Ever Made

Margaret Moser: Staff writer, The Austin Chronicle

Joe Nick Patoski: Author, Stevie Ray Vaughan: Caught in the Crossfire

Jerry Renshaw: Contributor, The Austin Chronicle

Ira Robbins: Editor,

Robert Rodriguez: Director, Once Upon a Time in Mexico

Jay Trachtenberg: Air staff manager and host of Jazz, Etc., KUT contributor, The Austin Chronicle

K. I. Luckenbach Str - History

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Watch the video: The History of Motorhead (July 2022).


  1. Gradon


  2. Aonghus

    Not quite understood that you wanted to say about it.

  3. Gasho

    Radically the incorrect information

  4. Quintin

    I'm sorry, I can't help you with anything. But I am sure that you will find the right solution.

  5. Fleming

    I absolutely agree with you. There is something in this and the idea is good, I support it.

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