The Classic Belgian Beer Secret? Medieval Super Yeasts!

The Classic Belgian Beer Secret? Medieval Super Yeasts!

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Researchers have discovered a secret behind what makes Belgian beer so special – they include medieval super yeasts in their recipes!

Steven Maere (VIB-UGent), has discovered that some of the most renowned classic Belgian beers , including Gueuze and Trappist ales, are fermented with a rare and unusual form of hybrid yeasts. These yeasts combine DNA of the traditional ale yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , with that of more stress-resistant feral yeasts such as Saccharomyces kudriavzevii.

Mixed Origins

"These yeasts are hybrids between two completely different species" says Dr. Jan Steensels (VIB -- KU Leuven Center for Microbiology), who coordinated the lab work of this study. "Think of lions and tigers making a super-baby."

Such interspecific hybridizations are rare and seem to be favored by the domestication process. In this case, the new hybrid yeasts combined important characteristics of both parental species, with the fermentation capacity of normal beer yeasts and the stress tolerance and capacity to form special aromas of more feral ancient yeasts like S. kudriavzevii that haphazardly made their way into the brewery.

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Spontaneous fermentation at Timmermans Brewery, Itterbeek, Belgium.

The team, from the VIB-KU Leuven Center for Microbiology and the University of Munich, supported by industrial partners, has spent five years characterizing the different yeasts used in today's production of beer, wine, bread and biofuels. The genetic analysis of these yeasts was quite a piece of work, because none of the existing pipelines for DNA sequencing can deal with such mixed origins.

For this the team could, surprisingly, count on the plant expertise of professor Steven Maere, a bioinformatics expert from the VIB-UGent Center for Plant Systems Biology. Maere explains: " Plants have some of the most complex genomes of all living organisms. It is fascinating that complex interspecific hybrids with doubled genomes feature prominently both among domesticated yeasts and domesticated plants."

A Surprise in DNA

"It was a bit of a surprise for us" says Dr. Brigida Gallone (VIB-KU Leuven Center for Microbiology), the lead author on the paper that appeared today in Nature Ecology and Evolution .

"In 2016, we reported that most industrial yeasts belong to, or arose from the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the traditional baker's and brewer's yeast. We found that these industrial yeasts are quite different from their wild progenitors, with different subfamilies having adapted to beer, wine and bakery environments. We also noticed that some of the yeasts that were isolated from ancient Belgian beer styles, like Gueuze and Trappist beers, are even more unusual and contained DNA of two different yeast species."

"It really seems that these unique natural yeasts allowed the development of some of the most renowned beers that Belgium is so famous for," says Dr. Philippe Malcorps, Senior Scientist at the Global Innovation and Technology Center of AB InBev, the world's largest brewer. The team of Malcorps helped with the isolation of yeasts from some of their spontaneous fermentation beer cellars . Those natural super-yeasts are living witnesses of brewing from pre-industrial ages, adapted to harsh conditions of fermentation of the strong Trappist beers, or survival in the long lagering typical for Gueuze beers.

The Brewer, designed and engraved in the Sixteenth Century, by Jost Amman.

"One could say that the unique habitat in wooden fermentation barrels created by adventurous Medieval Belgian brewers allowed these new species to thrive until today," says Prof. Kevin Verstrepen (VIB-KU Leuven Center for Microbiology).

A History of Belgian Beer Yeasts

Apart from the special Belgian yeasts, the team also collected a large number of hybrids from S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae , or from S. uvarum strongly adapted to cold fermentation. While it was already known that lager yeasts were hybrids, the complete DNA analysis of a large number of these yeasts showed how these specific hybrids originated in medieval Germany and later spread across different European breweries as the pilsner beers grew more popular.

"It is no coincidence that the origin of today's beer yeasts lies in Belgium and Germany, arguably the two countries that are most associated with the art of brewing," says Prof. Mathias Hutzler (TU Munich).

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Belgian beer. (Moises.on/ CC BY NC 2.0 )

In addition to isolating and characterizing additional yeasts from classic breweries, the Verstrepen team is now also using these new insights to create novel hybrids that are even better at making flavorful beer . By crossing different natural yeasts isolated from all over the world, the team hopes to generate new beer yeasts that allow brewers to create new aroma patterns, or brew in a more ecological and sustainable way, for example by limiting cooling or allowing fermentation with a better use of local raw materials.

RNA Interference Found In Budding Yeasts

RNAi, a key biochemical pathway in the genetic control networks of most organisms, has now been discovered in Saccharomyces castellii, a close relative of the prototypical budding yeast S. cerevisiae, and in Candida albicans, a common human pathogen.

Budding yeasts are used in research as models for more complicated organisms, in industry to create beer and biofuels, and in pharmaceuticals to produce drugs and vaccines. The ability to study RNAi in yeast and to use RNAi to alter the yeast's protein production may be beneficial for all these fields.

The finding is reported in the September 10 issue of Science Express.

"For a long time, people thought that budding yeast didn't have RNAi at all because Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is the model budding yeast, doesn't have RNAi," says Kathleen Xie, an author on the paper and an undergraduate researcher in the lab of Whitehead Member David Bartel. "And this was kind of a pity because we didn't have a budding yeast model organism available for RNAi research."

Yeast is a good model for the cells of more complicated organisms, including humans, because yeast genomes are easy to manipulate, yeast cells have a high rate of reproduction, and yeast cells have many functions and biochemical pathways in common with human cells.

One biochemical pathway found in more complex organisms is the RNAi pathway, which is used by plants and many animals to silence genes of viruses and transposons, which are parasitic DNA elements. Two key proteins involved in RNAi&mdashknown as Dicer and Argonaute&mdashare lacking in the S. cerevisiae genome. However, the lab of Kenneth Wolfe at Trinity College, Dublin, found that other budding yeasts do have Argonaute, indicating that they might have some form of RNAi. Wolfe brought up the finding to Bartel, who has devoted most of his lab's effort to studying RNAi and related biochemical pathways.

Three Bartel researchers teamed up to determine whether any budding yeasts have RNAi capabilities, in collaboration with the laboratories of Wolfe and Whitehead Founding Member Gerald Fink. One of the species with the Argonaute protein is S. castellii. Anna Drinnenberg, a graduate student in the Bartel lab, developed S. castellii strains to study. Once the strains were established, Drinnenberg examined all of the small bits of RNA in S. castellii cells, looking for telltale signs that Dicer had been at work there.

Dicer, as its name implies, chops up long strands of double-stranded RNA into fairly uniform bits about 20 nucleotides long and hands them off to Argonaute. In S. castellii and in other budding yeasts, Drinnenberg found the correct size of chopped dsRNA in the yeast cells, yet was initially unable to detect a gene coding for a Dicer protein.

It turns out that the Dicer protein in these yeasts looks very different from the Dicer proteins of animals, plants and other fungi. "The fact that the Dicers of budding yeasts are so unusual probably explains why RNAi had gone undetected for so long in these species," says Bartel, who is also a professor at MIT and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) investigator.

After the researchers confirmed that they had found the Dicer gene, David Weinberg, a graduate student in the Bartel lab, inserted the S. castellii Argonaute and Dicer genes into S. cerevisiae, which restored the RNAi pathway to this species that lost it.

Xie then observed that the restored RNAi pathway in S. cerevisiae prevented transposons from copying and reinserting themselves into the yeast's genome. Transposons can harm the genome, and one of the main purposes of the RNAi pathway in other species including animals is to silence them.

"With a validated Dicer protein in S. castellii and reconstituted pathway in S. cerevisiae, we can now examine an RNAi pathway using all of the tools available for studying budding yeasts," says Weinberg.

Bartel, agrees. "We can learn more about the RNAi pathway, just as yeast has taught us about many other biological processes. And there is a hope and assumption that researchers will now be able to use RNAi as a tool to learn more about these yeasts, including C. albicans."

For Fink, this research also beautifully models one of Whitehead's strengths--cooperation among researchers.

"This work was typical of collaboration at Whitehead," says Fink, "You do the experiments first and worry about acclaim afterward, so the outcome is more synergistic than if the labs worked independently."

Drinnenberg says that the teamwork was more than at the primary investigators' level. "Particularly in the initial steps in working with yeast, I would go downstairs to the Fink lab and the lab of Whitehead Fellow Andreas Hochwagen to ask for advice, and talking to the people in their labs was very, very helpful."

This research was funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and Boehringer-Ingelheim Fonds.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. Original written by Nicole Giese. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

The Secret to Belgian Ale? Medieval Super-Yeasts

(CN) – Classic Belgian beers, some of the most famous ales in the world, are fermented with rare, hybrid yeast species, according to a study published Monday in Nature Ecology and Evolution.

A team of researchers have recently discovered that the secret to true Belgian specialty beers, specifically Gueuze and Trappist beers, is a special strain of yeasts created when two entirely separate yeast species crossed DNA. The researchers found the two yeast species, the common ale yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the cold-tolerant wild yeast Sascharomyces kudriavzevii, crossed to form “medieval super yeasts” that have been used by Belgian brewers in their signature ales for centuries.

Kevin Verstrepen, Professor at the University of Leuven and one of the leaders of the study, noted this kind of hybridization in nature is a remarkably uncommon occurrence, and almost never results in a species that can live as long as these super yeasts.

“Crosses between species are rare in nature, and they normally represent an evolutionary dead end because the hybrids are not fertile and thus cannot produce offspring (see for example mule [donkey x horse], liger [lion x tiger], wolphin [whale x dolphin]),” Verstrepen said in an email. “With yeast, however, things are different because they can reproduce sexually (necessary to make the cross in the first place) and a-sexually (i.e. by making clones of themselves, like bacteria). The latter is still possible for the hybrids, and thus they were able to survive.”

Researchers found that when the two different yeasts crossed with one another, the resulting yeast type carried the best characteristics of both of its parents. With the Saccharomyces cerevisiae offering up some much-needed fermentation capabilities and the Saccharomyces kudriavzevii’s natural stress resistance and aromatic characteristics, the hybrid yeasts born from this combination are equipped with certain genetic advantages not normally found in other yeasts.

Verstrepen reports that when this discovery was made, it came as a sizeable surprise to everyone involved – including the brewers.

“Funnily, no one, including the brewers, knew that they were using such special yeasts – it was a big surprise to everyone. When we started sequencing the complete DNA of hundreds of beer yeasts, we simply noticed that some yeasts seem to contain DNA of two separate species. First, we thought it was an error or contamination in our experiments, but we now know that these yeasts indeed contain DNA of two different species because they are a cross between two species,” Verstrepen said.

The study reports that many mysteries continue to surround these hybrid yeasts, and that future research is certain to shed further light on the nature of these uncommonly super species.

The Rise of Modern Beer

In the Middle Ages, practically everyone drank beer from servants to women. Beer wasn’t just a nighttime beverage either. Medieval Europeans drank their brews for breakfast. [R]

Beer production was a cottage industry. Families made ales for their own personal consumption in the comfort of their own homes.

This all changed when mass production of brews began from an unlikely group of people.

The Benedictine Monks [R] are responsible for the development of modern beer brewing methods. These monks made and served beer for pilgrims and travelers. The monks had a vow of hospitality, so it made sense they wanted to improve on ways to make beer.

Ales were safer to drink than water in the Middle Ages, which made it a better choice to serve to visitors.

And the monks themselves also drank beer. Monks drank beer during Lent, as they were fasting. Beer was the perfect fasting drink because it provided more calories than water. This was how beer got its name, “liquid bread.”

Monks are important for the development of beer as we know it today. They introduced regulations and even developed the use of hops in brewing.

Hops weren’t around just for flavoring. The monks discovered that hops were an important preservative which helped increase the shelf life of beer. It took some time to get the recipe right, though.

Finally, in the year 1200, brewers in Bremen, Germany discovered exactly how many hops to add to keep beer shelf-stable for six months. These brews, which didn’t spoil as quickly, were then being shipped all over Europe [R].

To date, the monks still make some of the best beer in the world. Westverlen 12, a Belgian beer, is one of the best beers in the world today. Westverlen 12, made by the Westverlen Brewery, is still being sold now.

The Westverlen Brewery is a 182-year-old institution founded by the Trappist monks of the Abbey of Saint Sixtus in Belgium [R].

What&rsquos With the Belgian Beer Glasses?

One of the first things I noticed when I entered my first Belgian bar was the variety of glassware. Maybe you&rsquove noticed Hoegaarden has their hexagonal glass, or the Chimay chalice.

Belgian breweries do this for a few reasons. The first is aeration each Belgian beer has its own traditional glass shape that is supposed to best air out the beer as you sip it. Chalice shaped glasses are fairly popular for Trappist beers for this reason.

There&rsquos also a tradition associated with the correct Belgian beer glass. Lambics, for instance, traditionally use a range of champagne flute to wine glass shaped glasses.

Finally, and most interestingly, it is for advertisement. Outside of the usual signage at a bar, you won&rsquot see Belgian beers advertised on billboards like you do in the USA. Belgian beers are seen on the glasses they&rsquore being drunk from.

Two of the best examples of effective glassware advertisements are Corne and Kwak beer. Corne is served in a big glass horn (the rhyming is cute). Kwak beer, on the other hand, is served in a super weird almost chemistry lab looking glass. Turns out, the Kwak beer glass was invented so that the brewer could drive his carriage drunk without spilling his beer. Oh, Belgium.

With both Corne and Kwak beer, the glasses are served in a big wooden frame so they can be set down easily. So imagine you walk into a bar and you see someone drinking out of a horn attached to a giant wooden structure. Are you NOT going to want to have what they&rsquore having? (I wanted to make a &ldquoWhen Harry Met Sally&rdquo joke here but gave up.)

Drinking a tasty Belgian beer with cheese and bread. Not in a Belgian bar, mind you, this is actually in a Belgian beer store. Awesome, right?

Taking The Stress Off Yeast Produces Better Wine

Turning grape juice into wine is a stressful business for yeasts. Dr Agustin Aranda from the University of Valencia, Spain has identified the genes in yeast that enable it to respond to stress and is investigating ways to improve yeast performance by modifying its stress response mechanism.

Speaking at the Society for General Microbiology meeting at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Sept. 9, Dr Aranda described the stresses that wine yeasts undergo in the fermentation process. Industrial wine making involves adding dried yeast starter cultures to the juice both the drying and reactivating processes cause stress damage to the yeast cells. As the juice is fermented into wine the rising ethanol (alcohol) levels also damage the yeast cells and oxidation causes further damage.

By manipulating the genes that control the stress response of the yeast, the researchers found that they could improve its performance in industrial fermentation processes. They found that a family of enzymes called sirtuins had an important role in controlling wine yeast lifespan.

"Our research aimed to improve winemaking techniques but our findings on oxidative stress and ageing in yeast could be potentially useful in understanding the positive roles of antioxidants present in grapes and grape juice," said Dr Aranda.

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Materials provided by Society for General Microbiology. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

The History Of Beer, quite literally, is the history of human civilization. Some anthropologists believe that man moved away from a hunter– gatherer existence to a settled agriculture-based existence largely to grow enough grain to brew large amounts of beer. This appears to be unproven, but the thought that beer would have been a powerful motivation to Neolithic humans would be no surprise. Virtually the entire animal kingdom, from insects to elephants, from fruit bats to monkeys, shows a clear predilection for the consumption of ethanol. It is reasonable to believe that we and other animals evolved according to advantages alcoholic beverages can confer. Fruit, when ripe, gives off an alluring scent that tells animals that it is full of sugar and ready to eat. Ripe fruit can become quite alcoholic when naturally present yeasts begin to consume the sugars. Animals get the benefit of the food value of the fruit, but undoubtedly also find a value in the physiological effects of consuming alcohol. The fruiting plants, in turn, derived the benefit of the animal’s actions as a disperser of its seeds. One of the great turning points for ancient humanity was the discovery of a method by which sugar could actually be created and fermented into alcohol in the absence of honey or fruit. This technique was the start of what we now call brewing.

Eighteenth-century etching showing the inner workings of a brewery. pike microbrewery museum, seattle, wa

As best we are able to determine, brewing emerged more than 5,000 years ago in the grasslands of southern Babylonia, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Rich alluvial soils supported wild grain plants, and the people there gathered them for food … and to make beer. How was the discovery made? It is impossible to be sure. But grain left out in the rain will sprout, essentially starting the malting process and developing enzymes inside the seeds. Someone coming upon a sprouting grain store probably hurriedly went to make bread out of the grain before all of the nutritious starch was lost to the growing plants. Upon heating, the starches, now full of enzymes, liquefied into sugars. And once people had sugars, they knew what to do with them.

Trade card depicting a 17th-century brewery. The German Liebig Extract of Meat Company, founded in 1840, distributed a series of trading cards illustrating the history of beer. pike microbrewery museum, seattle, wa

Soon the Sumerians settled upon the plains, creating a civilization, the world’s first, in Lower Mesopotamia. See sumer . They began to grow the grains, making them into a form of bread called bappir. In the oldest written recipe known to archeologists, they praised the goddess Ninkasi, whose name means “lady who fills the mouth.” Brewer to the gods, Ninkasi taught mankind to make beer too, which they called kas. In a hymn to the goddess, they described her as “the one who waters the malt set on the ground … you are the one who bakes the bappir-malt in the great oven…. You are the one who soaks the malt in a jar … the waves rise, the waves fall.” Finally Ninkasi is the one who “pours the fragrant beer in the lahtan-vessel, which is like the Tigris and Euphrates joined.” The resulting sugary bread was soaked in water, spontaneously fermented, and then strained. And so beer became part of the day-to-day life of mankind. Beer was healthy, pleasantly mood-altering, and full of nutrients and calories, and to obtain it, people created settled agriculture. At Godin Tepe, in the Zagros Mountains of modern Iran, the evidence remains. Shards of pottery from the Sumerian era are studded with calcium oxalate, a deposit from grain also known as “beer stone.” The Sumerian written character for beer is a pictogram of a type of jar, wide at the base and narrowing at the neck. Any homebrewer today would recognize it.

The Babylonians eventually conquered Sumer, and one of the benefits was the adoption of the superior beer-making skills of the people they had vanquished. The Babylonian king, Hammurabi, promulgated laws about just about everything, including beer, which he categorized into 20 different varieties. See law .

The beer culture of Sumer also made its way into Egypt. According to Dr Delwen Samuel, who did pioneering work at the Department of Archeology at the University of Cambridge, brewing was well established in the Egyptian predynastic period. By the early Dynastic period, 3100–2686 bce, it had become an important part of Egyptian culture. Eventually beer, far healthier than water, became the everyday drink of the Egyptian people, from Pharaoh to the lowliest peasant. Great grain stores were built, and the Egyptian economy was underpinned by bread and beer. The god Osiris held in his hands the very stuff of life—fertility, death, resurrection, and the brewing staff. Depictions of people drinking beer from jars through long straws cover the insides of Egyptian tombs. We still have the beer-drinking straws of potentates, handsomely inlaid with gold and lapis lazuli.

When the Greeks arrived in Egypt, they were unimpressed by beer, which they called zythos, referring to its foaminess. Preferring wine, they thought of the sprouted malt as a form of rotted grain and disdained the drink the Egyptians derived from it. It was not that the Egyptians did not know wine, but growing grape vines, in many parts of Egypt, was not nearly so easy as growing grain, and Egypt could grow enough grain to feed itself and still have some left for export.

The Egyptians brewed from several grains, including barley and the ancient wheat type, emmer. Texts make mention of many types of beer, some of them clearly designated for ceremonial purposes. They had “dark beer,” “sweet beer,” “thick beer,” “friend’s beer,” “garnished beer,” and “beer of the protector.” The gods who guarded the shrine of Osiris partook of the “beer of truth.” For funerary purposes, they needed a beer that would last until the afterlife and provided tombs with “beer that does not sour” and “beer of eternity.” Massive breweries were built, and both grain and beer were offered in payment for common labor. It is worth noting that brewing was largely the work of women, a tradition that lasted throughout various civilizations until the end of the Middle Ages.

In 332 bce, the Greeks, led by Alexander the Great, took control of Egypt. Brewing continued apace, but the Greeks, seeing beer as the drink of their rivals and of the conquered, largely disdained it. By the Hellenistic period, Egypt exported beer out of the city of Pelusium, at the mouth of the Nile, to Palestine and beyond. The tax inspectors arrived, carrying titles such as “Inspector of the Breweries” and “Royal Chief Beer Inspector.” Alexander’s reign as Pharaoh lasted less than a decade, but Egypt was ruled by the Ptolemys until the naval battle at Actium in 31 bce, after which Cleopatra and her lover Marc Antony took their lives. Egypt became a Roman province.

Ancient Greece and Rome, with plentiful stores of wine, never truly took to beer. But as Rome ranged out from its own lands and sought to build an empire, they made their way over mountains and found on the other side fierce people, often ready for a fight and fortified by beer. Pliny, in his Natural History, noted that “the populace of western Europe have a liquid with which they intoxicate themselves, made from grain and water. The manner of making this is somewhat different in Gaul, Spain and other countries, and it is called by different names, but its nature and properties are everywhere the same. The people in Spain in particular brew this liquid so well that it will keep good a long time. So exquisite is the cunning of mankind in gratifying their vices and appetites that they have invented a method to make water itself produce intoxication.”

In the south of present Germany, the Romans encountered the Celts, and in the north they found the Germans, who had followed the Celts into Western Europe out of Asia. These tribes, unlike the Romans, were largely illiterate, but they were fairly proficient at making beer. The nomadic Germans eventually drove the Celts out, across the English Channel into Britain. The Germans and assimilated Celts settled into a network of powerful city-states between the 6th and 7th centuries ce. Slavic tribes settled to the east. As the Roman Empire finally crumbled with the abdication of the last Roman emperor in 476, the Romans, Germans, and Slavs assimilated into each other’s cultures, and Western Europe took on Roman Catholicism. Monasteries were set up and became places of learning. To sustain themselves and provide hospitality for weary travelers, the monks established breweries.

During the 500 years of the Dark Ages, from 500 to 1000 ce, brewing continued, but largely without advancement. The light of civilization shone most brightly inside the monasteries, but the monks kept their beer to themselves.

Copper smelting had been used since the Bronze Age, but until now, brewing kettles in Europe had largely been small vessels, suited for households. Now settled into larger communities, Europeans started to build breweries on a scale that had not been seen since the days of ancient Egypt. Breweries moved out of kitchens and into purpose-built facilities, with malting facilities, mashing vessels, fermentation areas, and staffs of trained workers. Coopers made barrels for storage. The flavoring for beer was usually a blend of herbs called gruit, but in some areas the hop was used too. By the early 800s, the monks of the monastery of St. Gallen in Switzerland had built the first full-scale brewing operation in Europe, in many ways hundreds of years ahead of its time. The brewery’s floor plan, drawn up in 820, would be essentially recognizable to any modern brewer. See st. gallen .

In the early 1100s, Hildegard von Bingen established the Benedictine nunnery of Rupertsberg, near the town of Bingen on the river Rhine. Later known as St. Hildegard, she wrote a number of books, including the natural history text Physica Sacra. In it, she described the hop as a particularly useful plant, one that was excellent for physical health and preserved all sorts of drinks. Over the 1100s, much of Europe’s beer was transformed by the use of hops. The Catholic Church, which was making a fair amount of money selling gruit, resisted mightily. But the hop evaded the reach of the Church and began to grow deep roots. Soon central Europe grew into a brewing powerhouse. Ordinances were promulgated to protect grain supplies and beer purity, from Augsburg in 1158, from Paris in 1268, and from Nuremberg in 1293. These were early forerunners of the now famous Reinheitsgebot of 1516, Germany’s much vaunted “Beer Purity Law.” By the mid-1300s Hamburg became the leading brewing center in the world. By 1376, 475 of Hamburg’s 1,075 manufacturers were making beer. Their techniques were now far advanced over those of any rivals and in 1369 they sent a full 133,000 hl of beer out of the city. On the backs of the brewers, the Hanseatic League, which had been founded by wealthy merchants from Lubeck and Bremen in 1241, grew powerful. The Thirty Years War, from 1618 to 1648, ushered in nearly a century of misery and death in Europe. Warfare raged across the continent, and the population was halved by violence, disease, and starvation. European brewing moved back inside the home. Commercial breweries revived only in the 1700s, with brewers guilds well established throughout central Europe, charged with protecting the interests of a once again increasingly powerful clan of merchants.

In Britain, hops had not yet arrived, but gruit-flavored beer had long been the drink of the people. See gruit . When Julius Caesar arrived in Kent in 55 bc, of the people he found there he noted, “They had vines, but use them only for arbors in their gardens. They drink a high and mighty liquor …, made of barley and water.” Wine certainly arrived in England early, first with the conquering Romans and later with the Normans in 1066. As the Normans assimilated into British society, the upper echelons brewed beer, but kept the Norman taste for wine, and British society separated into a wine-drinking upper class and the beer-drinking masses. Brewing remained a cottage industry though the Middle Ages and was once again dominated by women. By the 1200s, an Assize of Bread and Ale was promulgated, regulating the price and quality of both. Fines for breaking the rules essentially became a form of licensing system, and the records of the fines paid by brewing households allow us to trace the development of brewing families in Britain over generations. See britain .

Although brewing was a household skill expected of all medieval women, some women, known as alewives, began to set up small commercial operations on a part-time basis. Sometimes they were allowed to open alehouses, and their incomes would provide them with a rare measure of independence. It was virtually the only honest independent work that women were allowed, and they took advantage of it at every opportunity. See women in brewing . After the Black Plague struck England in 1348–1350, demand for ale rose, and female brewers became better established. Soon, however, men and the demands of commerce would conspire to wrest the brew kettle from women’s hands.

As hopped beer spread throughout Europe, the preservative effects of the hops meant that beer could be kept longer. Now beer could be made in greater quantities and stored, as opposed to being drunk within a matter of days. Storage and larger facilities required money to build, and women had less to invest with than men did. Slowly, but surely, men began to build larger brewing operations and force women out of their own businesses and into employment in the new breweries. Hops moved into England in the 1400s, and although many people clung to unhopped ale for more than a century, British beer was largely hopped by the mid 1500s.

So, in the morning, after we had called upon God for direction, we came to this resolution: to go presently ashore again and to take a better view of two places which we thought most fitting for us. For we could not now take time for further search or consideration, our victuals being much spent, especially our beer, and it now being the 20th of December.

And so, in the words of William Bradford, landed the Pilgrims on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in the small cargo ship Mayflower in 1620. European-style brewing was soon underway on the American continent, but often with whatever could be found or grown. By 1670, the English Quaker John Fenwick arrived to found the town of Salem, New Jersey, and noted that his fellow settlers “straightaway busied themselves in erecting breweries for manufacturing beer for common drink.”

As colonial cities grew during the 1700s, so did breweries. City breweries brewed the same sort of beers as were found in England during that time, often supplementing malt with other sugars, such as molasses. Farmhouses brewed with barley malt, wheat, corn, pumpkins, peas, and spices. See pumpkin ale and brewing in colonial america .

In the meantime, the Industrial Revolution in England was giving rise to a recognizably modern brewing industry. As London boomed, dark porter beer fueled the city, and the city fueled the breweries. Brewed from brown malt, heavily hopped, and matured for months, porter beer lasted well enough to be distributed throughout London’s thousands of pubs. The erection of enormous porter vats gave brewers the ability to blend large amounts of beer and achieve some level of reliability. The English brewers were voracious in their search for new technologies. In 1784, only 8 years after American independence, Henry Goodwin and Samuel Whitbread installed a coal-fired steam engine in their London brewery. Twenty years later, indirect kilning of malt was combined with the use of thermometers to produce a regular supply of pale malts. Soon, porter brewing eschewed inefficient brown malts, productivity increased, and India pale ale shipped out to Calcutta in huge volumes. See industrial revolution .

Bavarian brewers, in a skilled display of industrial espionage, stole the secrets of pale malting technology from the British. They then used that secret to take over the world of brewing. Bavarian brewing had been different for centuries. Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria, seeking to protect the populace from spoiled beer, forbade summer brewing in 1553. Brewers made the last beer of the season in the late spring, and it needed to last months until the autumn. Seeking to make beers that could survive the summer heat, brewers had been fermenting their beer in underground caves dug deep into hillsides. Down into the tunnels they dragged ice, hand cut from frozen lakes in winter, to keep the beer cool throughout the year. Over time, their beer, and the yeast that was fermenting it, changed. One species of yeast stepped forward under the cold temperatures whereas another receded. The lager yeast, so named after the German word “lagern,” meaning “to store,” was able to ferment at low temperatures, outcompete spoilage organisms, settle the bottom of the fermenting vessel, and, after a few months of aging, produce a beer that could last much longer than other beers. By 1840, Bavarian-born John Wagner, using yeast he brought with him from his homeland, was brewing lager beer in a hut next to his Philadelphia home.

Back in Bavaria, in 1841, the first light amber beers emerged from the Spaten Brewery in Munich and from Anton Dreher’s brewery in Vienna. Only 2 years later the Bavarian brewer Josef Groll, working at a brewery in the Bohemian city of Plzen, produced the first golden lager beer, the pilsner. See dreher, anton , spaten brewery , and vienna lager . Soon, a new railroad network was bringing the sparkling new beer to cities far from Bohemia. Industrialized glass making brought affordable glassware to people previously used to crockery mugs, and the bright golden pilsner beer was made that much more appealing. The introduction of Carl von Linde’s ammonia-based mechanical refrigeration technology freed lager brewing from a dependence on natural ice. See linde, carl von . By 1873 beer could be brewed anywhere there was a decent water supply and at any time of year. Essentially Bavarian styles of beer were soon brewed from Brazil to Tanzania, sweeping ales from most of the world map. England and Ireland held firm against the tide, as did the Rhineland with its kölsch and altbier, and, very quietly, so did tiny Belgium. Keeping fast to its centuries-old traditions of spontaneous fermentation, Belgium kept alive an ancient brewing style, while inside its Trappist monasteries, elegant new permutations of the brewer’s art were conjured by silent craftsmen in robes. See altbier , kölsch , and trappist breweries .

Throughout Europe and the United States, breweries built great empires of commerce in the late 1800s. Britain built its fortunes on ales, whereas central Europe, Scandinavia, and America focused on lagers. By 1900, three of Japan’s current top four brewing companies were already well established. Two world wars brought changes to breweries everywhere, but soon one great brewing nation was to leave the trade entirely. Although American lager had already diverged from its European roots, using a proportion of rice and corn to replace malt, it was the 13-year “noble experiment” of Prohibition, from 1920 to 1933, that changed American beer for the next 60 years. See prohibition . When brewing re-emerged from the underground economy in 1933 and America’s breweries came back to life, the beer was different. Beer had been gone a long time, and the world had changed. Commerce, technology, and advertising converged to produce the modern American mass-market beer, a technically impressive product with far less flavor than its ancestors. The new beer took its place on shelves next to sliced white bread in plastic bags and slices of “cheese food product,” foods apparently impervious to time itself. Americans were happy enough with the new beer, but once they started traveling, they soon realized that they had been missing something.

The 1970s and 1980s saw a time of renewal, first in England’s new microbreweries and then in the American West. American craft brewers, inspired by Europe’s great traditions, primed by years of experimentation in their own kitchens and believing that brewing can be a jazz-like art form, today spread a gospel of full flavor and creativity in beer.

Dornbusch, Horst . Prost! The story of German beer. Denver, CO: Brewers Publications, 1997.

Hardwick, William A. Handbook of brewing. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995.

Hornsey, Ian S. A history of beer and brewing. London: RSC Publishing, 2003.

Meussdoerffer, Franz G. “A comprehensive history of beer brewing.” In Handbook of brewing: Processes, technology, markets, ed. Hans M.Esslinger. New York: Wiley & Sons, 2009.

Thomas, Shourds . History and genealogy of Fenwick’s colony, New Jersey. Bridgeton, NJ: G Nixon, 1876.

All pilsner yeast strains originate from a single yeast ancestor

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SEM image. Credit: Mogana Das Murtey and Patchamuthu Ramasamy/CC BY-SA 3.0

Pilsner yeast, the well-known microorganism that brewers use every year to make hundreds of billions of liters of pilsner and other lagers, came into being 500 years ago through an accidental encounter between two species of yeast. The yeast strains now used to brew pilsner can all be traced back to that time. This is the conclusion reached by TU Delft researchers based on extensive DNA analysis.

Lager beer, also referred to as pilsner or pils, is the world's most popular alcoholic drink. Every year, we drink around 200 billion liters of it. Pilsner is made by fermenting brewer's wort with the yeast strain Saccharomyces pastorianus, sometimes called "pilsner yeast." The micro-organism converts the wort sugars into ethanol, the best-known and most common type of alcohol, and a range of aromatic compounds that are essential to beer flavoring.

Pilsner yeast is a hybrid species that arose about 500 years ago as a result of an accidental encounter between baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) and a wild yeast strain, today known as S. eubayanus. In those days, beer was made using baker's yeast, at relatively high temperatures of between 15 and 25 degrees. The wild yeast strain probably accidentally ended up in an unsuspecting brewer's brewing mix. A spontaneous mating between the two strains resulted in the hybrid pastorianus species, named after Louis Pasteur. "This yeast inherited an important characteristic from the wild strain: tolerance of low temperatures," explains TU Delft researcher Arthur Gorter de Vries.

Fermentation at low temperature with the new hybrid species reduced the chance of bacterial contamination. The result was a beer with a predictable taste: lager beer, pilsner being the best-known variant. S. pastorianus strains used to produce pilsner are now divided into two groups: group I and group II. Although geneticists knew that these strains were the result of mating between baker's yeast and the wild yeast strain, it was not possible to determine whether the groups originated from two accidental encounters between the two yeast species or from a single encounter.

The TU Delft researchers have now shown that both groups originate from the same ancestors. After the accidental encounter between the baker's yeast and the wild yeast, half a millennium ago, brewers began intensively using the hybrid species in various places in Europe and two groups ultimately came into being. Group I was definitely used by Carlsberg in Denmark, while group II became popular elsewhere in Europe, including at Heineken.

The fact that the two pilsner yeast groups have the same origin is not immediately obvious if you look at their DNA. The yeasts in both groups do have two copies of the wild eubayanus genome, probably responsible for their cold tolerance. But as far as the DNA of the baker's yeast in this hybrid species is concerned, there are significant differences. "Group I has only one baker's yeast genome, or even less than one, because certain chromosomes are missing some copies," says Gorter de Vries. "Group II actually has two or more copies of most baker's yeast chromosomes." It would seem that this baker's yeast DNA is important for brewing beer, because brewers now almost only use group II yeasts.

The TU Delft researchers discovered that the yeasts in the two different groups had the same ancestors by conducting extensive genetic research. "Normally, we compare genomes by using a technique known as a phylogenetic network," says Thomas Abeel, who was also involved in the research. "The problem with this method is that the computing power you need to compare DNA sequences increases exponentially the more sequences you want to compare."

For this analysis, large numbers of genomes from groups I and II had to be compared. A smart algorithm built by the Delft researchers made this possible. The algorithm was able to analyze the huge datasets of genetic material from a large group of yeasts collected by the researchers. "That enabled us to compile a kind of genetic map of pilsner yeast on which we were able to place the data from a large number of yeast strains from the different groups," explains Abeel. The conclusion: One chance encounter between two types of yeast has led to all the pilsner yeasts we know today.

The major European brewers have been essential to the success of the hybrid. In the late 19th and early 20th century, a few breweries that had mastered yeast cultivation spread yeast across the whole of Europe. These breweries had specially controlled "starter cultures" that enabled them to consistently make beer with the same taste and of the same quality. Many breweries lacked this "advanced" technology and therefore bought yeast cultures from the innovative players.

These innovative brewers are famous names: "In 1883, Carlsberg's Emil Christian Hansen was the first to isolate a group I yeast," says Gorter de Vries. "A few years later, in 1886, Heineken's Dr. Eduard Elion isolated several group II yeasts. After that, the two groups spread across the world."

Beers – History

For the convenience of our customers, Fibonacci Brewing Company offers on-site tastings as well as bottles and growlers to go. Our Foundational Series features our 4 year-round offerings. In addition, we have numerous seasonal brews on a rotating basis. We strive to source local ingredients in at least 80% of our beers by partnering with local farms, foraging, or producing our own.

The Tollhouse (American Stout) ABV-7.9% IBU-49
Description: Jet black color with moderate bitterness. Strong roasted coffee flavor and aroma with hints of chocolate.
Origin: The Toll House Gang gathered around the old toll house to swap stories, share a cup of coffee, and keep Mt Healthy’s past alive. Frank Stout was a prominent figure of the Toll House Gang (hence the name of the beer) and has many relatives still in and around the Mt Healthy area.

Earth Daisy (Double IPA) ABV-8.9% IBU-89
Description: Reddish amber color with high bitterness. Rich malt flavor with hints of caramel and a slight peppery finish. The earthy, piney aroma balances the sweet malt backbone.
Origin: Daisy Jones, Garden editor for the Cincinnati Post and Time-Star, wrote her popular column “Down to Earth” for 30 years. She had tie-ins with the Mt Healthy Garden Club. We wanted to use “Down to Earth” as the name of the Imperial IPA but it’s already used by 21st Amendment Brewery. Therefore, we combined her column and name to come up with “Earth Daisy”.

Hoy Tripel (Belgian Tripel) ABV-8.9% IBU-49
Description: Bright gold color with little bitterness. A big, dense, creamy head with a full mouthfeel. Slightly fruity with a sweet finish.
Origin: William Ellsworth “Dummy” Hoy played 14 seasons of professional baseball (some for the Reds). He once threw out 3 players at home in one game (hence the name of the beer … 3

tripel). Although since matched by others, it is still a record. Upon retirement from baseball, Dummy Hoy and his wife Anna Marie operated a dairy farm in Mt Healthy.

Oberhausen (Kölsch Style Ale) ABV-5.6% IBU-20
Description: Very pale color with medium bitterness. Somewhat vinous (grape-like) with a dry finish.
Origin: Between 1841 and 1847 twelve families moved from the Wuhl and Oberhausen areas of Germany to Mt Healthy. The origin was from Castle Oberhausen which also became a railway station.

Fiddlehead (Bock) ABV-5% IBU-14
Description: Light amber color with light sweetness, light hop bitterness balances a malt backbone with notes of bread, caramel, and honey.

Honey (Barrel Aged Doppelbock) ABV-10% IBU-18
Description: Dark brown and amber color with moderate sweetness, aged in a New Riff rye whiskey barrel lending whiskey and oak characteristics this beer has a heavy malt backbone with notes of bread, caramel, and honey.

Polar Vortex (Barrel Aged Strong Ale) ABV-15.5% IBU-22
Description: Dark brown and amber color with moderate sweetness, aged in a New Riff rye whiskey barrel lending whiskey and oak characteristics this beer has a heavy malt backbone with notes of bread, caramel, dark fruit, and chocolate.

Equilateral (Triple IPA) ABV-10.7% IBU-88
Description: Yellow color with moderately high bitterness, a high grain bill balances big hop additions and flavor.
Origin: Derived from the Geometrical term refering to a triangle with 3 equal sides. We use 3 hops equally in the boil and in dry hopping .

Integration (Milk Stout) ABV-6% IBU-15
Description: Dark brown to black in color with low bitterness, lactose addition creates a creamy sweetness accentuated by light notes of coffee and milk chocolate.

Addition (Pale Ale w/ Hop Terpenes) ABV-4.7% IBU-34
Description: Yellow color with moderate bitterness, whirlpool hops and hop terpene dry hop addition lend a pleasant floral aroma and taste.
Origin: Derived from the basic mathematical operation, a traditional pale ale with the addition of hop terpenes.

Singleton (English Brown Ale) ABV-5.2% IBU-25
Description: Medium brown color with subtle bitterness with notes of coffee and chocolate. A lighter body and approachable abv make this a flavorful yet easy drinking beer.
Origin: In software engineering a “singleton” restricts patterns to one single instance. With this in mind we plan to never make any variants of this beer, it will remain a singleton.

Byte (Hard Apple Cider) ABV-4.0%
Description: Pale Yellow in color. Traditional dry hard apple cider.
Origin: A byte is the smallest basic unit in computational storage. Likewise this cider is meant to be light basic and refreshing.

Cerasus (Imperial Gose w/ Cherries) ABV-8.0% IBU-12
Description: Bright Pink color with medium tartness. Higher alcohol content than is typical of a gose, the sour cherries shine accentuated nicely by the salt and coriander traditional for the style.
Origin: Cerasus is derived from the scientific name for sour cherries, “Prunus Cerasus”.

Hoy Melo (Belgian Tripel w/ Cantaloupe) ABV-9.1% IBU-27
Description: Bright gold color with little bitterness. A big, dense, creamy head with a full mouthfeel. Extremely cantaloupe from infusing 20lbs of fresh cantaloupe directly into the keg after fermentation.
Origin: See above for origin of “Dummy”. Melo is derived from the scientific name for cantaloupe, “Cucumis Melo”.

Cucumis (Cantaloupe Gose) ABV-4.7% pH-3.3
Description: Golden orange in color. Bright tartness with a melon sweetness to balance, and a subtle salty finish.
Origin: Inspired by a love of salted cantaloupe. The name Cucumis is derived from the scientific name for cantaloupe, “Cucumis Melo”.

BA 55N 3W (BA Wee Heavy) ABV-13.8% IBU-22
Description: Dark reddish-brown. A long boil produces a caramelization of the wort that results in an intensely roasted malty beer. Much sweeter and more full-bodied than a traditional Scottish Ale and higher in alcohol. A ramped up grainbill from the original recipe this beer spent 12 months in a New Riff Distilling Rye Whiskey Barrel.
Origin: Nestled on the border of England and Scotland sits a town called Gretna Green known for hosting weddings. This beer wass the first of our employee collaboration beers of 2018 designed and brewed by Sam Keller just in time for his own marriage. Gretna Green is situated at 55N 3W … both of which are Fibonacci numbers.
Fermentables: Maris Otter Malt, Crystal Malt 120L, Melanoiden Malt, Carapils, Crystal Malt 40L, Roasted Barley, Munich Malt Dark
Bittering Hops: East Kent Goldings
Flavor/Aroma Hops: East Kent Goldings
Yeast: Lallemand London
Miscellaneous: Rye Whiskey Barrel from New Riff Distilling

Bee Dance (Session Mead) ABV-4.2%
Description: Very light with delicate honey aroma and flavor, light carbonation lends a soft effervescence, creating an incredibly refreshing beverage.
Origin: We love our bees! The bee dance is a movement bees use to communicate with each other the location of their colony, water, and flowers producing nectar and pollen, without which we wouldn’t have honey.
Fermentables: Honey, Dextrose
Yeast: Lallemand Lalvin D-47
Miscellaneous:Honey from Carriage House Farms

Bee Dance Vanilla (Session Mead with Vanilla) ABV-4.2%
Description: Very light with delicate honey aroma and flavor, and light carbonation lends a soft effervescence, the vanilla addition adds a smooth creaminess, creating an incredibly refreshing beverage.
Origin: We love our bees! The bee dance is a movement bees use to communicate with each other the location of their colony, water, and flowers producing nectar and pollen, without which we wouldn’t have honey.
Fermentables: Honey, Dextrose
Yeast: Lallemand Lalvin D-47
Miscellaneous:Honey from Carriage House Farms, Vanilla

Bee Dance Lavender (Session Mead with Lavender and Vanilla) ABV-4.2%
Description: Very light with delicate honey aroma and flavor, light carbonation lends a soft effervescence, the vanilla addition adds a smooth creaminess, and the lavender lends and herbal freshness creating a very soothing beverage.
Origin: We love our bees! The bee dance is a movement bees use to communicate with each other the location of their colony, water, and flowers producing nectar and pollen, without which we wouldn’t have honey.
Fermentables: Honey, Dextrose
Yeast: Lallemand Lalvin D-47
Miscellaneous:Honey from Carriage House Farms, Vanilla, Lavender from

Bee Dance Borage (Session Mead with Borage and Lime) ABV-4.2%
Description: Very light with delicate honey aroma and flavor, light carbonation lends a soft effervescence, Borage lending a characteristic very similar to cucumber, and lime bringing a citrus brightness creating an incredibly refreshing beverage.
Origin: We love our bees! The bee dance is a movement bees use to communicate with each other the location of their colony, water, and flowers producing nectar and pollen, without which we wouldn’t have honey.
Fermentables: Honey, Dextrose
Yeast: Lallemand Lalvin D-47
Miscellaneous:Honey from Carriage House Farms, Organic Limes, Borage from

Bee Dance Yarrow (Session Mead with Yarrow) ABV-4.2%
Description: Very light with delicate honey aroma and flavor, light carbonation lends a soft effervescence, Yarrow lending an herbal freshness creating an incredibly refreshing beverage.
Origin: We love our bees! The bee dance is a movement bees use to communicate with each other the location of their colony, water, and flowers producing nectar and pollen, without which we wouldn’t have honey.
Fermentables: Honey, Dextrose
Yeast: Lallemand Lalvin D-47
Miscellaneous:Honey from Carriage House Farms, Yarrow from

Hello, World! (Braggot aka Mead Ale) ABV-5.5% IBU-17
Description: Pale yellow color with bright clarity. Dry finish from the highly fermentable honey. Variations include fresh mint and lemon balm from Fib Farm.
Origin: Much like the corresponding “Hello, World!” in programming, this was our first foray into utilizing our own fresh products from Fib Farm in our beer. The original batch was brewed with our own honey but we have since switched to using honey from Carriage House Farm since they produce a lot more honey than we do annually. However, we continue to utilize fresh mint and lemon balm from our own Fib Farm.
Fermentables: US Pale Malt, Honey
Bittering Hops: Centennial
Flavor/Aroma Hops: Centennial
Yeast: SafAle US-05
Miscellaneous: Honey from Carriage House Farm

Solanum (Bloody Mary Cream Ale) ABV-4.9% IBU-24
Description: Orangish color with low bitterness. Strong flavor of traditional ingredients used in a bloody mary (tomatoes, celery, horseradish, worcestershire, chili peppers, garlic, salt, and pepper).
Origin: Solanum is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants, which includes the tomato amongst many other things.
Fermentables: Belgian Pale Malt, Vienna Malt, Cara-Pils, Crystal Malt 10L
Bittering Hops: Cascade
Flavor/Aroma Hops: Amarillo
Yeast: Lallemand Bry-97
Miscellaneous: Tomatoes from Turner Farm, Celery/Chili Peppers/Garlic from Running Creek Farm, Horseradish, Worcestershire, Salt, Pepper

Horapha (Cream Ale w/ Thai Basil, Honey, and Lemons) ABV-4.9% IBU-24
Description: Golden color with low bitterness. Strong flavor of thai basil balanced by honey and fresh lemons.
Origin: Thai basil (or Horapha) is a type of basil widely used throughout Southeast Asia. Its flavor is licorice-like and slightly spicy.
Fermentables: Belgian Pale Malt, Vienna Malt, Cara-Pils, Crystal Malt 10L
Bittering Hops: Cascade
Flavor/Aroma Hops: Amarillo
Yeast: Lallemand Bry-97
Miscellaneous: Thai Basil from Running Creek Farm, Honey from Carriage House Farm, Organic Lemons

Hazy Daisy (Hazy IPA) ABV-6.1% IBU-43
Description: Orangish yellow color, low bitterness, creamy/juicy fruit flavor with big tropical fruit and citrus aromas.
Origin: Our first venture into the NE IPA category is an annual collaboration with our local Cincinnati Pink Boots chapter, a female organization in the beer industry. This beer utilizes a heavy dosage of YCH’s annual Pink Boots Hop Blend.
Fermentables: US Pale Malt, Flaked Oats, Flaked Wheat, Cara-Pils, Biscuit Malt
Bittering Hops: Pink Boots Blend
Flavor/Aroma Hops: Pink Boots Blend
Dry Hops: Pink Boots Blend
Yeast: Wyeast 1318 (London III)
Miscellaneous (2018 only): Peaches

Tilia (Radler w/ Limes and Tart Cherries) ABV-4.9% IBU-37
Description: Medium pink with a light pink head. The tart cherries and limes frolic in perfect harmony like a fairy in a meadow on a warm summer’s day.
Origin: Tilia is the genus to which limes belong. The fifth employee collaboration beer for 2018 from Chelle Magin features a classic summer radler with a splash of tart cherries from Eshleman Fruit Farm in Clyde, OH.
Fermentables: US Pale Malt, White Wheat Malt
Bittering Hops: Centennial
Yeast: SafAle US-05
Miscellaneous: Organic Limes, Tart Cherries from Eshleman Fruit Farm

Idaeus (Wheat Ale w/ Raspberries) ABV-5.4% IBU-27
Description Dark pink with a hint of effervescent carbonation. The red raspberries linger on palate with the citrusy hops long after the base wheat beer dissipates.
Origin: Idaeus comes from Rubus Idaeus, the scientific species to which red raspberries belong. The fourth employee collaboration beer for 2018 from Kat Finn is an easy drinking springtime beer that will be sure to satisfy both craft beer connoisseurs and the casual beer drinker.
Fermentables: Pilsner Malt, White Wheat Malt
Bittering Hops: Centennial
Flavor/Aroma Hops: Citra
Yeast: SafAle US-05
Miscellaneous: Red Raspberries

Bonk (Oatmeal Brown Ale w/ Coffee) ABV-5.8% IBU-25
Description: Dark brown with a tan head. The oatmeal and lactose provide a smooth finish to balance the coffee aroma and flavors in this traditional American Brown Ale.
Origin: Bonk is the cycling term for “hitting the wall”. The third employee collaboration beer for 2018 from Riley Krutza is a great beer to replenish your body after a long day of cycling. Sit back, relax, and let Bonk take away all your worries. This beer is also utilizes coffee from Deeper Roots formerly located just up the street from us in Mt Healthy, OH but now residing in the West End in Cincinnati.
Fermentables: US Pale Malt, Flaked Oats, Brown Malt, Chocolate Malt, Roasted Barley, Lactose
Bittering Hops: Goldings
Yeast: SafAle US-05
Miscellaneous: Deeper Roots Coffee

Secale (Red Rye) ABV-5.6% IBU-28
Description: Light reddish-orange. The citrus flavors and aroma from the Citra hops help balance the spicy rye characteristics accentuated by the Magnum and Chinook hops.
Origin: Secale is the genus to which Rye belongs. The second employee collaboration beer for 2018 from Mark Williams is an homage to the often overlooked role that Rye beers play in the craft beer community.
Fermentables: US Pale Malt, Rye Malt, Special B, Crystal Malt 120L, Chocolate Malt
Bittering Hops: Magnum, Chinook, Citra
Flavor/Aroma Hops: Chinook, Citra
Yeast: SafAle US-05

55N 3W (Wee Heavy) ABV-10.5% IBU-23
Description: Dark reddish-brown. A long boil produces a caramelization of the wort that results in an intensely roasted malty beer. Much sweeter and more full-bodied than a traditional Scottish Ale and higher in alcohol.
Origin: Nestled on the border of England and Scotland sits a town called Gretna Green known for hosting weddings. This beer is the first of our employee collaboration beers of 2018 designed and brewed by Sam Keller just in time for his own marriage. Gretna Green is situated at 55N 3W … both of which are Fibonacci numbers.
Fermentables: Maris Otter Pale Malt, Crystal Malt 120, Melanoidin Malt, Crystal Malt 40, Cara-Pils, Roasted Barley, Munich Dark
Bittering Hops: Goldings
Flavor/Aroma Hops: Goldings
Yeast: SafAle S-04

Prunus (Milk Stout w/ Cherries) ABV-6.6% IBU-16
Description: Dark brown in color. Tart cherries subtly complement the roasty malts. Very easy drinking with a creamy finish from the lactose.
Origin: Prunus is the genus to which cherries belong.
Fermentables: US Pale Malt, Crystal Malt 120L, Roasted Barley, Chocolate Malt
Bittering Hops: Goldings
Yeast: Lallemand Bry-97
Miscellaneous: Cherries from Eshleman Fruit Farm, Lactose

Beta (Ale w/ Beets and Ginger) ABV-3.0% IBU-14
Description: Pinkish red in color. Very earthy aroma and flavor from the beets. Touch of ginger adds some effervescence to the finish.
Origin: Beta derives its name from the scientific name for beets, Beta Vulgaris. For this Local Terra series, we sourced fresh local beets from our good friends at Running Creek Farm!

Ober Verde (Kölsch Style Ale w/ Salsa Verde) ABV-5.6% IBU-20
Description: Just like the Oberhausen but with a huge salsa verde addition!
Origin: Most of our beers take a lot of research and planning … however, sometimes it happens quickly over a good beer or two with a local farmer who noticed a patch of tomatillos growing in an area that he hadn’t planted in a few years. About ten minutes of chatting turned into the idea to infuse our signature kölsch style ale with a salsa verde! Thanks to the Herring family for providing the locally grown tomatillos and the inspiration for this beer!

Pride of the Valley (Sour Wheat Ale w/ Pawpaws) ABV-5.1% IBU-26
Description: Sour wheat ale infused w/ pawpaws. Tart wheat ale with a creamy body from the wheat and pawpaw addition with a hint of banana and mango on the back end from the infusion of pawpaws.
Origin: Pride of the Valley is a reference to the flour produced by Jediah Hill near the covered bridge in Mt Healthy. A wheat ale was selected to honor the flour mill during the Mt Healthy’s bicentennial in 2017. Special thanks go out to the Hering family for providing the pawpaws from their woods which is only a couple hundred yards away from where the flour mill once stood! Also, special thanks to Marcha Hunley for bringing this idea to us and for organizing a Living History of Jediah Hill for the release of this beer!

Cata (Sour Ale w/ Soursop and Tangerines) ABV-7.2% pH-3.3
Description: Sour ale infused w/ soursop (a tropical fruit) and tangerines. The low pH of this beer coupled with intense citrus flavors creates an experience reminiscent of a mimosa … this is our beermosa!
Origin: Cata is derived from soursop which is the fruit of the broadleaf evergreen tree known as “Annona muricata”. The flavor of the fruit has been described as a combination of strawberry and pineapple, with sour citrus flavor notes contrasting with an underlying creamy texture reminiscent of coconut or banana.

The Tollhouse Soma (American Stout w/ Indian Spices) ABV-7.9% IBU-49
Description: The same base recipe as The Tollhouse infused with curry powder (hot madras), toasted coconut, and lime zest. This is like Indian cuisine in a glass!
Origin: Soma, in ancient India, an unidentified plant the juice of which was a fundamental offering of the Vedic sacrifices. The stalks of the plant were pressed between stones, and the juice was filtered through sheep’s wool and then mixed with water and milk. After it was offered as a libation to the gods, the remainder of the soma was consumed by the priests and the sacrificer. It was highly valued for its exhilarating, probably hallucinogenic, effect. The personified deity Soma was the “master of plants,” the healer of disease, and the bestower of riches.

Mulberry Grove (Sour Ale w/ Mulberries) ABV-5.4% IBU-40
Description: Dark burgundy in color with a tart dry finish. In addition to the color, the mulberries impart a distinct berry flavor to balance this crisp tart beverage.
Origin: Charles Cheney’s farm (and his Mulberry Grove) is perhaps the most historically significant location in the history of Mt Healthy, serving as a major waystation on the Underground Railroad. In celebration of Mt Healthy’s bicentennial anniversary this year, we bring you the most locally sourced beer we’ve made so far. The entire community gathered at our brewery in Mt Healthy on June 4th, 2017 to bring in mulberries they harvested from our community. We welcomed our mulberry-gathering patrons with a free cookout for their efforts. All-in-all over 75 lbs of mulberries were gathered in our community and used to create this truly community inspired beer. To add to the collaborative efforts, we used soured wort from Urban Artifact to create our first sour beer. The results speak volumes for what can be accomplished when individuals and organizations voluntarily collaborate and share knowledge.

Fermentables: Urban Artifact’s Secret
Bittering Hops: Urban Artifact’s Secret
Flavor/Aroma Hops: Urban Artifact’s Secret
Yeast: SafAle US-05

Darwin’s Delight (English Mild w/ Earl Gray Tea) ABV-4.0% IBU-24
Description: Dark amber in color with a balanced malt sweetness of caramel and figs infused with Earl Gray tea. It has a creamy body and a slightly sweet peppery finish from the oil of bergamot found in the Earl Gray tea.
Origin: This is the fifth of our employee collaboration beers and is the creation of Jenny Hilgefort. Things are always evolving at Fibonacci. We take great pride in brewing beers with a higher than normal alcohol content. However, it was time to finally create a truly session-able beer. Thus, the birth of Darwin’s Delight … an homage to our appreciation of science and using non-traditional ingredients in our beers. For a beer with such a low alcohol content, this beer packs quite the flavor punch!

Lutra (Extra Special Bitter) ABV-6.0% IBU-40
Description: Light amber in color with a balanced flavor of malt sweetness and hop bitterness. It has a medium body and a slightly dry finish.
Origin: The fourth of our employee collaboration beers, this offering is the creation of Adam Hunt. This beer is named after the base malt used in production, Maris Otter. Lutra, the scientific name for the Eurasian otter, demonstrates an easy drinkability. This beverage is playful and appears to aid in the engagement of various behaviors for sheer enjoyment, much like otters who create slides into the water just for fun. European otters must consume 15% of their body weight each day, but it may not be best to try that with this beer. The European otter is endangered, so please drink responsibly.

Avus (Saison – Farmhouse Ale) ABV-5.1% IBU-18
Description: Saison Farmhouse ale. Pale orange color with a fruity finish from the yeasty esters.
Origin: The third of our employee collaboration beers, this offering is the creation of Justin Chaney, aka PeePaw. The name “Avus” is Latin for “grandfather”. Hence this beer roughly translates to “PeePaw’s Farmhouse Ale”.

Galacto, Brute? (Nut Brown w/ Lactose) ABV-6.0% IBU-23
Description: Nut Brown Ale loaded with lactose. Dark Brown with a semi-sweet finish from the lactose addition.
Origin: The second of our employee collaboration beers, this offering is the creation of Kurt Hilgefort. The name “Galacto, Brute?” is a double entendre. “Galacto” is shortened from “galactose”, one of the components of lactose, and “Brute” is the Italian plural form of “brutus”, the infamous mascot nut of THE Ohio State Buckeyes. It is also a play on “Et tu, Brute?” from the play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare.

SuSe (Belgian IPA) ABV-5.9% IBU-83
Description: An American-style IPA loaded with Citra hops. Orangish in color with a slightly sweet and peppery finish from the Belgian Saison yeast.
Origin: The first of our employee collaboration beers, this offering is the creation of Chris Neumann. The name SuSe derives from “Super Secret”, Chris’s original idea to keep the concept of the beer secret from everyone. SuSE, the name of a Linux distro, is widely regarded as the best Linux enterprise server, and thus, the tie-in to our theme of naming beers after math and/or science concepts.

The Tollhouse Mentha (Chocolate Peppermint Stout) ABV-7.9% IBU-49
Description: The same base recipe as The Tollhouse infused with chocolate mint and cocoa. This is like a York® Peppermint Pattie in liquid form.
Origin: The name Mentha comes from the genus of plants in the mint family.

Pepo Acer (Pumpkin Porter with Maple Bacon Donuts) ABV-6.0% IBU-29
Description: Dark brown porter brewed with pumpkins and spices. Aged with Maple and Bacon donuts from Holtman’s Donut’s.
Origin: The name Pepo comes from the scientific name for pumpkins which is cucurbita pepo also known as summer squash. Acer is the genus of trees and shrubs to which the maple tree belongs.

HuLu (Fresh Hop Belgian Pale Ale) ABV-5.4% IBU-65
Description: Pale yellow color, dominated by fresh hops in all phases … bitterness (earthy and citrusy especially grapefruit), flavor and aroma (spicy and citrusy with hints of pine). With a classic Belgian character to round it out. It is a true homage to the hop!
Origin: “HuLu” is our abbreviated term for “Humulus Lupulus”, the scientific species for the flowering plants we commonly know as hops. We put a ton of hops into this beer. OK, officially only 11 lbs … so .0055 tons. However, 11 lbs of hops in 2 barrels is ridiculous! Almost all of the hops (with the exception of the 1 lb of Amarillo at the end of the boil) are from fresh hops supplied by Ohio Valley Hops located in Maineville, OH. So what exactly does it mean to be a Fresh (or Wet) Hop Ale? That means the hops were picked fresh in the morning and we brewed/dry-hopped with them the same day they were picked! It truly doesn’t get any fresher than this!

Fermentables: US Pale Malt, Maris Otter Pale Malt, Cara-Pils, Crystal Malt 40L

Estivus (Summer Wheat Ale with Lemon Zest and Grains of Paradise) ABV-5.5% IBU-33
Description: Hazy pale yellow color, accented with lemon zest and grains of paradise. The grains of paradise impart a cardamom-like flavor with a slight peppery finish.
Origin: “Aestivus Estivus” is Latin for “Pertaining to Summer”. We put so much summer into this beer that we couldn’t resist simply naming it summer. Yes, we know that “Aestivus” is the term for “Summer” in Latin … however, we chose “Estivus” in an attempt to make it easier to pronounce.

The Noid (Irish Red with Honey) ABV-5.6% IBU-28
Description: Deep red color, taste dominated by the sweet melanoidin malt and honey. The melanoidin malt has flavorful notes of honey and biscuit.
Origin: The Noid is derived from the melaNOIDin malt used in grain bill. Melanoidin malt gets it name from the melanoidins, which are the polymers formed when sugars and amino acids combine (through the Maillard reaction) at high temperatures and low water activity.

Lemon Zingibeer (Pale Ale with Fresh Ginger) ABV-5.1% IBU-31
Description: Orangish gold color, moderately hopped pale ale with lemony flavor and aroma. Ginger added after primary fermentation complements the lemon characteristics for a truly refreshing spring beverage.
Origin: The scientific genus for ginger is zingiber. Coupled with the lemony flavor and aroma from Centenniel and Sorachi Ace hops, gives us our namesake, Lemon Zingibeer.

The Tollhouse Caps (Pepper Stout) ABV-7.9% IBU-49
Description: The same base recipe as The Tollhouse infused with Carolina Reaper peppers, the hottest chili peppers in the world. Not for the faint of heart.
Origin: The name Caps comes from the term Capsaicin (the active ingredient in chili peppers that causes them to be “hot”) and Capsicum (the genus to which all chili peppers belong). We source our Carolina Reapers from some local urban gardeners who dehydrate the peppers and then turn it into powder.

The Tollhouse Rubia (Coffee Stout) ABV-7.9% IBU-49
Description: The same base recipe as The Tollhouse infused with a cold press coffee. We utilize a cold press coffee to maximize the sweet coffee aroma and flavor while minimizing the harsh bitter tannins typically associated with hot brewed coffee.
Origin: The name Rubia comes from the scientific family Rubiaceae to which all coffee plants belong. We source our coffee beans from Deeper Roots formerly located just up the street from us in Mt Healthy, OH but now residing in the West End in Cincinnati.

Marty’s Hamilton Ave IPA (India Pale Ale) ABV-6.0% IBU-50
Description: Orangish gold color with minimal hop bitterness for an IPA, but tons of hop aroma and flavor to complement the honey and rich malt backbone. Six varieties of hops give this beer its bold fresh citrus and tropical fruit aroma and flavor. Hints of black pepper linger in the finish.
Origin: Marty’s Hops and Vines is a craft beer and fine wine establishment located on Hamilton Ave in College Hill. Hamilton Ave connects College Hill to Mt Healthy, home of Fibonacci Brewing Company … hence the namesake for this beer. We can’t think of a better establishment to partner with on our first collaboration in honor of Marty’s Hops and Vines 6th Anniversary! Congratulations Marty!

Pepo (Pumpkin Porter) ABV-6.0% IBU-29
Description: Dark brown porter brewed with pumpkins and spices. Moderate sweetness balances the blend of spices and a creamy body provides all the comfort of fall in a glass.
Origin: The name Pepo comes from the scientific name for pumpkins which is cucurbita pepo also known as summer squash.

Piper (Peppercorn Saison) ABV-5.4% IBU-37
Description: Orangish gold color with minimal bitterness. Peppercorns and allspice added at the end of the boil complement the spicy saison yeast.
Origin: The name Piper comes from the scientific name for peppercorns which is piperaceae or also known as the pepper family, which are a large family of flowering plants. The group contains roughly 3,600 currently accepted species in 13 genera. Piper nigrum is the most well known and yields most peppercorns that are used as spices, including black pepper, although its relatives in the family include many other spices.

This Is Spelta! (Oatmeal Stout) ABV-5.8% IBU-25
Description: Dark, roasty, and creamy, a classic oatmeal stout style ale utilizing Spelt in the place of oats.
Origin: Brewed in Collaboration with the Ohio Ecological Food and Farm Association (OEFFA). Historically grown in the US in the Ohio Valley region, Spelt is a variation of wheat with very similar characteristics to oats.

Compton Ananassa (Strawberry Cream Ale) ABV-5.2% IBU-21
Description: Pinkish gold color with no bitterness. Hints of strawberry with a slight tart finish. Infused with fresh local strawberries after fermentation.
Origin: The brewery sits on Compton Road running through Mt. Healthy. The road is named after Reuben Compton whose land the road originally passed through. Reuben was a barrel maker and kept the road up to sustain his business and routes to his customers. It’s easy to forget, as we speed along day by day, that there are countless people who in the past have made today’s conveniences possible.

Fermentables: Belgian Pale Malt, Vienna Malt, Crystal Malt 10L, Cara-Pils
Bittering Hops: Cascade
Flavor/Aroma Hops: Amarillo
Yeast: Lallemand Bry-97
Miscellaneous: Fresh Strawberries from Stokes Berry Farm

Watch the video: Μια ανάσα από τραγωδία στον αέρα με κόλπα Τούρκου πιλότου σε εμπλοκή με ελληνικά μαχητικά (July 2022).


  1. Gofraidh

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  2. Tejin

    And what would we do without your very good idea

  3. Korudon

    In my opinion it is not logical

  4. Rayner


  5. Koa

    What necessary words ... Great, a magnificent thought

  6. Togal

    the very good information

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