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Circus Maximus Timeline - History
The first circus in Rome was the Circus Maximus, in the valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills. The Hanneford Family, long considered the “Royal Family of the Circus,” can rightly claim an unbroken span of circus history fast approaching three centuries! After the period when Rome was powerful, Europe did not have a circus tradition.
Circus Maximus Timeline. At first it was made of wood. Home / Winter Quarters. Learn how a small troupe of circus performers from Baie-Saint-Paul, Quebec, developed their street show into a worldwide phenomena. Fire destroys the Circus Maximus in Rome. During their stay at the circus, they meet another new member – William T. Spears whose stage name is Suit. Project Description. 64 CE. BOARD HISTORY PAST PRESIDENTS & CONVENTIONS BANDWAGON SPECIAL CLASSIC SITE OLD WEBSITE STUART THAYER PRIZE CONTACT Search for: WINTER QUARTERS. Visual Timeline. The last official chariot race is held in Rome's Circus Maximus. OUR STORY. The history of the circus can be traced back to the Roman times, where a circus was an open air arena used for the exhibition of chariot racing, staged battles and displays featuring animals. 549 CE. The Circus Maximus in Rome is rebuilt and its capacity increased to 250,000. Use the filters below to tailor your search interactively! It was rebuilt several times the last building of the Circus Maximus could seat 250,000 people. Ciel learns that the circus members have information on him, and Sebastian is able to find out that Kelvin is the circus' patron. They join the circus under the stage names Smile and Black respectively. The colder months of the circus… Discover the shows that made Cirque Du Soleil a household name, and take a tour through the revolutionary circus of the future! Winter Quarters Michael Riley 2020-02-19T19:37:58-05:00. The traditional date when the Circus Maximus of Rome is first laid out. c. 65 CE. WINTER QUARTERS MORE. 599 BCE - 500 BCE . Search Results. Spectators embraced this new form of entertainment and it was the only public spectacle where men and women were not separated. ABOUT. Cirque Du Soleil has a storied history.
Check out this wonderful Famous Authors Study! Homeschool in the Woods has brought back their popular mini-study on authors as a FREE DOWNLOAD for new subscribers! Sign up for their newsletter here!
Are you studying Ancient Rome? Be sure to download the free ebook, Famous Men of Rome!
Homeschool in the Woods provides incredible hands-on, interactive resources to use as you study ancient history this year (Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, and Ancient Rome) and as you study the Middle Ages and Renaissance and Reformation next year! Plus, they have great resources for studying chronology and history through the ages, as well as studying the history of astronomy through the Timeline of Science, Invention, and Mathematicians.
* A Short History *
Past: Clowns International is the oldest established organisation for Clowns in the world. It was founded in 1946/7 as the “International Circus Clowns Club” in England. The Founders were Stan Bult (a Victorian gentleman with a great love of Clowns) and Edward Graves (Editor of the Motley Column in “The World’s Fair”). A very early member was the famous Latvian clown, Nikolai Poliakov “Coco the Clown”. Most of the I.C.C.C. members came from the Olympia Christmas Circus of Bertram Mills. Early enthusiasts of the organisation included Clowns: Chester Field, Harold “Rainbow” Whitely, Trevor “Tommy” Bale, Tony Gerbola, Albert “Bandbox” Austin, Carlo Kasen, Butch Reynolds, Percy Huxter, Smokey, Albertino, Nicko and long-serving organiser Jack “Jago” Gough. In 1978, member Tommy Keele successfully proposed the name be modified to “Clowns International”, indicating the wider spheres of life inhabited by Clowns.
Present: The steadily increasing membership is truly international and currently embraces most of Europe. Affiliations have been established with other organisations connected with clowning including Asociacion De Malabaristas, Spain Cercle Tristan Remy Amicle de Clowns, Augustes, Excentriques et Burlesques (France) Compagnie Espace Catatrophe and The Belgium Clown Club, Belgium Clowns of America International, Mid Atlantic Clowns Association, Clowns4Christ and The World Clown Association (U.S.A.) Clown Canada, Canada Dansk Klovne Forbund, Denmark The Grock Foundation (Switzerland) The Clown Club of Cuba, Cuba The National Institute of Circus Arts, Australia The Circus Society and The Circus Fans Association (England). Members that currently boast either affiliation with or members of Clowns International include most countries on the European Continent, and as far afield as Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong and Japan. Clowns International is open to all Clowns in every field of entertainment. Children under 16 years of age are encouraged to join as “Junior Clowns”. Reflecting the wider interest in Clowns, Clowning and the Circus, the general public can join as “Friends of Clowns”. A quarterly magazine “The Joey” (ISSN 1359-4893) is sent to all members of Clowns International. It provides a link and gives up-to-date information and news of clownish interest as well as providing opportunities for important educational articles.
Future: Clowns International is run by an elected Committee of Professional and semi-professional clowns, whose Life President is Ron Moody. The aims of the organisation are to further the Art of Clowning, to promote Clowns throughout the world and provide contact between Clowns and Clown aficionados. Clowns International is Non-Political, Non-Profit, Non-Sectarian and Non-Sexist.
A highlight of Clowns International’s varied calendar is the Grimaldi Memorial Service held annually on the first Sunday in February at our Clowns Church, the Holy Trinity in Dalston, London. Clowns appear in full motley and slap for this very special Service, to which the public are warmly invited. Clown Festivals are held each year in various parts of Great Britain and overseas including charitable events to help other charities in addition to our own Clowns Benevolent Fund (registered Charity Number 1082207) and our Clowns Museum (registered Charity Number 1076724). Clowns International Festivals have taken place at “Floriade” and Utrecht in Holland, St. Petersburg in Russia, the Portuguese Azores, Expo’s in Spain and Portugal in addition to providing Britain’s representatives to the annual Clown D’oro in Sicily. Our Clowns Museum is presently hosted by Gerry Cottle, an Hon. Vice-President of C.I. at Wookey Hole, Wells, Somerset which is open all year round. The Museum contains a large collection of photographs, paintings and the famous collection of painted Clown Eggs, which represent the “slap” (or make-up) of each clown.
Clowns International are committed to encouraging young or new clowns with training, information and incentives, thus enabling Clowning traditions to be both developed and preserved for future generations to enjoy.
Anyone interested in joining Clowns International should write to The Secretary (address below) for a Membership Application (or download direct from this web site).
The Membership Secretary, Clowns International,
4a Downpatrick Road, Strangford, Co Down, BT30 7LZ, Northern Ireland or e-mail: [email protected]
Circus Maximus Timeline - History
Today I found out that the Colosseum in Rome wasn’t finished until 80 AD before that, Romans used the Circus Maximus for games.
The Colosseum is one of the most iconic landmarks in Rome and incredibly popular with tourists. Movies would have you think that chariot races, gladiator shows, and battle simulations always took place there, but that isn’t true. The Colosseum was finished relatively recently, all things considered. Before its completion, a more popular venue for such things was the Circus Maximus.
The Circus Maximus was arguably the largest structure in ancient Rome, with the capacity to seat 250,000 people according to Pliny (roughly a quarter of Rome’s population at the time some historians today think the number might have been a tad smaller than Pliny said, around 150,000 rather than 250,000. But either way, it was really, really big.)
It was built around the 6 th century B.C.—well before the Colosseum was even a thought. The fifth king of Rome, Tarquinius Priscus, created the track which would later be used for chariot races, positioning it between the Palatine and Aventine Hills.
Historically, the area is known as the possible location of the famous Rape of the Sabine Women. If you’re unfamiliar, it’s a Roman legend that Romulus, the founder of Rome, negotiated with the Sabines who lived in the area to let him and his followers (who were mostly male) marry their women. When they refused, Romulus hosted chariot races which distracted the men and allowed the Romans to kidnap the Sabine women. The Roman historian Livy assures us that no sexual assault took place rather, Romulus reasoned with the women and offered them citizenship and the ability to give birth to free men if they married the Roman men.
What better place to set up the race track for subsequent chariot races? The main purpose of the Circus Maximus was to hold chariot races as well as provide a venue for the Ludi Romani, or “Roman Games”. The games were often sponsored by rich, powerful Romans, and were used to honour the gods.
Ludi could be full-day or half-day events and included all manner of entertainment. From chariot racing, gladiatorial displays, plays, parades, religious ceremonies, and feasts, there was something for everyone at the Circus Maximus.
The space was also used to celebrate triumphs, or successes on the battle field. For instance, Tarquin the Proud celebrated his triumph there as a sort of homage to the god Jupiter for his victory over the Pometia.
The Circus underwent numerous improvements over the many centuries it was in use. The first Etruscan king created a raised wooden platform to seat Rome’s rich and famous, while his grandson added additional seating for the commoners. Around 50 BC, Caesar ordered that the seating be extended around the track, which resulted in the largest seating capacity the Circus Maximus had yet seen.
However, it proved to be prone to damages. In 31 BC, a fire swept through the stadium, destroying many of the seats that Caesar had so recently built. It was rebuilt, but another fire during Emperor Nero’s time saw further destruction. In addition, the area was notorious for flooding as a stream had to be redirected to provide enough room for the Circus’ construction. It was rebuilt out of stone around the end of the first century AD, likely to avoid further fire and water damage.
Initially, the Ludi were held annually or a couple of times each year. However, Rome was constantly expanding. Soon, Ludi became something of a status symbol for those hosting them. The need to impress combined with the popularity of the shows and games resulted in more and more games being held. By the second century BC, the number of games had grown considerably—around 57 days were dedicated to Ludi, or over one every week!
The Emperors of Rome were pressured to build specialized venues to host a variety of different events at once. The Circus remained a popular place to host chariot races. On the other hand, many of the other games moved location. Construction began on the Colosseum around 72 AD, under the reign of Emperor Vespasian. It was originally called the Flavian Amphitheatre.
The Colosseum was well-designed in the shape of an ellipse, it allowed for seating all around. It had significantly smaller capacity than the Circus Maximus, able to seat only around 55,000 viewers.
The Colosseum replaced the Circus as the prime space for gladiatorial shows and staged animal hunts, called venatio. There are even reports that simulated sea battles took place there at one time, but it’s unclear today how exactly that worked.
Needless to say, the games remained extremely popular throughout the years. The Colosseum was actually kept in use until the 1300s, when an earthquake left part of it in shambles. The stone that fell was used on other buildings, and a religious order moved in. The Church continued to have a hold on the Colosseum well into the 1800s.
The Circus Maximus didn’t fall out of use until the 6 th century AD, having been in use for over one thousand years. The stones in the structures were gradually taken away to use on other buildings, while the actual chariot track was buried under water and soil. It was excavated starting in the 19 th century. Today, the Circus is a park used for gatherings, concerts, and celebrations—a modern twist on an ancient venue.
The Colosseum is, of course, a popular tourist attraction, with millions of people visiting every year. It’s also been used as a venue for Roman Catholic religious ceremonies in recent years, though large spectacles are no longer an option due to the fragile state of the monument and the minimal seating that survives.
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Sunday, September 1, 2019
1066-the year of the "Conqueror"
In 1066 C.E., after the death of King Edward the Confessor, the throne of England was claimed by three powerful men, Earl Harold Godwinson of Wessex, King Harald Hardrada of Norway and Duke William II of Normandy. While each of these men felt justified in claiming the rightful kingship of England, it was Harold Godwinson who was first to succeed in being crowned king in January 1066. In response, both King Harald and Duke William II made plans to invade England and take the crown by force of arms. In September, at the Battle of Samford Bridge near the city of York, the English Army under King Harold killed Harald and destroyed most of his Viking army.
With one claimant to the throne dead, it now William's time to make his try for the crown of England. After successfully crossing the English Channel with an army in excess of 8,000 men (some estimates range up to over 12,000 warriors) of which around half were mounted, armored "shock troops," William was ready to throw the die of battle with the stakes being the rulership of England. In face of this crisis, King Harold had rushed with his troops from Northern England to face the second invasion of his realm in less than two months and prepared for battle with an enemy army that probably heavily outnumbered his own (the numbers of his troops are unknown but are most often estimated to be well below 10,000 and contained very few cavalry). So it occurred that on 14 October, 1066, the bloody Battle of Hastings decided the fate of the rulership of England. The English had formed a traditional shield wall defensive formation atop a sloping hillock where they were able to resist multiple Norman charges for most of the day. Late in the day, in the confusion of battle the Normans wavered when it was thought William had been killed, nothing could be further from the truth, William was alive and rallied his troops. Rather it was Harold who was killed and the English Army eventually overrun.
With the battle won England was to receive her third crowned king in less than a year, William I "the Conqueror." The new king now added England to his dukedom in France to become one of the most powerful leaders in late 12 century Western Europe. William I "the Conqueror" was a French nobleman, descendent of "Viking" Norsemen. He was born circa 1028 CE, was Duke of Normandy from 1035 to 1087 and King of England from 1066 to 1087. Queen Elizabeth II and the House of Windsor are direct descendants of William I.
Circus Maximus was the oldest and largest Roman circus, situated between the Palatine and Aventine hills. From the 6th BCE to the 4th century CE the circus was rebuilt many times. Ultimately, it was able to hold about 250,000 viewers. It was 544 meters long and 129 meters wide. The circus was rectangular with one side rounded.
In the center of the arena was the so-called spina. It was a long and low wall separating the tracks. On its foundation, there were altars of deities, statues, small cult or decorative buildings (e.g. fountains, obelisks). On both sides of the wall, three massive posts and 7 items were placed: on one side, 7 eggs (septem ova), and on the other, 7 dolphins. These items were removed on each subsequent lap to control the number of laps.
The oldest part of the circus is the remains of the foundations of a wooden stable building (carceres), dating from 329 BCE. Since then, the circus has undergone many modifications. In 194 BCE, seats were added to the audience for senators, and in 174 BCE the building was replaced by a brick structure.
Because the arena was used not only for races but also for circus performances – during Pompey’s reign, the auditorium was fenced off with iron railings, which, however, did not fulfill their task, falling in 55 BCE under the charge of 20 rampant elephants and causing understandable panic among the trampled spectators. Under the influence of these events, in 46 BCE Julius Caesar enlarged the track, surrounding it with water canals (euripi), rebuilt the auditorium and remodelled the already existing brick carceres.
During this period, Circus Maximus has already reached great dimensions, easily seating around 150,000 spectators and becoming the central arena for racing (circus performances eventually moved completely to the amphitheatres) so fascinating for almost everyone the population of Rome.
In 33 BCE, at the command of Agrippa’s brand, 7 dolphins were placed on the spinning. During the reign of Augustus, a lodge for the emperor (pulvinar) was added and an obelisk 23.7 m high, brought from Heliopolis, was set up. In 36 CE the circus burned down. It was rebuilt by Emperor Claudius. Most likely, Claudius was the one who “funded” the first stone seats for the senators, also replaced the wooden finish with gilded bronze and added marble elements in place of the previous ones – tufa.
In the time of Nero a dolphin-shaped fountain was placed in the centre of the spina. In 64 CE, during a great fire, the circus was destroyed for the second time. Thereafter, Emperor Domitian in addition to enlarging the audience (which was further increased for Emperor Trajan ) in 81 CE he crowned the southern gable of the building with a triumphal arch in memory of victory over the Jews. During this time, the Circus Maximus reached its monumental size, reaching dimensions of about 600 by 200 meters and able to accommodate a total (according to various estimates) from 255,000 to 385,000 spectators. The building on the opposite side of the Arc de Triomphe contained 12 start gates (carceres) – each decorated with two marble Hermes. Above the gates, there was a stand from which the president of the Games, with a sound of fanfare, gave the signal to start the competition with a white scarf. The destruction caused by another fire during the reign of Domitian was rebuilt in 104 CE by Trajan. During the reign of Antoninus Pius, some buildings collapsed, but the damage was quickly rebuilt. During the reign of successive emperors, various amendments were made: for Caracalla the gate was widened, for Aurelian, a temple of the sun was erected on the spine, for Constantine the Great additional porticoes were added and the building was decorated with golden columns, and under Constantius II, an obelisk 32.5 meters high, brought from Thebes, was placed on the spin.
Various types of acrobatics were the “prelude” to the actual show, which was chariot racing: two-horse bigae, three-legged trigae or four-legged quadrigae. There were also sleds with more horses – including a 10 horse decemiuges – inclusive.
The chariot races took place around the spina. Usually the race was 7 laps long. This fascinating spectacle captured the crowd, which in turn encouraged their parties to fight. There were four parties. Each party had its own color – white, red, blue or green. “Whites” and “Reds” were in opposition to the empire, “Greens” supported the emperor, “Heavenly” supported the Senate and the aristocracy.
Belonging to a particular faction was forced by the economy – the enormous costs that had to be incurred for the purchase, training, maintenance of horses and servicing. In addition to the valued “weight in gold” – coachmen (aurigae), each of the stables employed a huge and diverse staff: fornali (doctores), coaches (magistri), vets (medici), janitors (conditores), grooms (succonditores), shouters that make horses run (iubilatores) and many others, so as not to fall into the manner of enumerating.
The Roman audience loved these shows where the almost heroic exploits of the competitors, the vicissitudes of races, danger and bravado – it all made the race enthusiastic and stimulating curiosity. Not surprisingly, the one-day ludi (games) of the young Republic were followed by ludi weekly and biweekly under the Empire, and the daily number of races increased from 12 – during Republican times – to about 100 in the time of the Flavians. It got to the point that in order to fit in time from sunrise to darkness, it was necessary to limit the “sacred” number of 7 laps of the track to 5 for the late Empire – one hundred races, each about 2.8 km – forced such a draconian move.
An additional aspect that made the crowd feverish was money betting. More than one citizen has lost a fortune, and many a driver has lost his life. The driver was a slave who had a knife stuck in his belt in case the reins became tangled.
The animals taking part in the races were purchased in Italy, Africa, Greece, Armenia, but most of all in Spain. The best ones were so famous that we find their names written on the vessels on the outskirts of the Empire, or arranged in mosaics. Usually, after three years of training, there was a 5-year period of competitions in races, when they were dressed in the colors of the appropriate factiones, with twigs attached to their heads, in decorative harnesses, with tied manes and tails, and hung with amulets and ornaments – they brought wealth to some and even ruined the lives of others. The two middle horses were harnessed to the yoke of the cart, but the real value of the harness lay in strength and obedience, specially selected two outermost horses called funalis attached – each individually – with a special rope to the axis or wing of the quadriga. The courage, bravado, cleverness and skill of steering this four horses made the best of the coachmen – despite their often low origin – become idols of the crowds: slaves obtained liberation and wealth, liberators – fame and fortune.
Unfortunately, all fame has its “lights and shadows” – extensive accounts of these, after all, dangerous feats are full of the names of coachmen who lost their lives in their prime: “Aurelius Mollicius after 125 victories in 20 years of age, Tuscus – 56 victories in 24 years, or Crescens after earning 1,600,000 sesterces in 22 years of age. ” Life could also be lost in a less (or perhaps more) glorious way – falling victim to the passion of “Caesars – players” who were able to condemn their teammates to death (Vitellius) or to lose one of the “factio” coachmen (Caracalla). However, the glory and fame of the winners, coupled with the huge cash benefits, made the risk “worthwhile”. Rome prided itself on its aurigami, who were called “millionaires” (miliarii) – not because their income was estimated at millions of sesterces (though that is also true), but because they have won races at least a thousand times: Pompeius Musclosus – 3,559 times, Pompeius Epaphroditus – 1,467 times, Scorpus – 1,043 times. Finally, Diodes, who is worth a separate line in that after winning 4,462 races by CE 150 – reasonably withdrew from further competition with about 35 million sesterces.
The victory or defeat of the team on which the bets were placed – sponsio – made some rich, ruined others completely: the rich put their fortunes at stake, the poor – the last sesterces. The possibility of gaining a fortune by gambling magically absorbed the entire Roman crowd, among other things, or precisely because it mostly consisted of unemployed people, and even the best emperors at games, competitions, fights, shows – skillfully used the mood of the people. Often, after the closing of the actual performance, an additional – epulum – feast was organized, and during it a “rain” of sweets, coins, purses, lots for a house, farm, ship – which the cleverer losers could use for their benefit.
Circus Maximus is a Norwegian progressive metal quintet from Oslo. They employ the use of symphonic and power metal influences that feature synthesizers. As of 2016, they have released four albums, The 1st Chapter in 2005, Isolate in 2007, Nine in 2012 and Havoc in 2016.
Formation and early history of Circus Maximus (2000–2003)
In 2000 long-time band mates Michael Eriksen (vocals) and brothers Mats (guitar) and Truls Haugen (drums) were joined by keyboard player Espen Storø and Glen Cato Møllen on bass to form Circus Maximus.
Initially being a cover band, they got a lot of positive feedback for their interpretations of technically challenging material from bands like Dream Theater and Symphony X. Before long, the band started to write their own material. With other influences varying from pop/rock through classical progressive rock to heavy metal and death metal, their music synergized into a mixture of melodic and groovy sound with lots of heavy riffs. In the musical press their sound has been compared to Queensrÿche, TNT, Shadow Gallery, Pretty Maids, Helloween and the like.
Releasing two demos to great reviews in Norway, as well as in Europe and United States, the band made a record deal with American Sensory Records for the USA and Canada. Later on an opportunity for a licensing deal for Europe and Russia to Frontiers Records arose.
The 1st Chapter (2004–2006)
Circus Maximus began writing their debut album in 2004 entitled, The 1st Chapter which was released in May 2005. The eight-tracked album contains the longest Circus Maximus song with the title track running for over 19 minutes. The album also came with two bonus tracks.
Half a year later, in November 2005, keyboards player Espen Storø decided to leave the band for personal reasons. In early 2006, Lasse Finbråten (formerly of Norwegian progressive/power metal band Tritonus) joined the band, filling the vacant spot.
During 2005 Circus Maximus went on their first tour with their major performance being in Atlanta in the United States where they played at the ProgPower festival. Circus Maximus then returned to the same festival the following year with their new keyboardist. During the rest of 2006 Circus Maximus continued to play gigs around Scandinavia with other major acts such as Kamelot, Pagan’s Mind and Glenn Hughes.
Circus Maximus spent the first quarter of 2007 recording their second studio album, Isolate. The album was then released on August 7, 2007. Following the release of Isolate the band went on tour playing at major festivals such as ProgPower Europe, ProgPower Scandinavia, Sweden Rock and MetalHear. They also went on many solo shows while on the road.
During February 13 to March 5, 2008 the band toured Europe as an opening act at the Symphony X Paradise Lost Tour 2008.
On the 22nd June 2010 Michael Eriksen posted some news on the recording process. He said “Yesterday Mats and myself hit the studio to start the vocals on one of the tracks”. Later he mentioned that “We will have some videos up and running for you in a bit”.
The third album, called Nine was released on 1 June 2012. The band described the album as being both more melodic and more dynamic than their two preceding albums.
The first single from Havoc, “The Weight”, was released on 19 January 2016.
The theme on this new album is about moments and experiences in life that lead to love and hate. It’s about succumbing to fire and striving to cope with the aftermath of decisions when overshadowed by the love we have for others and ourselves.
Musically the band offers a mixture of very heavy moments intertwined with extremely accessible melodies. Songs like Pages, the opener The Weight, After the Fire and Remember show the full range of the Circus Maximus sound. Still, the album has very heavy songs like Havoc and slow and melodic moments like Loved Ones too.
text adapted from: http://www.circusmaximussite.com/?v=c2f3f489a005 and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circus_Maximus_(Norwegian_band)
Havoc / 2016
- Album Info
- Artist: Circus Maximus
- Published: 2016
- Record Label: Frontiers Music SRL
- The Weight
- Highest Bitter
- Loved Ones
- After The Fire
Havoc is the fourth studio album by Norwegian progressive metal band Circus Maximus, released on 18 March 2016. The deluxe edition includes a bonus track and an additional disc featuring a 2012 live performance in Japan.
Nine / 2012
- Album Info
- Artist: Circus Maximus
- Published: 2012
- Record Label: Frontier Records
- Architect Of Fortune
- Game Of Life
- Reach Within
- I Am
- The One
- Burn After Reading
- Last Goodbye
Nine is the third full-length studio album by the Norwegian progressive metal band Circus Maximus. The album was released on June 1, 2012.
The album is being described as more melodic and dynamic than the previous album. The album is also more guitar-oriented. “The majority of the material on the new record was written by Mats Haugen and he has taken the music to a kind of simpler and more accessible approach, yet kept the progressive elements and the “nerve” that is Circus Maximus” says Truls Haugen. Circus Maximus will appear live in some selected shows in the summer before launching a full-scale tour in support of the new album.
Glen Cato Møllen, the bassist of the band, told about the differences among Nine and the other two albums: “Two huge elements in the new material are first and foremost the evolution of the songwriting and the accessibility of the music. When you combine that with a new sound and production, you have a pretty different outcome from what we did on “Isolate”. We have been and always will be super proud of what we accomplished with the previous albums, but I think we’ve taken it to the next level with the new stuff”.
Isolate / 2007
- Album Info
- Artist: Circus Maximus
- Published: 2007
- Record Label: Frontier Records
- A Darkened Mind
- Sane No More
- Arrival Of Love
- Mouth Of Madness
- From Childhood’s Hour
- Ultimate Sacrifice
Isolate is the second full-length studio album by the Norwegian progressive metal band Circus Maximus. The album was released on October 24, 2007 in Japan, August, 2007 in Europe and September 4, 2007 in the US.
The cover-art for the album as well as a sample track containing an excerpt from the song “Wither”, was released by the band on May 29, 2007 on the official Circus Maximus website. Like its former album, Isolate contains the same number of tracks (with the bonus tracks) and also track 4 is an Instrumental (“Biosfear” on The 1st Chapter and “Sane No More” on Isolate).
Isolate is also the first album to feature new keyboardist Lasse Finbråten after Espen Storø’s departure at the end of recording of The 1st Chapter. Lasse Finbråten added more keyboard/synthesizer sounds to the album in both soloing and overall use. This is different from the previous album as Espen Storø’s sound centered on the use of the piano.
The album entered the Norwegian national charts at number 70 in August, 2007.
The 1st Chapter / 2005
- Album Info
- Artist: Circus Maximus
- Published: 2005
- Record Label: Frontier Records
- Glory Of The Empire
- Silence From Angels Above
- Why Am I Here
- The Prophecy
- The 1st Chapte
- Haunted Dreams
- Imperial Destruction
The 1st Chapter is the debut album by the Norwegian progressive metal band, Circus Maximus. The 1st Chapter was released on May 14, 2005 in Norway and on June 7, 2005 in the United States. The ongoing theme of The 1st Chapter is about “the journey” to salvation expressed through the lyrics. Musically, it sports a circus-like theme (that actually can be heard) playing throughout the album.
The lyrics to the song “Glory of the Empire” refer heavily to the 2000 film, Gladiator.
The 1st Chapter contains (as of 2012), the longest running Circus Maximus song with “The 1st Chapter” running for 19 minutes and 7 seconds.
No news found for this band.
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‘Timeline: the rise and fall of the Roman games’
Today (26th November), BBC History Magazine – on Twitter as @HistoryExtra – Tweeted a link to an article titled ‘Timeline: the rise and fall of the Roman games’, which they have posted as a feature on the home page of their web-site. The article was first published in the History Revealed magazine in July 2014 (the BBC History Magazine and the History Revealed magazine are produced by the same publisher). The tag-line of the article reads: ‘Dr Miles Russell reveals the story of the most gruesome spectator sports from the Roman period, from the first-ever races to the final battles …’. The timeline is very interesting. It also covers a long period of time: it starts with the year 753 BC and ends with the year AD 681!
The timeline of the Roman games is mostly about gladiatorial combat, although it kicks off in 753 BC, which is considered to be the year in which the first Roman chariot race was held, when the Romans competed with the Sabines, and which was presented by Romulus himself. The next date is 264 BC, the year of the first recorded gladiatorial combat to the death in Rome. In 174 BC, the Circus Maximus in Rome was rebuilt in stone: this was the greatest chariot-racing track in the Roman empire. In AD 67, apparently, the emperor Nero competed in a ten-horse chariot race in Greece. In about AD 146, the most successful Roman charioteer – Gaius Appuleius Diocles – retired after winning over 1,000 races. The timeline ends with this entry: ‘… AD 681 After centuries of waning popularity, and with the decline of the Roman Empire, gladiatorial combat is officially banned as a sport …’.
From the VROMA web-site: ‘… Possibly the oldest spectacular sport in Rome, chariot racing dates back at least to the sixth century BCE… [In Sicily,] races were associated with funeral games, and in Rome too they had religious ties, particularly to the chariot-driving deities Sol (the sun) and Luna (the moon), and to a god called Consus, an agricultural deity who presided over granaries. Originally chariot races (ludi circenses) were held only on religious festivals like the Consualia, but later they would also be held on non-feast days when sponsored by magistrates and other Roman dignitaries … Chariot racing was the most popular sport in Rome, appealing to all social classes from slaves to the emperor himself. This appeal was no doubt enhanced by the private betting that went on, although there was no public gambling on the races …’ – see ‘The circus: Roman chariot racing’ at www.vroma.org/
A timeline of chariot-racing and circuses would look very different to this timeline of the Roman games. And look out for a future post on this blog which includes a timeline of Colchester’s Roman circus!
Visit the BBC History Magazine web-site at www.historyextra.com/ and read ‘Timeline: the rise and fall of the Roman games’ at www.historyextra.com/article/romans/timeline-rise-and-fall-roman-games . The History Revealed magazine web-site is at www.historyextra.com/history-revealed/current-issue (the current issue, for December 2015, includes a captioned image of Colchester’s Roman circus in the feature titled ‘The Romans are coming!’).
The image shows Colchester Roman circus in the current issue of History Revealed.
Tag: seven hills of rome
The city of Rome had originally grown out of seven hills which became known as the Walled Seven Hills of Rome. These hills were situated throughout the first 400 years of Roman history (which is where this appears on the Biblical Timeline with world history) and in time the Roman rulers and people who resided on each hill into one gigantic metropolitan area.
King Romulus was the first ruler of Rome and he settled the hill of Palentine during his reign. This hill is considered the premiere historical site of Rome and it is also where some of Rome’s most popular kings and ceasers built their palaces. Palentine was and is also the richest and most popular area of the city of Rome. It is also located between the Roman Forum and the Circus Maximus. Rich and well to do ancient Roman citizens lived here.
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Aventine is another premiere hill in the city of Rome. This particular hill is located in the south of Rome, and it was home to some of the middle class and rich citizens of the city. Large homes and villas for the aristocracy were built in this area. Temples for Roman deities such as Diana and Minerva were erected here as well. Public baths and a few civic buildings were also added to the area over the years.
The Celio Hill had been situated in the middle part of Rome. Many public buildings such as temples, civic structures and basilicas were erected in this spot. The ancient Romans also used this area to build military bases. Celio Hill was a part of the city that was occupied by ordinary citizens.
The Esquiline Hill was used a large gravesite for many of the Roman citizens. The poorer members of the society resided here, and it also contained a large population.
Vinimale Hill is located in another hill area of Rome called Esquiline. This area contained Roman villas and public buildings such as Roman baths. Other civic buildings and a few temples were constructed here as well.
Many temples were built here during ancient times and it also contained the homes of many commoners.
The Campidoglio Hill had many temples, and it was used a major religious center.
All of these hills were eventually merged into one city during the Republic era of Rome. The people from each section of the area eventually started to work together, trade and merge their resources together in times of war or when disaster struck. Various rulers and politicians also worked to unify the area into one city which eventually became Rome.
The walls that surrounded these hills were first built by King Romulus, who established Palentine. Walled cities were a common feature of the ancient world since they provided protection from outside enemies, so every settled hill region had a wall for defense. Once Rome was unified into one city the walls were eventually torn down. A few of the hills still have retained their walls and still remain as ruins. Modern day Rome is still configured off of this same hill design that was in use since ancient times.