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February 14, 2017 Day 25 of the First Year - History

February 14, 2017 Day 25 of the First Year - History


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10:30AM THE PRESIDENT participates in a parent-teacher conference listening session

Roosevelt Room

11:30AM THE PRESIDENT speaks with Prime Minister Theresa May of the United Kingdom by telephone

Oval Office

12:30PM THE PRESIDENT has lunch with Governor and Mrs. Christie

Presidential Dining Room

2:00PM THE PRESIDENT signs H.J. Res. 41

Oval Office

4:00PM THE PRESIDENT meets with the Secretary of Homeland Security John Kelly and the Attorney General Jeff Sessions

Oval Office


89th Academy Awards

The 89th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2016, and took place on February 26, 2017, at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, at 5:30 p.m. PST. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards (commonly referred to as Oscars) in 24 categories. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Michael De Luca and Jennifer Todd and directed by Glenn Weiss. [2] [3] Comedian Jimmy Kimmel hosted the ceremony for the first time. [4]

In related events, the Academy held its 8th Annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on November 12, 2016. [5] On November 25, 2016, the AMPAS announced that no anime shorts would be considered for this year's ceremony. [6] On February 11, 2017, in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California, [7] the Academy Scientific and Technical Awards were presented by hosts John Cho and Leslie Mann. [8]

In the main ceremony, Moonlight won three awards including Best Picture—after La La Land was mistakenly announced as the winner [9] —as well as Best Supporting Actor for Mahershala Ali. La La Land won six awards, the most for the evening, out of its record-tying fourteen nominations, including Best Actress for Emma Stone and Best Director for Damien Chazelle. Hacksaw Ridge and Manchester by the Sea won two awards each with Casey Affleck winning Best Actor for the latter. Viola Davis won the Best Supporting Actress honor for Fences. The telecast was viewed by 33 million people in the United States. [10]


Historical Events on February 25

Excommunication

1570 Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England for heresy and persecution of English Catholics during her reign. Also absolves her subjects from allegiance to the crown.

    Portuguese garrison on Ambon surrenders to Admiral Van der Haghen Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria becomes monarch of Palts Irish captain Walter Devereaux kills Duke Wallenstein Pavonia Massacre: Dutch US colonists kill 120 Algonquin Native Americans at Communipaw (New Jersey) Abraham Crijnssens fleet reach Fort Willoughby on Suriname River The Duke of Cumberland's troops occupy Aberdeen 1st performing monkey exhibited in America, NYC (admission 1 cent) 1st Bank of US chartered French Politician and Educator Joseph Lakanal, defines on behalf of the French Revolution an “educational utopia” aiming to “put an end to inequalities of development that affected a citizen's capacities for judgment." 1st federal forestry legislation authorizes purchase of timber land US Congress passes 1st federal quarantine legislation

Presidential Convention

1804 Thomas Jefferson nominated for US President at Democratic-Republican caucus

    Australia's first currency - the holey dollar introduced, made of Spanish 'pieces of eight' with the centers stamped out, for the colony of New South Wales [1]

Theater Premiere

1830 Victor Hugo's play "Hernani" premieres in Paris

Historic Invention

1836 Samuel Colt patents first multi-shot revolving-cylinder revolver, enabling the firearm to be fired multiple times without reloading

Event of Interest

1836 Showman P. T. Barnum exhibits African American slave Joice Heth, claiming she was the 161 year-old nursemaid to George Washington

    1st US electric printing press patented by Thomas Davenport London pedestrian walks 20 miles backward then forward in 8 hours Seminoles & black allies shipped from Tampa Bay Florida, to the West State University of Iowa is approved

Event of Interest

1855 Bowery Boys gang leader William Poole "Bill the Butcher" shot in the back by gang of archrival John Morrissey in New York (dies 8th March)

1st US One-Dollar Notes

1862 Congress forms US Bureau of Engraving and Printing to print newly issued US paper currency, the United States Notes

Event of Interest

1862 First Legal Tender Act 1862 is passed by the US Congress, authorizing the United States Note (greenback) into circulation, the first fiat paper money that was legal tender in America

Event of Interest

1870 Hiram R. Revels is sworn in as 1st African American member of Congress (Sen-R-MS)

    Kiowa Indians under Lone Wolf (Guipago) surrender at Ft Sill US Congress passed 1st Timberland Protection Act US Congress condemns barbed wire around government grounds James Barrie's "Walker London" premieres in London

Event of Interest

1901 US Steel Corporation organized under J. P. Morgan, Sr.

    J M Synge's "Riders to the Sea" opens at Irish National Theater Society Stanley Cup: Ottawa Silver 7 sweep Toronto Marlboroughs in 2 games The Nederlands Verbond van Vakverenigingenwas, a Dutch social-democratic trade union, forms

Event of Interest

    US proclaims protectorate over Dominican Republic 1st tunnel under Hudson River (railway tunnel) opens Dalai Lama flees Tibet for British India to escape Chinese troops Victor Herbert's opera "Natoma" premieres at Metropolitan Opera House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Marie-Adélaïde, the eldest of six daughters of Guillaume IV, becomes the first reigning Grand Duchess of Luxembourg The 16th Amendment to the US Constitution becomes law, providing the legal basis for the institution of a graduated income tax Battle of Verdun: German troops conquer Fort Douaumont without firing a shot, the largest and highest fort defending the city of Verdun during World War I Oregon is 1st state to tax gasoline (1 cent per gallon) Tbilisi, capital of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, occupied by Bolshevist Russia The Living Buddha, Hutuktu, is crowned King of Mongolia as the country declares independence from China Bread in Berlin rises to 2,000 marks Marie Boyd scores 156 points in Maryland HS basketball game (163-3) Glacier Bay National Monument established in Alaska

Event of Interest

1926 Francisco Franco becomes Spain's youngest general at 33

    Kwo-Min-Tang (Guomindang) declares war on government and warlords Gdańsk and Polish accord concerning traffic through Polish corridor Check photographing device patented Brilliant West Indian cricket batsman George Headley completes twin tons (114 & 112) in 3rd Test win against England at Georgetown, British Guiana

Event of Interest

1932 Austrian immigrant Adolf Hitler gets German citizenship

    1st genuine US aircraft carrier named, USS Ranger Major NFL rule changes (hash mark 10 yds in, posts on goal line) Thomas Yawkey purchases Boston Red Sox Lord Halifax becomes British Foreign Secretary 1st Anderson bomb shelter in Britain erected in an Islington garden 1st televised (W2XBS, NYC) hockey game (Rangers vs Canadians) Boston Bruins set NHL record of 23-game unbeaten streak (15-0-8) February strike against persecution of Jews, in Amsterdam Vietminh forms Indo Chinese Democratic Front US 1st Army completes invasion plan US aircraft carriers attack Tokyo

Event of Interest

1950 "Your Show of Shows" with Sid Caesar & Imogene Coca premieres on NBC Writers include Mel Brooks, Neil Simon & Woody Allen

    "Michael Todd's Peep Show" closes at Winter Garden NYC after 278 performances 1st Pan American Games opens (Buenos Aires Argentina) VI Winter Olympic Games close at Oslo, Norway "Wonderful Town" opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 559 performances Abdul Nasser appointed Egyptian premier

Conference of Interest

1956 Nikita Khrushchev denounces Joseph Stalin at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Event of Interest

    US Supreme Court decides 6-3, baseball is only antitrust exempt pro sport John Cage's "Music for Amplified Toy Pianos" premieres

Event of Interest

1960 Lillian Hellman's "Toys in the Attic" premieres in NYC

    Niagara ends St Bonaventura's 99-game home basketball win streak Paul Bikle in glider climbs from 1208 m at release to record 14,10 India Congress Party wins elections Mike O'Hara completes record 97th marathon

Event of Interest

Event of Interest

1962 Wilt Chamberlain of NBA Philadelphia Warriors scores 67 points vs NY Knicks for the second year in a row

Boxing Title Fight

1964 Muhammad Ali [Cassius Clay] wins his first world heavyweight boxing title when Sonny Liston fails to come out for round 7 at the Convention Center, Miami Beach

    Syrian military coup under General Hafiz al-Assad 430 Unification Church couples wed in Korea Makarios re-elected president of Cyprus 10th Daytona 500: Cale Yarborough driving for Wood Brothers Racing wins by less than a second from LeeRoy Yarbrough grid set exclusively by qualifying times Beatles begin recording Abbey Road album Mariner 6 launched for fly-by of Mars Pension plan for baseball is agreed to West Germany gives $5 million to an Arab terrorist as ransom for the passengers and crew of a hijacked jumbo jet

Oh! Calcutta! - The Bare Facts

1971 "Oh! Calcutta!" moves to Belasco Theater in NYC for 1,316 performances

Meeting of Interest

1971 Northern Ireland Prime Minister James Chichester-Clark holds a meeting with Catholic Cardinal of Ireland William Conway, the first such meeting between men holding these offices since 1921

Event of Interest

1972 Lopsided trade, Cards trade Steve Carlton to Phillies for Rick Wise

Music Single

1972 Paul McCartney releases "Give Ireland back to the Irish" single

    Attempted assassination of Irish Minister of State for Home Affairs John Taylor who is shot a number of times (the Official Irish Republican Army later claimed responsibility) Juan Corona sentenced to 25 life sentences for 25 murders Stephen Sondheim's musical "Little Night Music" premieres at Shubert Theatre in NYC (601 performances) Veronica & Colin Scargill (England) begin tandem bicycle ride a record 18,020 miles around the world, completed on August 27, 1975

NBA Record

1977 New Orleans' Pete Maravich sets NBA record for a guard with 68 pts

Event of Interest

1978 England cricket all-rounder Ian Botham scores first Test century, 103 v New Zealand in Christchurch

    Soyuz 32 carries 2 cosmonauts to Salyut 6 space station is launched Coup ousts PM Henck Arron of Suriname British political comedy "Yes Minister" written by Antony Jay and Jonathan Lynn, starring Paul Eddington, Nigel Hawthorne and Derek Fowlds premieres on BBC Two

Grammy Awards

1981 23rd Grammy Awards: Sailing, Christopher Cross, Billy Joel wins

    Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo elected premier of Spain NHL most penalized game Bruins vs Northstars, 84 penalties (392 mins) NY Islanders give up their most goals (11) vs Calgary Flames Rita Jenrette (wife of Abscam congressman) appears on Donahue US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site Exec Board of Baseball Players' Association votes unanimously to strike on May 29 if the issue of free-agent compensation remains unresolved Final episode of "The Lawrence Welk Show" airs Record speed for a snowmobile (239 kph) Oil fire in Cubatao Brazil kills 500 28th Grammy Awards: We Are the World, Sade, Phil Collins wins

Event of Interest

1986 Corazon Aquino becomes President of the Philippines, Marcos flees the country

    Iran conquers Iraqi Fao peninsula Thousands of Egyptian military police riot, destroy 2 luxury hotel LaMarr Hoyt is banned from baseball for 1987, due to drug abuse US Supreme Court upholds (5-4) affirmative action

Event of Interest

1988 Bruce Springsteen's "Tunnel of Love" Tour begins in Worcester, Massachusetts

    South Korea adopts constitution 1st independent blue-collar labor union in Communist Hungary forms Javed Miandad scores 271 v NZ at Eden Park Lowest baramotric pressure in Netherlands (956.7 mbar at De Bilt)

Boxing Title Fight

1989 Mike Tyson TKOs Frank Bruno in 5 for heavyweight boxing title

    Australia beat Pakistan 2-0 to win cricket's World Series Cup Nicaraguans votes out Sandinistas On a BBC taped interview, rock star Stevie Nicks breaks down, saying that she will never have children & no man can stand her for long Andrew Jones scores twin Test Cricket tons v Sri Lanka (122 & 100*)

Event of Interest

1991 Bruce McNall, Wayne Gretzky and John Candy buy CFL's Toronto Argonauts

    US, barracks in Dhahran Saudi Arabia, hit by scud missile, kills 28 34th Grammy Awards: Unforgettable, Marc Cohn wins Khojaly massacre: about 613 civilians killed by Armenian armed forces during the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan

Grammy Awards

1992 Muddy Waters wins Lifetime Achievement Award at the 34th Annual Grammy Awards

Event of Interest

1998 Pamela Lee has husband Tommy Lee arrested on battery charges

    Switzerland's 1st legal brothel opens in Zurich 40th Grammy Awards: "Sunny Came Home" best song, Paula Cole best new artist

BAFTA Awards

2001 54th British Film and Television Awards (BAFTAS): "Gladiator" Best Film, Ang Lee Best Director

Academy Awards

    BDR massacre in Pilkhana, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 74 People are being killed, including more than 50 Army officials, by Bangladeshi Boarder Guards inside its headquarter. In the Irish general election, the Fianna Fáil-led government suffered the worst defeat of a sitting government since the formation of the Irish state in 1921 French fashion house Christian Dior suspends its chief designer John Galliano after he is arrested for an anti-semitic verbal attack in Paris Syrian Army kills 100 civilians in artillery shelling of Homs and Hama

Polio

2012 World Health Organization removes India from the list of polio endemic countries

Children with polio in a US hospital, inside an iron lung. In about 0.5% of cases, patients suffered from paralysis, sometimes resulting in the inability to breathe. More often, limbs would be paralyzed.

Event of Interest

2013 Cuban President Raúl Castro announces he will not seek another term in 2018

    Italy Common Good, a centre left alliance, wins the Italian general election 50 students are killed in a Boko Harem attack on a college in Buni, Nigeria Hundreds of pro-Russian protesters block the Crimean parliament and demand a referendum on Crimea's independence

Music Awards

2015 BRIT Awards: Best Single "Uptown Funk", Best Album "X" by Ed Sheeran

Event of Interest

2016 Seth Rogen and Lauren Miller are honoured by unite4:humanity for their work promoting awareness of and fundraising for Alzheimer's research

    Tom Perez is elected Chair of the Democratic National Committee Russian national team, competing under the name of Olympic Athletes from Russia (OAR), wins Olympic ice hockey gold medal in Pyeongchang beat Germany, 4-3 in overtime in the final Norwegian cross-country skier Marit Bjørgen wins gold in women's 30k at Pyeongchang Winter Olympics brings her total Games medal haul to 15, most won by any athlete in Winter Games history 2-man bobsleigh champions Francesco Friedrich and Thorsten Margis of Germany win their 2nd gold medals of the Pyeongchang Winter Olympics as part of the German 4-man team XXIII Winter Olympic Games close in Pyeongchang, Korea Norway wins a record 39 medals, 14 gold China briefly bans the letter 'N' as part of widespread censorship efforts Winter Olympics: Marit Bjoergen (Norway) becomes the most successful winter athlete of all time (15 medals) with gold in the 30k cross country 68th Berlin International Film Festival: Romanian film "Touch Me Not" wins the Golden Bear Influential film review site Rotten Tomatoes implements changes to its site after internet trolls target "Captain Marvel" film James Harden's scoring streak of games with at least 30 points ends at 32 as he scores 28 in the Rockets' 119-111 win over Atlanta in Houston 2nd longest mark in NBA history 147 murders occurred during a five day police strike in Ceará, Brazil, despite army patrolling the streets according to authorities Iran emerges as a newCOVID-19 hotspot, recording 95 cases and 11 deaths as a deputy health minister that appeared on TV confirmed as also infected

Event of Interest

2021 Chinese President Xi Jinping claims the country has eradicated extreme poverty (earning less than US$620 a year), though many observers remain skeptical about the accuracy of Chinese data due to widespread corruption and lack of transparency [1]


Historical Events on April 14

43 BC Battle of Forum Gallorum: Mark Antony, besieging Julius Caesar's assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in Mutina, defeats the forces of the consul Pansa, who is killed.

    Pact of Quierzy: between Pope Stephen II, [III] & Pippin the Korte Christianisation of Poland Notger becomes bishop of Liege Challenge to throne of King Aethelred II of England German emperor Conrad II the Sailor crowns his son Henry III, king 85-year old Giacinto Bobo becomes Pope Coelestinus III Sack of Saluzzo (Italy) by Italian-Angevine troops under Manfred V of Saluzzo. Henry of Grosmont, the richest peer in England, is buried at the Church of the Annunciation of Our Lady of Newarke, Leicester, with the royal family in attendance The foundation stone of Cathedral St. Peter and St. Paul in Nantes, France is laid Wars of the Roses: Battle of Barnet - Yorkists defeat the Lancastrians and kill the Earl of Warwick

Event of Interest

1536 English King Henry VIII expropriates minor monasteries

    Battle at Carignano: French troops under Earl d'Enghien beat Swiss Polish Calvinists, Lutherans and Hernhutters unify against Jesuits Battle of Mookerhei - D'Avila beats Louis of Nassau

Declaration of War

1792 France declares war on Austria, starting French Revolutionary Wars

Event of Interest

1828 First American Dictionary: its author Noah Webster registers its copyright for publication

    Soldiers marching on a bridge in Manchester, England, cause it to collapse. US Congress forms Territory of Wisconsin

Historic Publication

1841 1st detective story published, Edgar Allan Poe's "Murders in Rue Morgue" (April 1841)

    Persia & Ottoman Turkey sign 2nd Treaty of Erzurum Hungary declares itself independent of Austria with Louis Kossuth as its leader

Meeting of Interest

1858 Abolitionist John Brown meets Harriet Tubman at a Constitutional Convention convened in Chatham, Ontario

Battle of Fort Sumter

1861 Formal Union surrender of Fort Sumter (US Civil War)

Event of Interest

1865 U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family are attacked in his home by Lewis Powell as part of the same conspiracy to assassinate Abraham Lincoln

Final Deadly Performance of a Twisted Actor

1865 US President Abraham Lincoln is shot in the head by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington he dies a day later

    SC voters approved constitution, 70,758 to 27,228 Canada sets denominations of currency as dollars, cents, & mills Dominion Lands Act passed: Canada's Homestead Act San Francisco organizes Bar Association The Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight in El Paso, Texas. Leo Delibes' opera "Lakmé" premieres in Paris Pan American Day-1st conference of American states (Washington, D.C.)

Event of Interest

1894 1st public showing of Thomas Edison's kinetoscope (moving pictures)

Event of Interest

1902 J. C. Penney opens his first store, The Golden Rule Store, in Kemmerer, Wyoming

Event of Interest

1906 US President Theodore Roosevelt denounces "muckrakers" in US press, taken from John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress

Event of Interest

1910 President Taft begins tradition of throwing out ball on opening day


This Is Why Valentine's Day Is On February 14

Whether you're single or in a relationship, I'm sure we're all hyperaware that Valentine's Day is on February 14th — it's really unavoidable, no matter where you go. But while we're all stocking up on candy hearts and gifts for our loved ones (or chocolate for ourselves, no judgment here), has anybody ever stopped to ask themselves just why Valentine's Day is on February 14th? Is it because the month of February is just so cold and miserable that whoever created this holiday decided to throw us all a bone? That would have been smart, but the history of Valentine's Day actually goes back a long way, and there's a reason we celebrate this sometimes polarizing holiday on the same day every year.

Though in this day and age we all recognize Valentine's Day as a day to celebrate love, the history of this holiday is a little murky. Valentine's Day today incorporates Christian and ancient Roman traditions. According to Americaslibrary.gov, the Romans celebrated the feast of Lupercalia, a spring festival (ha, good one), on February 15th. But with the introduction of Christianity, the holiday moved to the 14th to honor several martyrs named Valentine. And this is where things get confusing.

According to History.com, the Catholic Church recognizes at least three saints named Valentine or Valentinus, all with a different backstory. The one that seems to have the most obvious connection to the Valentine's Day as we know it today involves a Valentine who was killed for attempting to help Christians escape from Roman prisons. Legend has it that he fell in love with a woman who visited him during his imprisonment and wrote her a letter signed "From your Valentine," and that could be why we call each other Valentines today. Some people believe we celebrate Valentine's Day on February 14th to coincide with the anniversary of Saint Valentine's death or burial. ‌

Although that explanation seems to make sense, it's not universally accepted. Others contend that Valentine's Day was placed in the middle of February in order to Christianize the pagan festival of Lupercalia, dedicated to the Roman god of agriculture. In any case, at the end of the 5th century Pope Gelasius abolished Lupercalia and declared February 14th St. Valentine's Day.

So Valentine's Day has been on February 14th for centuries, but it wasn't until much later that it was associated with love. Experts believe the association began during the Middle Ages in England and France, where February 14th was generally accepted as the beginning of birds' mating season. A little strange, but this could be where the idea that Valentine's Day is a day of romance started.

Valentine's Day may have some questionable beginnings, but clearly a holiday that's been celebrated for this long probably isn't going away anytime soon. And just like the now-unpopular tradition of eating fruitcake on Christmas, if you don't like Valentine's Day and are looking for someone to blame, you can (at least partially) chalk this one up to the ancient Romans.


Historical Events in 2017

PM of Portugal and Secretary-General of the United Nations
António Guterres 8th Secretary-General of the United Nations
Ban Ki-moon
    Indian provincial cricket team Vidarbha wins first Ranji Trophy title in their first final appearance in 61 years beating Delhi by 9 wickets in Indore medium pacer Rajneesh Gurbani stars with the ball taking 6 wickets
    US House Republicans vote to gut the independent Office of Congressional Ethics, a public uproar forces them to back down the next day Michael van Gerwen of the Netherlands wins his 2nd PDC World Darts Championship beating defending champion Gary Anderson, 7-3 at the Alexandra Palace, London

Event of Interest

Jan 6 Elizabeth Warren announces her intention to run for a second term as Massachusetts Senator

    Hopman Cup Tennis, Perth: French pair Kristina Mladenovic & Richard Gasquet beat Americans Coco Vandeweghe & Jack Sock 4-1, 4-3 to clinch 2-1 win 2nd French title

Golden Globes

Jan 8 74th Golden Globes: "Moonlight", Casey Affleck and Isabelle Huppert win

Event of Interest

Jan 12 US President Barack Obama in surprise presentation awards Vice President Joe Biden with the Presidential Medal of Freedom

    Justin Thomas (23) becomes the youngest player to shoot a sub-60 round of 59 in the opening round of the Sony Open at Waialae CC in Hawaii he also wins the tournament Cricket all-rounder Shakib Al Hasan scores Bangladesh's top Test score ever (217) during the 1st Test v New Zealand in Wellington

Event of Interest

Jan 17 US President Barack Obama commutes WikiLeaks discloser Chelsea Manning's prison sentence from 35 to 7 years

Flight MH370 Disappears

Jan 17 Search for missing aircraft MH370 over the Indian Ocean is called off

Post-it notes written by well-wishers in Malaysia after Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 went missing

Hall of Fame

Jan 18 Baseball Hall of Fame adds Jeff Bagwell, Tim Raines and Ivan Rodriguez

    NASA and NOAA announce that 2016 was the hottest year on record, surpassing the previous record set in 2015 which itself topped a record set in 2014

Event of Interest

Jan 19 Adama Barrow sworn in as President of Gambia in Dahkar as Senegalese troops enter Gambia to persuade former President Yahya Jammeh to leave

El Chapo Finally Recaptured

Jan 19 Mexican drug lord Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán is extradited to the United States to face trial for his leadership of the Sinaloa drug cartel

Mexican drug lord Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán in American custody after being extradited to the United States

President Inaugurated

Jan 20 Donald Trump is inaugurated as the 45th President of the United States of America and Mike Pence as the 48th Vice President

    Car ploughs into pedestrians in central Melbourne, killing 6 and injuring 27 More than 2 million people protest worldwide in the 'Women's March' against Donald Trump, with 500,000 marching in Washington, D.C. Adam Hadwin fires only the 7th sub-60 round (59) in PGA Tour history in the 3rd round of the CareerBuilder Challenge at LaQuinta CC Chile declares a State of Emergency and requests international assistance as wildfires rage out of control

Event of Interest

Jan 22 Jared Kushner is sworn in as Senior Advisor to US President, Donald Trump

    NFC Championship, Georgia Dome, Atlanta: Atlanta Falcons beat Green Bay Packers, 44-21 AFC Championship, Gillette Stadium, Foxborough: New England Patriots beat Pittsburgh Steelers, 36-17 Thunderstorms and tornadoes in Georgia and Mississippi leave at least 18 dead in the US Bernie Ecclestone removed as Formula One boss as Liberty Media completes $8 billion takeover Most expensive house in the US worth $250 million goes on the market in Bel Air, Los Angeles President Trump withdraws the US from the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) Kisenosato becomes the 1st Japanese home-grown sumo champion since 1998 when he is made yokozuna, 72nd Grand Champion Donald Trump issues executive order banning travel to the US for 7 mostly Muslim countries and suspending admission for refugees

Australian Open Women's Tennis

Jan 28 Australian Open Women's Tennis: Serena Williams defeats older sister Venus Williams 6–4, 6–4 for her 7th Australian title and record 23rd Grand Slam event singles victory

    US President Donald Trump and Australian PM Malcolm Turnbull have a contentious phone call over deal for US to take 1,250 refugees Attack on mosque in Quebec kills 6 and injures 17, shooter is French-Canadian student

Australian Men's Tennis Open

Jan 29 Australian Open Men's Tennis: Roger Federer beats Spaniard Rafael Nadal 6–4, 3–6, 6–1, 3–6, 6–3 to win his record 18th Grand Slam

    62nd NHL All Star Games, Staples Centre, Los Angeles, CA: Metropolitan All Stars win four team 3-on-3 tournament MVP: Wayne Simmonds, Philadelphia Flyers, RW NFL Pro Bowl, Orlando, FL: AFC beats NFC, 20-13 MVPs: Travis Kelce, KC Chiefs, TE Lorenzo Alexander, Buffalo Bills, LB Scientists in central China reveal oldest known human ancestor - 540-million-year-old Saccorhytus in a fossil Romanian government passes emergency decree to release prisoners and decriminalise corruption charges, triggering huge protests in Bucharest US President Donald Trump fires Attorney General Sally Yates after she instructs Justice Department officials not to defend Trump's travel ban US President Donald Trump announces he is nominating 49 year old Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court

Appointment of Interest

Feb 1 Rex Tillerson confirmed as 69th US Secretary of State

    British MPs vote in favour of the European Union Bill, allowing the government to begin Brexit African Cup of Nations 2017: Cameroon defeat Egypt 2-1 in Libreville Romanian government scraps corruption degree after 6 days of mass demonstrations Heavy metal band Black Sabbath play their last concert in their home town Birmingham, England

Super Bowl

Feb 5 Super Bowl LI, NRG Stadium, Houston, TX: New England Patriots defeat Atlanta Falcons, 34-28 MVP: Tom Brady, New England, QB

    Qatar Airways achieves the longest-ever commercial flight in service when its B777 aircraft lands in Auckland after a 16 hour and 23 minutes flight from Doha

Event of Interest

Feb 8 US Senate confirms Jeff Sessions Attorney General, after controversy and protests

    Emergency spillway at Oroville Dam, California threatens to collapse, 180,00 residents ordered to evacuate

Grammy Awards

Feb 12 59th Grammy Awards: Adele wins Best Song "Hello" and Best Album "25"

BAFTA Awards

Feb 12 70th British Academy Awards (Baftas): "La La Land" Best Film, Damien Chazelle Best Director, Best Actors Casey Affleck / Emma Stone

Event of Interest

Feb 13 US President Donald Trump accepts the resignation of national security adviser Michael Flynn over his dealings with Russia

Event of Interest

Feb 13 Harrison Ford involved in a near miss while flying a plane at John Wayne Airport, Orange County

Event of Interest

Feb 14 Laureus World Sports Awards, Monte-Carlo Sporting, Monaco: Sportsman: Usain Bolt Sportswoman: Simone Biles Team: Chicago Cubs

    The Indian space rocket PSLV-C37 successfully launches 104 satellites in a single flight Suicide attack on shrine of Sufi saint Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, Sehwan, Pakistan kills 72, Islamic State claims responsibility Car bomb in Bayaa, Baghdad kills at least 48, Islamic State claims responsibility. 3rd attack in 3 days Discovery of a new mostly underwater continent Zealandia in the South Pacific announced in research journal "GSA Today" 67th Berlin International Film Festival: Hungarian film "On Body and Soul" wins the Golden Bear NBA All Star Game, Smoothie King Centre, New Orleans, LA: West beats East, 192-182 MVP: Anthony Davis, New Orleans Pelicans, F Famine is declared in Unity State, South Sudan, affecting 4.9 million Bodies of 87 African migrants wash ashore at Zawiya, Libya Plane crashes into shopping centre in Essendon, Melbourne, Australia killing the five people on board Discovery of 7 Earth-sized planets orbiting star Trappist-1 announced in Journal "Nature" - raises possibility of alien life

Hall of Fame

Feb 22 Jay-Z becomes 1st rapper to be inducted into Songwriters Hall of Fame alongside Max Martin, Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis

    US President Donald Trump overturns Obama directive on Transgender rights to use toilets Tom Perez is elected Chair of the Democratic National Committee 89th Academy Awards: Best Picture "Moonlight" (after mix-up), Best Director Damien Chazelle, Best Actor Casey Affleck, Best Actress Emma Stone 59th Daytona 500: Kurt Busch wins after Kyle Larson runs out of gas on last lap Jeffrey Earnhardt makes NASCAR history, 1st ever 4th generation driver to compete in Daytona 500 Gustav Klimt's painting "Bauerngarten" sells for $59.3m in London

Event of Interest

Mar 1 Charo is revealed as a contestant on season 24 of Dancing with the Stars

    US Attorney General Jeff Sessions recuses himself from the investigation into Trump campaign contacts with Russia after revelations he met Russian ambassador

Event of Interest

Mar 10 South Korean judges uphold parliaments' decision to impeach President Park Geun-hye

    At least 65 killed in landslide at rubbish dump near Addis Ababa, Ethopia England retains the Six Nations Rugby Championship with 61-21 win over Scotland at Twickenham England's 11th consecutive Six Nations win and equals NZ's record of 18 consecutive international wins European Court of Justice rules companies can ban staff from wearing religious symbols, including headscarves World's oldest golf club Muirfield in Scotland, votes to admit women as members for 1st time in 273 years Disney refuses to cut gay moment in film "Beauty and the Beast" for Malaysian censors, instead pulls film from Malaysia Dutch elections Prime Minister Mark Rutte's centre-right VVD party win 33 seats vs against 20 for right wing Geert Wilder's Party of Freedom

Event of Interest

Mar 15 French fashion house Givenchy appoints it first female designer, Englishwoman Clare Waight Keller

Film Release

Mar 17 Live-action remake "Beauty and the Beast" directed by Bill Condon and starring Emma Watson opens

    Indian rivers Yamuna and the Ganges declared "living entities" by court in the state of Uttarakhand Singer Wyclef Jean wrongly identified as a suspect, handcuffed and detained by LA county sheriff’s department

Event of Interest

Mar 26 Anti-corruption protests in Russia result in hundreds arrested including opposition leader Alexei Navalny

    Mass protests in Chile over country's privatised pension system Carrie Lam is first woman elected to lead Hong Kong by Beijing-influenced electoral commission US confirms likely it is behind the air strike in Mosul, Iraq, that led to collapse of a building that killed more than 100 civilians Britain introduces 1st new pound coin in 30 years with secret security feature inside to stop counterfeiting World's largest dinosaur footprint at 1.7 metres found in Kimberley, Western Australia US President Donald Trump signs Energy Independence executive order undoing Obama climate-control measures Cyclone Debbie strikes north east Queensland coast as a category 4 storm

Event of Interest

Mar 29 Ivanka Trump assumes an unpaid position as Advisor to the President, Donald Trump

Treaty of Interest

Mar 29 UK Prime Minister Theresa May sends a letter to the EU invoking Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, formally triggering Brexit

    Man's body found inside a 7m long reticulated python in Sulawesi, Indonesia North Carolina repeals its controversial bathroom law that restricted transgender use Venezuela Supreme Court takes over legislative powers of the National Assembly, opposition calls it a coup Ex-South Korean president Park Geun-hye arrested in corruption investigation Mudslides caused by heavy rains sweep through Mocoa, Colombia killing more than 200

Nobel Prize

Apr 1 Bob Dylan receives his Nobel Prize for Literature at a private ceremony in Stockholm

    Chinese leaders announce plans to build city in Xiongan New Area, 3x size of New York Attack on visitors to Muslim shrine by a custodian and others in Sargodha, Pakistan leaves 20 dead ANA Inspiration Women's Golf, Mission Hills CC: Ryu So-yeon of South Korea wins 2nd major in a playoff with Lexi Thompson who had earlier been penalised 4 strokes 36th NCAA Women's Basketball Championship: South Carolina defeats Mississippi State, 67-55 Gamecocks power forward A'ja Wilson, 23 points WrestleMania XXXIII, Camping World Stadium, Orlando, FL: Roman Reigns defeats The Undertaker Brock Lesnar beats Goldberg, first wrestler to win both WWE and Universal Championships Bomb on St Petersburg metro kills 11, 2nd bomb defused 79th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: North Carolina defeats Gonzaga, 71–65 Tar Heels point guard Joel DeWayne Berry II, 22 points Chemical weapons attack on Khan Sheikhoun, Syria by Syrian government forces kills more than 80 civilians Pink Star diamond sets world record price of $71 million for a gem at an action in Hong Kong

Event of Interest

Apr 4 Alibaba becomes the world's largest retailer according to US Securities and Exchange Commission

Event of Interest

Apr 5 Pepsi ad featuring Kendall Jenner pulled after criticized for trivializing demonstrations

Event of Interest

Apr 6 Chinese President Xi Jinping arrives in Florida for talks with US President Donald Trump

    Truck driven into a department store in Stockholm, killing 4 in a terror attack US President Donald Trump orders missile strike on Syrian airfield after chemical weapons attack on Khan Sheikhoun

Hall of Fame

Apr 7 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: Electric Light Orchestra, Joan Baez, Yes, Tupac Shakur, Journey, and Pearl Jam inducted

    Smurfs: The Lost Village is released in the United States Fifth day of protests by thousands in Caracas, Venezuela against the government 170th Grand National: Derek Fox wins aboard 14/1 One For Arthur second ever Scottish-trained winner of the event Two Egyptian coptic churches in Tanta and Alexandria attacked by suicide bombers leaving at least 44 dead

Film Premier

Apr 10 "Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2" directed by James Gunn and starring Chris Pratt and Zoe Saldana premieres in Toyko

Film Release

Apr 14 "The Fate of the Furious" directed by F. Gary Gray, starring Vin Diesel and The Rock opens worldwide - highest-grossing weekend at $532 million

Album Release

Apr 14 Kendrick Lamar releases his fourth studio album "Damn" (2018 Pulitzer Prize for Music)

    Suicide car bomb targets buses carrying Syrian evacuees at Rashidin, 126 killed including 70 children

World Record

Apr 16 World record for gathering of Charlie Chaplin lookalikes - 662 at Manoir de Ban, Chaplin museum in Vevey, Switzerland

Important Vote

Apr 16 Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan wins referendum on 18-article constitutional reform package

    1st living giant shipworm at 3 ft found in the Philippines, really a type of clam 121st Boston Marathon: Kenyan double Geoffrey Kirui takes men's title in 2:09:37 Edna Kiplagat women's champion in 2:21:52 British Prime Minister Teresa May announces she will seek a "snap" election

Event of Interest

Apr 18 Portuguese superstar Cristiano Ronaldo becomes first player to score 100 goals in the Champions League with a hat-trick in Real Madrid's 4-2 win over Bayern Munich

    Fox News confirms they would be letting go of Bill O'Reilly after allegations of sexual harassment Terrorist attack on police van on Champs Élysées, Paris 1 police officer killed, 2 injured Taliban attack army base at Mazar-e-Sharif, Afghanistan, killing more than 100

Federation Cup

Apr 22 Ilie Năstase thrown off tennis court for insulting British female players during Fed Cup play-off against Romania in Constanta


Recipe of the Day or a Healthy Diet Habit Tip of the Day

The Holidays and Observances Recipe(s) of the day for February 14th, (Valentine's Day), is a bunch of different options for Healthy Fruit Desserts from Kerry at Health Diet Habits.  The ever famous Chocolate Covered Strawberries and a Fruit Salad .

  • See our FOOD HOLIDAYS page for all the special days celebrating food!
  • See our Holiday Food page for tips on healthy holiday food traditions in general, and for some sample meal plan ideas for some of the most popular holidays.

How Is the Date of Ash Wednesday Determined?

Ash Wednesday always falls 46 days before Easter. (For more on why Lent is 40 days long but Ash Wednesday falls 46 days before Easter, see How Is the Date of Ash Wednesday Calculated?) Because it is dependent on the date of Easter, and Easter is a moveable feast, the date of Ash Wednesday changes every year, too.

And since Ash Wednesday is a day of strict fasting and abstinence (see Can Catholics Eat Meat on Ash Wednesday? for details), check out these meatless Lent recipes for Ash Wednesday and the Fridays of Lent.


Fritz Pollard

First Black NFL coach

Fritz Pollard was small, but he loved football and went on to have a historic football career at Brown University. Pollard played before attending the Ivy League school, but being on the university’s team put him on the map. Many firsts were ahead of him, starting with being the first Black player to be selected for the Walter Camp All-America team and play in the Rose Bowl.

He went on to join the American Professional Football League — which later became the NFL — as a member of the Akron Pros in 1920. Pollard faced adversity and racism at every turn, but he persevered and became the first Black coach when he took the reins of the Pros a year after the team won their first title.


The 20th Century (1900 to 1999)

After the death of founder Dwight L. Moody, the Bible Institute for Home and Foreign Missions changed its name to Moody Bible Institute.

Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, founder of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations and the Hebrew Union College, died.

Black evangelist William J. Seymour arrived in Los Angeles and began a series of revival meetings. This "Azusa Street Revival" which would later grow at the Apostolic Faith Mission located at 312 Azusa Street in Los Angeles was key in the development of American Pentecostalism.

The Azusa Street Revival, the mission which formed the nexus of the American Pentecostal movement, officially began when the church services led by Black evangelist William J. Seymour moved into a building on Azusa Street in Los Angeles, California.

With the publication of the apostolic constitution Sapienti consilio, Pope Pius X caused the American Catholic Church to cease being a "missionary church" under the control of the Congregation de Propaganda Fide. Now, it was a full-fledged member of the Roman Catholic Church.

Aimee Elizabeth Semple, who would later found the Foursquare Gospel church, was ordained to the ministry in Chicago with her husband Robert Semple.

The first recorded instances in America of groups speaking in tongues occurred in Los Angeles under the leadership of Black evangelist William J. Seymour. This event marked the beginning of the three-year-long "Azusa Street Revival," key in the development of Pentecostalism.

The Christian Endeavor Society of Missouri, an early forerunner of the American Religious Right, instituted a campaign to ban movies depicting kissing between non-relatives.

L. Ron Hubbard, science-fiction author and founder of Scientology, was born.

The Assemblies of God denomination was founded during an 11-day constitutional convention in Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Henry McNeal Turner, bishop for the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church, died in Windsor, Ontario, Canada

Cardinal John O'Connor was born.

Bill Bright, founder of Campus Crusade for Christ, was born.

After a sensational divorce, American evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson resigned her Assemblies of God ordination.

The International Church of the Foursquare Gospel was founded.

In an effort to counter the terrorist activities of the Ku Klux Klan, Governor John Calloway Walton placed Oklahoma under martial law.

At a meeting in Maryland, the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church repealed a ban on dancing and theater attendance for church members.

Phyllis Schlafly was born.

At a meeting in New York City, the National Lutheran Conference banned the playing of jazz music in the local churches.

John Scopes was arrested for teaching evolution in his Dayton, Tennessee, high school biology class.

Florida passed a law requiring daily Bible readings in all public schools.

At the age of 34, American evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson disappeared while on a trip to the beach. She reappeared five weeks later, claiming to have been kidnapped and held prisoner, before managing to escape.

William Jennings Bryan arrived in Dayton, Tennessee, a day before the Scopes Monkey Trial was to start.

The infamous Scopes Monkey Trial began in the Rhea County Courthouse of Dayton, Tennessee.

The infamous "Monkey Trial" ended and John Scopes was found guilty of teaching Darwinism.

American politician and fundamentalist religious leader William Jennings Bryan died.

Robert H. Schuller was born.

Originally founded by evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson in 1923, the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel was officially incorporated in Los Angeles, California.

American televangelist Pat Robertson was born.

Haile Selassie was crowned emperor of Ethiopia, thus fulfilling for many people a prophecy which became a cornerstone of Rastafarianism.

Still recovering from a nervous breakdown, Foursquare Gospel founder Aimee Semple McPherson married David Hutton they divorced only four years later.

The first Nazi concentration camp was completed at Dachau.

Felix Adler, founder of the Ethical Culture movement, died in New York City.

Jerry Falwell was born. Falwell is a prominent leader in the American Religious Right and helped found the Moral Majority in 1979.

Charles Edward Coughlin founded the National Union for Social Justice (Union Party).

Televangelist Jimmy Swaggart was born.

Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in Akron, Ohio.

Pius XI issued an encyclical to American bishops entitled "On motion pictures"

The Roman Catholic Church beatified the first Native American, Kateri Tekakwitha.

After a separation of 109 years, the Methodist Episcopal Church in the U.S. was reunited. The Methodist Protestant Church had broken away in 1830 and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South had broken away in 1844.

Louis D. Brandeis, the first Jewish Supreme Court Justice, died at the age of 84.

John Ashcroft, Attorney General of the United States, was born.

Aimee Semple McPherson, founder of the Church of the Four-Square Gospel, died.

Israel was formally established as an independent state.

Indian law abolished the "untouchable" class, the lowest of all the old Hindu hereditary castes.

Billy Graham's "Hour of Decision" program first aired on ABC.

Jerry Falwell broke away from the church were he was saved and founded Thomas Road Baptist Church, the church he continues to lead.

Ellery Schempp, protesting the mandatory reading of passages from the Bible in his public school homeroom, decided to read passages from the Koran instead of the Bible that earned him a trip to the principal's office. He and his family would request help from the American Civil Liberties Union, launching the case of School District of Abington Township v. Schempp. In the end, The Supreme Court ruled that such mandatory religious exercises were unconstitutional.

The Congregational Christian Church and the Evangelical and Reformed Church merged, creating the United Church of Christ (UCC).

The John Birch Society was founded.

The Unitarian Church and the Universalist Church both voted to merge into a single denomination.

Shunryu Suzuki arrived in San Francisco, and over the following years brought legitimate Zen Buddhist practice to the United States.

The 100th General Assembly of the Southern Presbyterian Church (PCUS) passed a resolution declaring that sexual relations in the context of marriage but without the intent to conceive children were not sinful.

Madalyn Murray (later O'Hair) filed suit in the Baltimore to force the end of required Bible readings and recitations of the Lord's Prayer in public schools.

The Christian Broadcasting Network, founded and run by Pat Robertson, began broadcasting over the radio.

The Christian Broadcasting Network, founded and run by Pat Robertson, began broadcasting on TV.

Archbishop Joseph Francis Rummel of Louisiana ordered all Roman Catholic schools in the New Orleans diocese to end their policies of racial segregation.

The Maryland Court of Appeals ruled 4-3 against Madalyn Murray (later O'Hair) in her case to force the end of required Bible readings and recitations of the Lord's Prayer in public schools.

Helmut Richard Niebuhr died at the age of 67.

Elizabeth Ann Seton of New York was beatified by Pope John XXIII.

The highest governing body of the United Presbyterian Church stated for the record its opposition to mandatory prayers in public schools, Sunday closing laws, and special tax privileges accorded to both churches and the clergy.

Congress debated an amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1963 which would have removed the protection of prohibitions against religious discrimination from atheists. Proposed by Ohio Republican John Ashbrook, the amendment read: ". it shall not be an unlawful employment practice for an employer to refuse to hire and employ any person because of said persons' atheistic practices and beliefs." The amendment was passed by the House of Representatives, 137-98, but it failed to pass the Senate.

World Heavyweight boxing champion announced that he was joining the Nation of Islam and that his new name would be Cassius X. Later, he would change his name to Mohammad Ali.

Malcolm X resigned from the Nation of Islam.

As late as this year Jerry Falwell continued to denounce civil rights leaders, even though he has claimed to have changed his mind about segregation and racism in the early 1960s.

Malcolm X was assassinated by three Black Muslims while he was speaking to an audience in Harlem, New York City.

Three White Unitarian ministers participating in a civil rights demonstration on the streets of Selma, Alabama, were beaten by a mob. One, Rev. James J. Reeb, died later in a Birmingham, Alabama hospital.

In an editorial that appeared in the bi-weekly journal "Christianity & Crisis," a statement signed by 16 prominent Protestant clergymen argued that American policies in Vietnam threatened "our chance to cooperate with the Soviet Union for peace in Asia."

This was the last Friday on which American Roman Catholics were required to abstain from eating meat. The change was due to a decree made by Pope Paul VI earlier the same year.

Jerry Falwell created a racially segregated "Christian" school in order to avoid public school desegregation. As a result, Falwell was denounced by other local religious leaders.

Israel launched a preemptive attack on Egypt and other Arab nations. During the six-day conflict, which came to be known as the Six-Day War, Israel captured the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, and the West Bank of the Jordan River.

Jerry Falwell's Thomas Road Baptist Church was finally desegregated.

Church of All Worlds became the first Wiccan church to be incorporated in the United States.

In Dallas, the Methodist and the Evangelical United Brethren churches unified to form the United Methodist Church, creating the second largest Protestant denomination in the USA.

After 140 years of unofficial discrimination, the Mormon Church officially declared that Blacks could not become priests "for reasons which we believe are known to God, but which He has not made fully known to man."

Protestant theologian Reinhold Niebuhr died at the age of 78 in Stockbridge, Massachusetts.

Jerry Falwell established the Lynchburg Baptist College, later renamed the Liberty Baptist College.

Reverend William Johnson becomes the first openly gay person ordained in any Christian organization: the United Church of Christ.

Gallup polls revealed that 64 percent of the general public and 56 percent of Roman Catholics in America favored leaving the decision about an abortion to a woman and her doctor.

The Securities and Exchange Commission charged Jerry Falwell's Thomas Road Baptist Church with "fraud and deceit" in the issuance of $6.5 million in unsecured church bonds. Falwell admitted that the SEC was "technically" correct, but a biography of Falwell written by his staff claimed that his church won the suit and was cleared of the charges. This is a lie and the church's finances were actually put in the hands of five local businessmen to settle matters.

Decided: Roe v. Wade
This landmark decision established that women have a basic right to have an abortion. Through various cases, the Supreme Court developed the idea that the Constitution protects a person's to privacy, particularly when it comes to matters involving children and procreation.

The National Council of U.S. Catholic Bishops announced that anyone undergoing or performing an abortion would be excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church.

The Assemblies of God opened its first theological graduate school in Springfield, Missouri. This was the second Pentecostal school of theology in the United States, with the first opened in Tulsa, Oklahoma by Oral Roberts.

Under the leadership of Jim Bakker, the PTL Club began broadcasting in the United States.

Naropa University in Boulder Colorada was unofficially begun by Tibetan teacher Chogyam Trungpa and Alan Watts. It would become the first major accredited university of Buddhist Studies in the U.S.

Elizabeth Ann Seton was canonized by Pope Paul VI.

The Episcopal Church approved of the ordination of women as priests and bishops.

John Nepomuceno Neumann was canonized byPope Paul VI, becoming the first American-born male saint. Neumann was the fourth Bishop of the Philadelphia Diocese and his most important mark on American Catholicism may be his creation of the parochial school system.

Pope Paul VI abolished the automatic excommunication imposed on divorced American Catholics who remarried. This penalty of excommunication was first handed down by the Plenary Council of American Bishops in 1884.

The Mormon Church ended a policy of discrimination against African-Americans. After 148 years, Blacks were finally permitted to serve as spiritual leaders.

Joseph Freeman Jr. was ordained as the first Black Mormon priest.

John Paul II was elected pope.

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini seized power in Iran.

Jerry Falwell was recruited by far-right activists Howard Phillips, Ed Mcatee, and Paul Wenrich to form and lead the Moral Majority. Their goal was to bring fundamentalist Protestants to the Republican Party in the hopes of defeating Jimmy Carter in the presidential elections the following year.

Linda Joy Holtzman became the rabbi for the Conservative Beth Israel congregation in Coatesville, Pennsylvania. She was thus the female rabbi to lead a Jewish congregation in the USA.

Jerry Falwell attended a prayer breakfast at the White House prayer with Jimmy Carter. Falwell would later claim, incorrectly, that he asked Carter why there were "well known practicing homosexuals" on his staff and received the answer that Carter considered himself the president of all citizens.

On this night, William Murray (son of American atheist Madalyn Murray O'Hair) had a dream which he interpreted as a religious vision from God, leading to his conversion to a fundamentalist brand of Christianity. He gave up drinking and smoking and engaged in efforts to undue the separation of church and state which his mother had long struggled for.

Egyptian president Anwar Sadat was assassinated by Islamic extremists.

Rev. Sun Myung Moon, founder and leader of the Unification Church, is found guilty in federal court of four separate counts of income tax evasion.

Reverend Sun Myung Moon, of the Unification Church married 2,075 couples at Madison Square Garden. Many of the newlyweds were complete strangers to one another.

Rev. Sun Myung Moon was sentenced to 18 months in prison for tax fraud and obstruction of justice.

The Presbyterian Church (USA) was created in Atlanta, Georgia, reuniting the long-divided the United Presbyterian Church (UPCUSA) and the Southern Presbyterian Church (PCUS).

Rev. Jerry Falwell described AIDS as a "gay plague."

The Southern Baptist Convention passed a resolution against ordaining women in the Baptist Church.

Jerry Falwell was forced to pay gay activist Jerry Sloan $5,000 after losing a court battle. During a TV debate in Sacramento, Falwell falsely denied calling the gay-oriented Metropolitan Community Churches "brute beasts" and "a vile and Satanic system" that will "one day be utterly annihilated and there will be a celebration in heaven." When Sloan insisted he had a tape, Falwell promised $5,000 if he could produce it. Sloan did, Falwell refused to pay, and Sloan successfully sued. Falwell appealed, with his attorney alleging that the Jewish judge in the case was prejudiced. Falwell lost again and was forced to pay an additional $2,875 in sanctions and court fees.

Reports from the Federal Election Commission reveal that Jerry Falwell's "I Love America Committee," a political action committee created in 1983, was a flop. The PAC raised $485,000 in its first year but had spent $413,000 in the process.

In the United States, the Rabbinical Assembly of Conservative Judaism formally announced that they would begin to accept women as rabbis.

Jerry Falwell apologized to a Jewish group for seeking a "Christian" America. From now on, he promised, he would use the term "Judeo-Christian" America.

Karen Ann Quinlan, comatose since 1976, died at the age of 31 after a court permitted the removal of her respirator.

Jerry Falwell held a press conference in Washington, D.C., in order to announce that he was changing the name of the Moral Majority to the Liberty Foundation. This new title never caught on and was abandoned before long.

Father Charles E. Curran, a moral theologian at Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., revealed that the Vatican had given him an ultimatum: retract his views on birth control, divorce, and other matters pertaining to sexuality, or lose the authority to teach Roman Catholic doctrine. Thousands protested this ultimatum and Curran refused to retract eventually, the Vatican revoked his license to teach as a Catholic theologian and in 1987 he was suspended from Catholic University entirely.

Televangelist Oral Roberts announced that God had informed him that he would be "called home" if he did not raise USD $8 million by March 31 of that year. This money was supposedly needed for missionary work in underdeveloped nations and the plea was evidently successful - a shortfall of over USD $1 million was made up for at the last minute by Jerry Collins, a Florida racetrack owner.

Jim Bakker resigned as head of the PTL ministry after the revelation of a 1980 sexual affair a with church secretary, Jessica Hahn.

In Columbus, Ohio, three smaller Lutheran groups merged to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), becoming the largest Lutheran denomination in the U.S. It was not officially incorporated, however, until the next year.

Televangelist Oral Roberts claimed that he had raised numerous people from the dead.

President Reagan nominated conservative jurist Robert Bork to replace retiring Supreme Court Justice Lewis F. Powell Jr. In October, the Senate Judiciary Committee voted 9 to 5 against the nomination and the entire Senate later did the same.

In New Hampshire, a United Methodist Church court suspended Rose Mary Denman, a lesbian minister, because she violated a church rule which prohibited practicing homosexuals from being in the clergy.

Jamie Dodge of Mississippi was fired from her job at the Salvation Army because she was Pagan. She later filed suit against the Salvation Army for religious discrimination and won.

The Federal Election Commission imposed a $6,000 fine on Jerry Falwell because he illegally transferred $6.7 million in funds intended for his religious ministry to his various political efforts.

Pat Robertson announced that he would seek the Republican nomination for president.

Jerry Falwell announced that he was resigning as head of the Moral Majority, retiring from politics completely, because he wanted to spend more time with his Thomas Road Baptist Church in Lynchburg, Virginia, and his television ministry.

Argued: Lyng v. Northwest Indian CPA
By a 5-3 vote, the Supreme Court would allow a road to be built through sacred Indian lands. The Court did acknowledge that the road would, in fact, be devastating to their religious practice, but simply found this to be regrettable.

Jerry Falwell replaced Jim Bakker on PTL television show.

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America(ELCA) was officially incorporated.

During a live TV broadcast, televangelist Jimmy Swaggart admitted that he had visited a prostitute and announced that he would leave his ministry for an unspecified length of time. In April of that same year his Assemblies of God denomination defrocked him and ordered him to stay off television for a year, but he returned much sooner.

The United States Supreme Court ruled 8-0 that Jerry Falwell could not collect damages for a parody that appeared in the magazine Hustler.

Televangelist Jimmy Swaggart was defrocked by the Assemblies of God after it was revealed that he was involved with a prostitute. Swaggart was ordered to stay off TV for a year but returned anyway after just three months.

The United Methodist Church formally rejected the notion or value of pluralism when, during the General Conference in St. Louis, Bishop Jack Tuell declared "The time has come to say the last rites over the notion that the defining characteristic of United Methodist theology is pluralism." This was just one of many examples of Protestant groups in America turning towards more conservative theological, social, and political stances.

Martin Scorsese's "The Last Temptation of Christ" opens to widespread complaints and protests over its blasphemous content.

A federal grand jury charged Jim Bakker with mail fraud and conspiracy to defraud the public through the sale of thousands of lifetime memberships to PTL theme park, Heritage U.S.A.

Decided: Dodge v. Salvation Army
Can religious organizations receiving federal, state, and local government funding discriminate against people whose religion they don't like? A district court in Mississippi ruled "no," finding in favor of a pagan and against the Salvation Army.

Jerry Falwell announced that the Moral Majority would disband and shut down its offices.

Reverend George A. Stallings, Jr., a Black Roman Catholic priest, defied the orders of his archbishop and established an independent African-American Catholic congregation in Washington, D.C. Stallings argued that he wasn't setting up a schismatic church and instead was simply trying to create a mode of worship that was sensitive to the needs of Black Catholics. Despite this, he would later declare that his Imani Temple was "no longer under Rome" and would permit things like abortion, divorce, and the ordination of women. This, according to the Vatican, automatically excommunicated Stallings.

Jim Bakker's fraud and conspiracy trial began.

During his trial for fraud and conspiracy, Jim Bakker suffered a breakdown in his attorney's office.

Jim Bakker was convicted of using his television show to defraud his viewers.

Jim Bakker was sentenced to 45 years in prison and fined $500,000. Many considered this judgment to be particularly harsh and, 1991, his sentence was reduced to eighteen years and he was released on parole after a total five years in prison.

Argued: Jimmy Swaggart Ministries v. Board of Equalization of California
Should religious organizations be totally exempt from taxation because the collection of such taxes violates both the Free Exercise and the Establishment Clauses of the First Amendment?

In New York, Auxiliary Bishop Austin Vaughn declared that New York Governor Mario Cuomo, a Catholic, was in "serious risk of going to hell" because he believed that abortion was a matter of individual women's conscience.

In the newspaper Catholic New York, Cardinal John O'Connor wrote that: "[I]f the Church's authority is rejected on such a crucial question as human life [in the debate over abortion], . then questioning of the Trinity becomes child's play, as does the divinity of Christ or any other Church teaching."

Argued: Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah
When this case was decided, the Court unanimously invalidated city ordinances outlawing animal sacrifices.

In the wake of Bill Clinton's election as president, Jerry Falwell mailed out fund-raising letters asking people to vote on whether he should reactivate the Moral Majority. Later he would refuse to reveal jus how much money he raised, simply telling reporters he has no intention of reactivating his old organization.

The Internal Revenue Service found that money from Jerry Falwell's Old Time Gospel Hour program was illegally diverted to a political action committee. The IRS imposed a $50,000 fine on Falwell and revoked the Old Time Gospel Hour's tax-exempt status for 1986-87.

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) along with the FBI and other federal agents staged a raid the Branch Davidian compound at Waco, Texas.

Despite an earlier promise to Jewish groups to stop referring to America as a "Christian" nation, Jerry Falwell delivered a sermon stating that "we must never allow our children to forget that this is a Christian nation. We must take back what is rightfully ours."

Michael Griffin shot and killed Dr. David Gunn in Pensacola, Florida. This was the first murder of an abortion provider by an anti-abortion activist.

A new ATF assault on the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, lead to a fire which killed 72-86 people, including Davidian leader David Koresh.

Rev. Paul Hill shot and killed Dr. John Britton, an abortion provider.

The Union of American Hebrew Congregations, administrative body for Reform Judaism in America, considered and rejected (by a large margin) the application for membership submitted by the Congregation Beth Adam in Cincinnati. This synagogue had removed all references to God in its services, explaining that its own members wished to explore their Jewish heritage and identity without being forced to rely upon theistic assumptions.

The Southern Baptist Convention, meeting in Atlanta, formally apologized to African-Americans for "condoning and/or perpetuating individual and systemic racism in our lifetime" and repented for the "racism of which we have been guilty, whether consciously or unconsciously."

Rev. Jeanne Audrey Powers, a prominent leader in the United Methodist Church, became the highest ranking member of that denomination to announce that she was gay. According to Powers, she took that step as "an act of public resistance to false teachings that have contributed to heresy and homophobia within the church itself."

Molly Marshall, the first woman to achieve tenure at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky, was forced to resign after accusations of her promoting liberal doctrines.

Because of her controversial and outspoken opinions on sex education and drub abuse, U.S. Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders is forced to tender her resignation.

In the encyclical Evangelium Vitae, Pope John Paul II ordered all Catholic voters, judges, and legislators to obey Vatican teaching in their decisions and votes: "In the case of an intrinsically unjust law, such as a law permitting abortion or euthanasia, it is never licit to obey it, or to take part in a propaganda campaign in favor of such a law, or to vote for it."

The ACLU filed a complaint against Judge Moore, charging that his display of Ten Commandments and his practice of initiating courtroom proceedings with a prayer, violated the First Amendment.

Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin signed an accord transferring control of the West Bank to Palestinians.

Religion in Public Schools: An amendment to the US constitution was introduced to congress by Representative Ernest Istook (R-OK). It overruled the traditional separation of church and state by allowing organized school prayer in public schools. His amendment had the support of the Christian Coalition and some other very conservative Christian groups, but it received major opposition from many other Christian groups who valued church-state separation.

The Christian Coalition created the "Catholic Alliance," a "fully owned subsidiary" of the Christian Coalition designed to appeal to conservative Catholics.

The American Baptist Church of the West expelled four San Francisco Bay congregations for welcoming homosexuals and not teaching that homosexual activity is a sin.

Delegates at the General Conference of the United Methodist Church voted down a proposal to eliminate language in church law that declares homosexuality to be "incompatible with Christian teaching."

Bishop Fabian W. Bruskewitz of Lincoln, Nebraska, excommunicated all Catholics in his diocese who continued to belong to organizations which he deemed "perilous to the Catholic faith" - organizations like Planned Parenthood and Call to Action.

The Southern Baptist Convention announced a boycott of all Disney parks and products because of the company's decision to give insurance benefits to the partners of gay employees and for hosting "Gay Days" at Disney theme parks.

The Taliban seized control of Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, and hanged the former president Najibullah.

Reflecting on his failed lawsuit against Larry Flynt because of the parody Flynt published in the magazine "Hustler," Jerry Falwell stated: "If Larry had been physically able and were not in a wheelchair, there'd have been no lawsuit. I'm a Campbell County, Virginia country boy. I'd just take him outside the barn and whip him and that'd be the end of it."

The birth of Dolly the sheep, which actually occurred the previous year, was announced to the world. Dolly was the first mammal cloned from an adult.

The US House of Representatives voted 295-125 to support Judge Roy Moore, a local judge in Alabama who has refused to remove a Ten Commandments plaque from his courtroom. Alabama Gov. Fob James has promised to deploy the National Guard and state troopers rather than see the display come down.

Thirty-nine members of the Heaven's Gate cult in California began committing mass suicide in anticipation of the arrival of comet Hale-Bopp. The suicides would take place in three groups over the course of three days.

Governor Fob James of Alabama claimed in a Federal District Court that the religion clauses of the First Amendment do not apply to the states and, hence, cannot be used to find any state laws unconstitutional.

In order to relieve some Liberty University's debt, Jerry Falwell accepted $3.5 million from a group representing Sun Myung Moon. This donation, and several later appearances by Jerry Falwell at Moon conferences, raised eyebrows among American fundamentalists and evangelists because Moon claims to be the messiah sent to complete the failed mission of Jesus Christ, a doctrine sharply at odds with Falwell's own theology.

Religion in Public Schools: The previously mentioned Istook constitutional amendment had passed through the committee stage, but did not receive the 2/3 majority vote which would have been needed in the House to allow it to proceed to the Senate.

Jerry Falwell announced at a pastors' conference in that the Antichrist is alive today and "of course he'll be Jewish."

Jerry Falwell's National Liberty Journal newspaper issued a "parental alert" which warned that Tinky Winky, a character on the children's show "Teletubbies," might be gay.

Judy Poag (D) proposed bill in the Georgia legislature requiring public school districts to display the Ten Commandments. Those who refused to do so would be penalized financially and perhaps even have their state funding cut off. Another bill would permit "student-initiated spoken prayer during the school day." Teachers would be prohibited from " Participating in or actively supervising such prayer." Under this bill, a student could evidently just interrupt class with a prayer and continue the disruption for hours while the teacher would be powerless to stop it.

Religion in Public Schools: In New Hampshire, House Bill 398 was sponsored by 8 state legislators to allow individual school districts to have students recite the Christian Lord's Prayer in school. "194:15-a Lord's Prayer, Silent Individual Reflections and the Pledge of Allegiance in Public Elementary Schools. As a continuation of the policy of teaching our country's history and as an affirmation of the freedom of religion in this country, a school district may authorize the recitation of the traditional Lord's prayer and the pledge of allegiance to the flag in public elementary schools. In addition, a school district may authorize a period of time, after the recitation of the Lord's prayer and the pledge of allegiance to the flag, for silent reflections representative of a pupil's personal religious beliefs. Pupil participation in the recitation of the prayers and pledge of allegiance shall be voluntary. Pupils shall be reminded that the Lord's prayer is the prayer our pilgrim fathers recited when they came to this country in their search for freedom. Pupils shall be informed that these exercises are not meant to influence an individual's personal religious beliefs in any manner. The exercises shall be conducted so that pupils shall learn of our great freedoms, which freedoms include the freedom or religion and are symbolized by the recitation of the Lord's prayer and other silent religious reflections."

Decided: Combs v. Central Texas Annual The Fifth Circuit Court ruled that a church could not be sued for gender discrimination after a female pastor was fired.

The 21st Century (2000 to present)

A Joint Resolution of the Kentucky General Assembly was passed, requiring public schools in the state to include lessons on Christian influences on America and calling for the display of the Ten Commandments in schools and on State Capitol grounds.

Cardinal John O'Connor died in New York City.

Decided: Williams v. Pryor
The 11th Circuit Court ruled that the Alabama legislature was within its rights to ban the sale of "sex toys," and that people do not necessarily have any right to buy them.

Judge Roy Moore was elected Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court.

Decided: Elkhart vs. Brooks
The 7th Circuit Court ruled that a Fraternal Order of Eagles Ten Commandments monument at an Indian city hall was unconstitutional.

Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore was sworn into office, pledging that "God's law will be publicly acknowledged in our court."

The Supreme Court let stand a ruling from the 7th Circuit Court which barred Indiana Governor Frank O'Bannon from placing a Ten Commandments marker in front of the Indiana State Capitol.

In Afghanistan, the Taliban blew up two 2,000-year-old Buddhist statues in the cliffs above Bamian - despite an international outcry which included complaints from various Muslim nations.

Decided: Elkhart vs. Brooks
The Supreme Court let stand a 7th Circuit Court ruling which found that a Fraternal Order of Eagles Ten Commandments monument at an Indian city hall was unconstitutional.

Decided: Williams v. Lara
The Texas Supreme Court decided that an "all fundamentalist" prison section was unconstitutional, even though the prisoners volunteered to be there where other religious beliefs were excluded.

Decided: O'Bannon v. Indiana Civil Liberties Union
The Supreme Court refused to hear a case about a large monument in Indiana which would have included the Ten Commandments. What was the original 7th Circuit Court decision, and why did they reach that conclusion? What does this mean for future cases?

Judge Roy Moore unveiled a four-foot-tall, 5,000+ pound granite display of the Ten Commandments which was installed in the rotunda of the Alabama Judicial Building.

Jerry Falwell stated: "Since the Antichrist will not be revealed before Jesus comes, I believe conditions are falling in place, i.e., one-world government, so he can rule the world after Jesus comes. But we're moving toward a one-world government through the United Nations, through the world court and a growing world opinion. The problem is that the one-world opinion is taking the side of the Palestinians, not the side of Israel."

In the United States, four airliners were hijacked by Muslim terrorists and intentionally crashed.

During an exchange with Pat Robertson on the 700 Club, Jerry Falwell explained what he thought caused the September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center: "The ACLU's got to take a lot of blame for this. . And I know that I'll hear from them for this. But, throwing God out successfully with the help of the federal court system, throwing God out of the public square, out of the schools. The abortionists have got to bear some burden for this because God will not be mocked. And when we destroy 40 million little innocent babies, we make God mad. I really believe that the pagans, and the abortionists, and the feminists, and the gays and the lesbians who are actively trying to make that an alternative lifestyle, the ACLU, People For the American Way - all of them who have tried to secularize America - I point the finger in their face and say: "You helped this happen."" Pat Robertson agreed with these remarks, but later backed away from them.

Lawsuits were filed on behalf of three lawyers who sought the removal of Roy Moore's Ten Commandments monument from the Alabama Judicial Building. The suit claimed that the monument "constitutes an impermissible endorsement of religion by the state."

A 20-year-old woman became the first Palestinian female suicide bomber when she blew herself up on a Jerusalem street, killing one person and injuring 100 others.

Speaking before the National Religious Broadcasters Convention in Nashville, Tennessee, Attorney General John Ashcroft stated that "Civilized people - Muslims, Christians and Jews - all understand that the source of freedom and human dignity is the Creator. Civilized people of all religious faiths are called to the defense of His creation," implying that atheists. simply aren't civilized.

On his "700 Club" program, Pat Robertson stated that Islam ". . . . is not a peaceful religion that wants to coexist. They want to coexist until they can control, dominate and then if need be destroy."

In Mississippi, the "George County Times" published a letter from George County Justice Court Judge Connie Wilkerson which read, in part, "In my opinion, gays and lesbians should be put in some type of mental institution." Because of the bias expressed in such a statement, an ethics violation complaint was filed against Wilkerson.

Decided: Watchtower Society v. Village of Stratton
Should people going door-to-door for solicitations, canvassing, etc. be required to get a permit first? The Jehovah's Witnesses don't think so, and challenged just such a law in the Village of Stratton, Ohio. The 6th Circuit Court decided against them, but the case will soon be decided by the Supreme Court.

A Utah judge found Mormon polygamist Tom Green guilty of raping Linda Kunz, a child whom he married when she was 13 and he was 37.

Pioneer Day: Mormons commemorate the first settlement in the Salt Lake area by Brigham Young.

U.S. District Judge Myron Thompson of Montgomery, Alabama, ordered the removal of Roy Moore's Ten Commandments monument, finding that it violated the constitution's ban on government establishment of religion. Thompson wrote in his decision that "the Ten Commandments monument, viewed alone or in the context of its history, placement, and location, has the primary effect of endorsing religion."

Televangelist Pat Robertson revealed that he had prostate cancer and would undergo surgery.

David Wayne Hull, a Ku Klux Klan leader in Pennsylvania and adherent of Christian Identity, was arrested for plotting to blow up abortion clinics.

United States Representative Lucas from Oklahoma introduced House Joint Resolution 27 which would add an amendment to the United States Constitution asserting that it is not "an establishment of religion for teachers in public school to recite, or to lead willing students in the recitation of" the The Pledge of Allegiance when it contains the phrase "under God." This was essentially an admission that the Constitution, as it stands, does not permit such recitation.

The United States Senate voted 94-0 that it "strongly" disapproved of the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals decision not to reconsider its ruling that the addition of the phase "under God" to the The Pledge of Allegiance was unconstitutional.

Catholic archbishop Oscar Lipscomb of the Mobile, Alabama archdiocese admitted that he permitted Rev. J. Alexander Sherlock to remain in the pulpit at a church in Montgomery even after he admitted in 1998 to sexual abuse of a teenage boy in the 1970s.

Speaking on the 700 Club, Pat Robertson expressed his support for the separation of church and state when the "church" in question involved a religion other than Christianity: "If the United States tries nation building [in Iraq], it's got to [have] at the very top of its agenda a separation of church and state. There has to be a secular state in there [Iraq] and not an Islamic state. So it's going to be absolutely imperative to set up a constitution and safeguards that say we will maintain a secular state. "

The United States House of Representatives voted 400-7 to condemn the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals decision not to reconsider its ruling that the addition of the phase "under God" to the The Pledge of Allegiance was unconstitutional. The seven who voted against the resolution were all Democrats.

Around 2:30 GMT the United States begins its invasion of Iraq by launching a series of air strikes against Baghdad in the hopes of quickly killing leaders of the Iraqi government and ousting Saddam Hussein with his Baathist government once and for all.

The Boston Globe wins the Pulizter Prize for Public Service for a series of articles exposing the coverup of a widespread series of sexual abuse cases by priests of the Boston Archdiocese. This opens the door to hundreds of court cases over the next decade.

The National Association of Evangelicals, a group of evangelical Christians, condemned Franklin Graham, Jerry Falwell, Jerry Vines, Pat Robertson and other evangelical leaders for their many anti-Islamic statements.

A three-judge panel of 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals unanimously rejected an appeal from Roy Moore in his effort to keep his Ten Commandments monument in the rotunda of the Alabama Judicial Building. The court considered what could happen if the monument were allowed: "Every government building could be topped with a cross, or a menorah, or a statue of Buddha, depending upon the views of the officials with authority over the premises."

Gene Robinson, an openly gay man, was elected bishop-designate of New Hampshire by the Episcopal General Convention during its meeting in Minneapolis. This election sparked outrage by conservative Anglican Churches around the world and initiated moves towards a schism within Episcopal Church and conservative, evangelical churches tried to distances themselves from a leadership they felt had descended into heresy.

This is the deadline given to Roy Moore to remove his Ten Commandments monument from the rotunda of the Alabama Judicial Building, but he refused to act. A crowd of monument supporters grows at the building over the course of several days and some are arrested for refusing to leave the monument.

Because Roy Moore refused to remove his Ten Commandments monument by the August 20th deadline, the associate Justices of Alabama Supreme Court unanimously overruled Moore and ordered the monument removed by the building's manager. The eight justices wrote that they are "bound by solemn oath to follow the law, whether they agree or disagree with it."

Because Roy Moore disobeyed a federal court order to remove his Ten Commandments monument, the state Judicial Inquiry Commission charged Moore with violating six canons of ethics and he was suspended with pay pending trial before the Alabama Court of the Judiciary.

Alabama Chief Justice Moore was suspended for his refusal to remove a monument of the Ten Commandments from the rotunda of the Alabama Judicial Building.

Supporters of Roy Moore's Ten Commandments monument filed suit in federal court in Mobile to try and block the monument's removal. It was filed on behalf of two Alabama residents described as Christians who believe "the United States was founded upon Jesus Christ" and their freedom of religion is being violated.

Roy Moore's Ten Commandments monument was moved out of the rotunda of the Alabama Judicial Building to comply with a federal court order.

Rev. Paul Hill was executed by the State of Florida for the murders of John Britton, a medical doctor, and James Barrett, a retired military officer, as they were entering The Ladies Center in Pensacola, Florida, where Britton performed abortions.

On the news program Crossfire, Jerry Falwell explained that God was responsible for the election and re-election of President Clinton. The reason: "I think that we needed Bill Clinton, because we turned our backs on the Lord and we needed a bad President to get our attention again. To pray for a good President. That's what I believe."

The U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal of Alabama Supreme Court Chief Justice Roy Moore, upholding U.S. District Judge Myron Thompson’s ruling to have Moore's Ten Commandments monument removed. “The state may not acknowledge the sovereignty of the Judeo-Christian God and attribute to that God our religious freedom,” wrote Judge Thompson in his ruling.

An Alabama state ethics board unanimously ruled that when Chief Justice Roy Moore defied a federal judge's order to move a stone Ten Commandments monument from the state judicial building, he violated state judicial ethics rules. As a consequence, he has been removed from his office of Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court.

The Alabama Court of the Judiciary removed Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore from his elected position because he refused to follow U.S. District Judge Myron Thompson’s court order to remove a Ten Commandments monument from the rotunda of the Alabama Judicial Building.

In the Goodridge v. Dept. of Public Health case, the Supreme Court found that same-sex couples had the right to marry.

Bishop Thomas O'Brien, former head of Arizona's largest Roman Catholic diocese, was convicted of a hit and run. He thus became the first Catholic bishop in the United States to ever be convicted of a felony.

According to a CNN survey, children made more than 11,000 allegations of sexual abuse by Catholic priests. The 4,450 priests involved constitute about 4 percent of the 110,000 priests who served during the 52 years covered by the study.

Mel Gibson's controversial film "The Passion of the Christ" opens in theaters in the United States.

A lesbian minister in Bothell, Washington, is acquitted by a Methodist church jury of violating church rules.

Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to legalize same-sex marriage. The first marriage licenses were issued to same-sex couples the same day

Pope Benedict XVI , born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger became the 265th Pope of the Roman Cathrolic Church.

The Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten published 12 editorial cartoons, most of which depicted Muhammad, the principal figure of the religion of Islam, leading Muslim groups in Denmark complained.

The film adaptation of Dan Brown's novel The Davinci Code was released, in which it was suggested that Jesus Christ and Mary Magdalene were married and had children. This led to outrage by many Christians in the U.S. and worldwide.

Jerry Falwell, leader of the political group of conservative Christians known as the Moral Majority, died in Lynchburg, VA.

A peaceful demonstration by Buddhist monks if Lhasa, Tibet turned into a riot that killed 18 civilians when police backed by the Chinese government disrupted the demonstration. This would lead to a series of violent anti-Chinese riots across Tibet and eventually the world, including the U.S.

Dale Neumann, and later his wife Leilani Neuman, was convicted of reckless homicide in Wisconsin after their daughter died when they sought faith-healing rather than medical treatment for her condition. The conviction of the Pentecostal couple was later upheld by the Supreme Court

Thousands of anti-Muslim protesters in Lowertown Manhattan gather to protest the proposed opening of a mosque near the site of the 9/11/2001 destruction of the world trade center towers by Muslim extremists.

Mitt Romney announced his candidacy for the presidency of the United States, becoming the first Morman to run for President.

Satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo was firebombed for satirizing Mohammad, prompting much discussion in the U.S. of the freedom-of-speech vs. religion debate.

Barack Obama became the first U.S. president to declare support for the legalization of same-sex marriage.

Maine, Maryland, and Washington become the first states to legalize same-sex marriage through popular vote.

Pope Francis, born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, became the 266th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church.

Fred Phelps died of natural causes shortly before midnight on March 19, 2014. Phelps was the notorious leader of the Westboro Baptist Church of Topeka, Kansas, made famous by their highly public and hateful protests again homosexuality.

Two Islamist gunmen forced their way into the Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo and shot to death twelve staff members as retribution for the newspaper's history of satirical treatment of the prophet Mohammed.

The U.S. Supreme Court, in review of four separate cases, ruled that states do not have the right to outlaw same-sex marriage, effectively making gay marriage legal across the U.S.

Minnesota became the home to the first Satanic monument erected by on public property in the city of Belle Plaine, where officials have designated an area to free speech.


Watch the video: Today in History for August 25th (May 2022).