Curtiss O-40 Raven

Curtiss O-40 Raven

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Curtiss O-40 Raven

The Curtiss O-40 Raven was a sesquiplane observation aircraft produced in tiny numbers for the US Army in the early 1930s. It was produced in response to an Air Corps requirement for a modern observation aircraft, but was something of a interim design. Its modern featured included the metal monocoque fuselage, metal framed and metal skinned wings and retractable undercarriage. Less modern was its sesquiplane wings - it had a larger upper wing and a shorter narrow-chord lower wing, connected to the upper wing by one set of struts. It was armed with one fixed forward firing .30in machine gun in the right upper wing and one flexibly mounted .30in gun in the rear cockpit.

The YO-40 was delivered in February 1932, but it was then damaged in a crash on 20 May 1932. It had to be returned to Curtiss where it was rebuilt and returned to the Army with stronger wings as the YO-40A.

The YO-40 was followed by four improved service test aircraft. These were originally ordered as the Y1O-40A but the design underwent significant changes and these four aircraft were delivered as the Y1O-40B.

The main change on the Y1O-40B was the removal of the lower wing. This turned the aircraft from a sesquiplane into a parasol wing monoplane. A stub of the lower wing had to be retained as it contained the retractable landing gear. The engine was upgraded and the wingspan reduced by 2ft 4in. The new aircraft were heavier than the original prototype, and their performance was generally worse. The aircraft were used for service tests and were then redesignated as the O-40B. The last one was still intact in 1939.

Engine: Wright R-1820-27
Power: 670hp
Crew: 2
Span: 41ft 8in
Length: 28ft 10in
Height: 10ft 8in
Empty weight: 3,754lb
Gross weight: 5,180lb
Max speed: 187.7mph
Climb Rate: 1,660ft/ min
Service ceiling: 23,100ft
Range 324 miles
Armament: One .30in machine guns

En 1931, en respuesta a un requerimiento del Cuerpo Aéreo del Ejército de los Estados Unidos por un nuevo avión de observación, Curtiss diseñó el Model 62, un biplano monomotor con el ala inferior mucho más pequeña que la superior, conocido como sesquiplano (es decir, "ala y media"), mientras que los paneles exteriores del ala superior estaban aflechados para evitar problemas de centro de gravedad. Era de construcción enteramente metálica, con un fuselaje monocasco. Disponía de un tren de aterrizaje convencional retráctil cuyas ruedas principales se retraían hacia dentro, y estaba propulsado por un motor radial Wright Cyclone. Los dos tripulantes se sentaban en tándem en cabinas abiertas. [ 1 ] ​ [ 2 ] ​ [ 3 ] ​

Un prototipo, designado YO-40, voló en febrero de 1932. Aunque se estrelló en mayo del mismo año, fue reconstruido con alas reforzadas y una cabina cerrada como YO-40A. Se ordenaron otros cuatro YO-40A, pero fueron rediseñados como monoplanos mediante el desmontaje del ala inferior, siendo designados los aviones resultantes como Y1O-40B. [ 2 ] ​ [ 4 ] ​

Los cuatro Y1O-40B fueron entregados en junio de 1933, y tras unas pruebas de servicio, fueron redesignados O-40B, [ 5 ] ​ siendo operados por el 1st Observation Squadron del USAAC. [ 6 ] ​ Aunque las prestaciones y maniobrabilidad del avión eran buenas, el Cuerpo Aéreo estaba decepcionado con las disposiciones de las cabinas y la baja capacidad de combustible, [ 2 ] ​ y no se emitieron más órdenes. Los últimos O-40B fueron retirados del servicio en 1939. [ 5 ] ​

Curtiss A-12 (Shrike)

The A-12 was an inter-war product of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company first appearing in 1933. The type became the first quantitative monoplane aircraft in service with the United States Army Air Corps upon its inception. Only 46 production examples of the Shrike appeared and several of these were present at the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Its 1930s-era design philosophy quickly made it obsolete with many in the product line being grounded or relegated to training units after the attack. Many fell to the scrapyard after their effective use.

Origins of the A-12 lay in the original A-8 Curtiss production model. The A-8 was the result of a 1920's US Army requirement to replace the Curtiss A-3 Falcon biplane. Atlantic-Fokker Company (General Aviation) and Curtiss both submitted low-wing monoplane designs (known as XA-7 and XA-8 respectively) of all-metal construction and fitting the Curtiss V-1570 Conqueror V-12 liquid-cooled inline piston engine. After an evaluation period, the Curtiss submission was chosen over the Atlantic-Fokker design. Several test aircraft were ordered under the YA-8 designation and eventual production aircraft became the A-8.

The first YA-8 was set aside and reused in a feasibility test in which a air-cooled radial engine was installed in place of the liquid-cooled inline. By the early 1930s, the US Army Air Corps had developed a belief that air-cooled engines should be made the norm on all of their future aircraft products. Their reasons lay in the vulnerability of liquid-cooled engines when exposed to enemy ground fire as a single random hit could very well render such an engine, associated aircraft and its pilot inoperable. Another school of thought placed the operational costs and level of maintenance in favor of air-cooled engine types over that of inline-engine types. These two reasons led to the selection of a Pratt & Whitney powerplant as the engine of choice to replace the original Curtiss-based Conqueror.

With the new engine in place, the YA-8 was now redesignated as the YA-10 to signify the conversion. The conversion itself was accomplished by September of 1932 and the completed aircraft yielded comparable performance statistics to the original A-8 platform. All remaining A-8B's on order (some 46 total) with their Conqueror liquid-cooled engines were now changed to include the replacement Pratt & Whitney radial powerplant. The new production designation of A-12 was then assigned to mark these models. Though often designated with the "Shrike" name, the aircraft was formally known simply as the "A-12" in USAAC nomenclature. Shrike was an official Curtiss company name assigned to its A-12 product.

Externally, the A-12 retained much of the A-8's features. The chief difference between the two became the obvious inclusion of the air-cooled radial piston engine over that of the liquid-cooled inline. The two cockpits were also brought closer together to facilitate better communication between the pilot - situated in the forward open-air cockpit - and the gunner/observer in the rear position. An antenna structure rose high atop the fuselage, above and between the two cockpit positions. The pilot sat behind angled windscreens in a very utilitarian cockpit, complete a forward instrument panel and open sides revealing wiring, cables and piping. The continuous cockpit was housed over behind the pilots head and continued up until the rear gunners position. The rear gunner also sat in an open air cockpit but his position featured some glazing to help conform the fuselage to better aerodynamic principles. The fuselage itself was of a smooth tubular design and was made up of all-metal construction. A distinct characteristic of the A-12 was its fixed undercarriage with excessively faired-over main landing gears - one positioned under each wing - and a simple conventional tail wheel at rear. Wings were low-mounted monoplane assemblies with noticeable cable bracing and struts with slight dihedral. Wings were also of all-metal construction though the ailerons were covered over in fabric. The Wright R-1820-21 Cyclone radial piston engine of 690 horsepower powered a three-bladed propeller system and was fitted in the extreme forward of the fuselage, ahead of the pilots windscreen. The empennage was of a conventional arrangement with a single vertical tail fin and horizontal planes. Tail surfaces were also of all-metal construction but the rudder and elevator components were covered over in fabric.

Standard armament for the A-12 Shrike included a battery of 4 x .30 caliber machine guns in a fixed forward-firing set up with two guns fitted into each landing gear spat (600 rounds of .30 caliber ammunition allotted to each gun). A C-4 gunsight was afforded the pilot. The rear gunner had access to a .30 caliber machine gun on a flexible mounting to protect the aircraft's "six". Aside from the machine gun armament, the A-12 was cleared for light bombing duty and could field up to four 122lb conventional drop bombs under the wings. In place of these munitions, the Shrike could also utilize up to 10 x 30lb fragmentation bombs or flares for marking targets at night. A 52-gallon external fuel tank could be used in place of the bombs and could be jettisoned when empty. Interestingly enough, the main fuel tank aboard the A-12's fuselage could also be jettisoned via a hand crank.

The A-12 was delivered to the USAAC in 1933. Initial examples became a single production model and two service test aircraft. A-12's eventually made up the mount of choice for the 3rd Attack Group and 37th Attack Squadron of the 8th Pursuit Group. The aircraft was eventually shipped off the mainland and ended up in Hawaii via Wheeler Field and then later at Hickam Field. Incidentally, Hickam Field itself was named after Lieutenant Horace Meek Hickam whom died while attempting to land his A-12 Shrike at Fort Crockett in Texas.

Some A-12's underwent further periods of notable development. One such conversion involved the addition of ski-like implements in place of the landing gear fairings to make the A-12 more "bad-weather friendly". Not only did this allow the Shrike to operate from icy or snowbound airstrips, it provided for viable landings and take-off operations from dirt, grass and paved-over runways as well. Another such development involved adding inflatable air bladders to the sides of the fuselage. Should the crew and aircraft be forced into an emergency landing over water, the air bladders could be filled to allow the A-12 to stay above water until help arrived. Needless to say, these implements were never put into production A-12s.

Operationally, the A-12 was never used in anger by American forces. Though present at the attack on Pearl Harbor, the aircraft never went airborne in defense of the island and the type was dropped from service soon afterwards. A-12's maintained a limited capacity as reconnaissance platforms as well and could be modified for the role through the use of onboard cameras. Beyond that, the A-12 was already obsolete by the arrival of World War 2.

At least 20 export versions of the A-12 were sold to China in 1936. These A-12's sported a more powerful version of the air-cooled engine in the Wright SR-1820F-52 of 775 horsepower supplying a better maximum speed of 182 miles-per-hour. These Shrikes were soon pressed into service with Chinese forces against the Japanese to which the A-12's were wholly outclassed with few surviving if any.


Nel 1931 la United States Army emise una specifica per la fornitura di un nuovo modello adatto a compiere missioni di osservazione tattica da fornire ai propri reparti. Per rispondere a tali esigenze la Curtiss-Wright intraprese la progettazione di un velivolo monomotore, indicato inizialmente come Model 62, di costruzione interamente metallica, caratterizzato da fusoliera monoscocca con doppio abitacolo aperto in tandem, abbinata a un'ala biplano-sequiplana, ovvero con il piano alare inferiore dall'apertura significativamente ridotta rispetto al superiore, e da uno scalamento negativo ovvero con quest'ultima spostato verso coda rispetto al primo, soluzione tecnica adottata per mantenere un corretto posizionamento del baricentro. Il progetto adottava anche un raffinato, per l'epoca, carrello d'atterraggio, dotato di elementi principali anteriori ammortizzati e retrattili verso l'interno completati da un ruotino d'appoggio posteriore posto sotto la coda. La propulsione era affidata a un motore Wright R-1820 Cyclone, un 9 cilindri a configurazione radiale e raffreddato ad aria, posto all'apice anteriore della fusoliera racchiuso in una cappottatura con funzioni aerodinamiche. [2] [3] [4]

Un prototipo, al quale, secondo le norme allora vigenti, venne assegnata la designazione YO-40 (Y, prototipo, O, Observer, osservatore), volò nel febbraio 1932. Le prove di volo vennero interrotte da un incidente il 20 maggio di quell'anno [5] , tuttavia la cellula, parzialmente distrutta, venne riutilizzata per ricostruire il velivolo approntando però alcune modifiche, rinforzando la struttura dei piani alari e dotandolo di una cabina di pilotaggio chiusa da una cappottina ad apertura a scorrimento: al velivolo venne assegnata la nuova designazione YO-40A.

Le successive prove di volo soddisfarono le aspettative dell'esercito, di conseguenza venne emesso un ordine di fornitura per altri quattro esemplari di preproduzione, indicati nuovamente come YO-40A. Tuttavia l'ufficio tecnico dell'azienda decise di approntare al progetto originale delle sostanziali modifiche, decidendo di rimuovere l'ala inferiore e trasformando così il modello in un monoplano ad ala alta a parasole, dotata ora di ipersostentatori sia sul bordo d'attacco che su quello d'uscita [3] , motorizzandolo con la versione F del Wright R-1820 Cyclone da 700 hp (710 CV) [6] , o secondo altra fonte, da un R-1820-37 da 670 hp (679 CV) [3] . Data la sostanziale differenza dal velivolo precedente, al velivolo risultante venne assegnata la designazione Y1O-40B. [3] [7]

I quattro Y1O-40B furono consegnati nel giugno del 1933 e, dopo gli ultimi test di servizio, ridisegnati O-40B, [1] . Assegnati al 1st Observation Squadron (1º squadrone osservazione) della US Air Army Corps di stanza presso Langley Field (in seguito Langley AFB), affiancando i Curtiss O-1 [8] , rimasero in linea per qualche anno prima della loro radiazione. Benché dotato di buone prestazioni e manovrabilità, durante l'impiego operativo gli equipaggi riferirono che la disposizione dei comandi all'interno cabina di pilotaggio era insoddisfacente, cosa che unita a una ridotta capacità dei serbatoi di combustibile [3] portò alla decisione di non emettere successivi ordini di fornitura.

Historic Aircraft - The Last Biplane

The Curtiss SBC Helldiver holds two places in naval aviation history: First, it initially flew as a monoplane but was produced as a biplane, and, second, it was the last biplane combat aircraft procured by the United States.1 While not unique, the SBC also had one of the most convoluted development histories of a military aircraft.

Curtiss—a leader in aircraft development for the Army and Navy in the 1920s and 1930s—produced a prototype monoplane two-seat fighter for the Navy in 1932 with the designation XF12C-1. The aircraft was in part a “navalized” version of the Army’s O-40 Raven reconnaissance plane, featuring a high-mounted parasol wing and fully retractable landing gear. The structure was all metal except for fabric covering the movable control surfaces and the flaps. And, being intended for carrier operation, the naval aircraft had a strengthened fuselage, backward-folding wings, and arresting hook.2

Ravens & Crows in Mythology

In Celtic mythology, the warrior goddess known as the Morrighan often appears in the form of a crow or raven or is seen accompanied by a group of them. Typically, these birds appear in groups of three, and they are seen as a sign that the Morrighan is watching—or possibly getting ready to pay someone a visit.

In some tales of the Welsh myth cycle, the Mabinogion, the raven is a harbinger of death. Witches and sorcerers were believed to have the ability to transform themselves into ravens and fly away, thus enabling them to evade capture.

The Native Americans often saw the raven as a trickster, much like Coyote. There are a number of tales regarding the mischief of Raven, who is sometimes seen as a symbol of transformation. In the legends of various tribes, Raven is typically associated with everything from the creation of the world to the gift of sunlight to mankind. Some tribes knew the raven as a stealer of souls.

Some of the tribes with Crow clans include the Chippewa, the Hopi, the Tlingit, and the Pueblo tribes of the American Southwest.

For those who follow the Norse pantheon, Odin is often represented by the raven—usually a pair of them. Early artwork depicts him as being accompanied by two black birds, who are described in the Eddas as Huginn and Munnin. Their names translate to “thought” and “memory,” and their job is to serve as Odin’s spies, bringing him news each night from the land of men.



House colours




  • Wit Β]Γ]Δ]
  • Learning Β]Γ]Δ]
  • Wisdom Β]
  • Acceptance Ε]
  • Intelligence Ζ]
  • Creativity Ζ]


Common room


Ravenclaw is one of the four Houses of Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Its founder was the medieval witch Rowena Ravenclaw. Ώ] Members of this house are characterised by their wit, learning, and wisdom. The emblematic animal symbol is an eagle, and blue and bronze are its colours. Δ] The Head of Ravenclaw is Filius Flitwick, Ε] Η] and the house ghost is the Grey Lady, Δ] real name Helena Ravenclaw, daughter of Rowena. ⎖]

Ravenclaw corresponds roughly to the element of air, ⎝] and it is for that reason that the House colours were chosen blue and bronze represent the sky and eagle feathers respectively, both having much to do with air. ⎞] The Ravenclaw points hourglass contains blue sapphires. ⎟]

Edgar Allan Poe is born

On January 19, 1809, poet, author and literary critic Edgar Allan Poe is born in Boston, Massachusetts.

By the time he was three years old, both of Poe’s parents had died, leaving him in the care of his godfather, John Allan, a wealthy tobacco merchant. After attending school in England, Poe entered the University of Virginia (UVA) in 1826. After fighting with Allan over his heavy gambling debts, he was forced to leave UVA after only eight months. Poe then served two years in the U.S. Army and won an appointment to West Point. After another falling-out, Allan cut him off completely and he got himself dismissed from the academy for rules infractions.

Watch The Mystery of Edgar Allan Poe on HISTORY Vault

Dark, handsome and brooding, Poe had published three works of poetry by that time, none of which had received much attention. In 1836, while working as an editor at the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond, Virginia, Poe married his 13-year-old cousin, Virginia Clemm. He also completed his first full-length work of fiction, Arthur Gordon Pym, published in 1838. Poe lost his job at the Messenger due to his heavy drinking, and the couple moved to Philadelphia, where Poe worked as an editor at Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine and Graham’s Magazine. He became known for his direct and incisive criticism, as well as for dark horror stories like “The Fall of the House of Usher” and “The Tell-Tale Heart.” Also around this time, Poe began writing mystery stories, including “The Murders in the Rue Morgue” and “The Purloined Letter”–works that would earn him a reputation as the father of the modern detective story.

In 1844, the Poes moved to New York City. He scored a spectacular success the following year with his poem “The Raven.” While Poe was working to launch The Broadway Journal–which soon failed–his wife Virginia fell ill and died of tuberculosis in early 1847. His wife’s death drove Poe even deeper into alcoholism and drug abuse. After becoming involved with several women, Poe returned to Richmond in 1849 and got engaged to an old flame. Before the wedding, however, Poe died suddenly. Though circumstances are somewhat unclear, it appeared he began drinking at a party in Baltimore and disappeared, only to be found incoherent in a gutter three days later. Taken to the hospital, he died on October 7, 1849, at age 40.

General Aviation

The pioneering designs of Orville and Wilbur Wright launched over a century of inspiring aeronautic innovation. Prepare to be awed with our general aviation exhibits that start with the earliest aircraft designs and wind you through history with samples of private, sport, and commercial aircraft. Our general aviation exhibits also include non-military helicopters and special aircraft.

Early Flight

The Wright brothers are only the beginning of aeronautic history. Their fragile designs led to countless early experiments in flight. Discover how these fledgling beginnings led to the solid aircraft we know today. Travel back in time as you marvel at the innovation and beauty of these early planes!

Wright 1903 Flyer Replica The 1903 Flyer&rsquos brief hops into the sky were the product of more than four years of study and careful calculations by Ohio bicycle mechanics Orville and Wilbur Wright. The brothers constructed a wind tunnel, and designed and flew many full-size gliders. On December 17, 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright flew the first successful heavier-than-air craft. The twelve-second flight of 120 feet, into a 27-mile per hour headwind, went down in history as the world&rsquos first powered, controlled and sustained airplane flight.

Curtiss JN-4 Jenny (Canuck) 1917 Replica Built as a trainer for World War I pilots, the letter and number designation &ldquoJN-4&rdquo looked enough like &ldquoJenny&rdquo to earn it the nickname almost immediately. Ninety-five percent of World War I U.S. and Canadian pilots flew a JN-4 during their training. Century Aviation of Wenatchee, Washington, built this replica with many original Jenny (Canuck) pieces, including an original Curtiss OX-5 engine and many vintage metal parts.

Curtiss Model D Headless Pusher Replica One of the most successful competitors to the Wright Brothers was Glenn Curtiss. Like the Wrights, his designs were &ldquopushers,&rdquo with the engine mounted behind the pilot. He utilized a more intuitive control system and small winglets called ailerons. A Navy Curtiss model D flown by Eugene Ely made the first takeoff from a ship in 1910 and the first landing the following year, giving rise to what would someday be the aircraft carrier.

Commercial Aircraft

It wasn&rsquot long after the first manned aircraft got off the ground that pioneering entrepreneurs began selling tickets to fly. From pre-war, prop-driven commercial aircraft to the jetliners of today, you&rsquoll walk through the history of commercial flight with this special exhibit.

Beechcraft D-17A Traveler (Staggerwing) The Model 17, commonly called the Staggerwing, was the first aircraft produced by Walter Beech at the Beech Aircraft Company in Wichita, Kansas. Beginning in 1932, more than 780 Beech 17s were produced in eight different series over seventeen years. Most biplanes&rsquo upper wing is located further forward than the lower. The reverse is true with this aircraft, earning it the nickname Staggerwing. This 1939 Beech D17A Staggerwing, is the last known surviving example of the model. It is also the first of the eight D17As built.

de Havilland DH-4M-1 The DH-4 was a British-designed World War I observation and bombing plane. When the United States entered the war in April 1917, it had no tested warplane designs of its own so it built nearly 5,000 de Havillands under license. The DH-4 was the only American-made airplane used in combat by the United States during World War I. Built in 1918, this aircraft was one of 180 DH-4s modernized by the Boeing Aircraft Company in 1923 for mail hauling service. This DH-4M still carries an Airworthiness Certificate!

Boeing 747-100 One of the most recognizable airliners in the world, the Boeing 747 revolutionized airline travel when it first entered service in 1970. Dubbed a &ldquoJumbo Jet,&rdquo the 747 had its origins in a competition for a large military cargo aircraft. While the Boeing design did not win, it was re-introduced when Juan Trippe, the president of Pan American Airways, came to Boeing looking for an airliner twice the size of the airliners then in service.

Douglas DC-3A The DC-3 is unquestionably one of the greatest airplanes ever made. First flown in service in 1936, many DC-3s are still flying today. Originally built as the DST (Douglas Sleeper Transport), the DC-3 design instantly made every other aircraft in passenger service an antique. It was ultra-modern, big and fast. First delivered to United Air Lines on November 25, 1936, and is the second oldest surviving Douglas DC-3A. Named the Mainliner Reno, it was also the first to be fitted with Pratt & Whitney supercharged engines. The Reno pioneered many of United&rsquos routes from coast to coast. She is still airworthy today.

Specialized Aircraft

There are as many kinds of planes as there are pilots. Whether you want to roll, race, or build your own aircraft at home, there&rsquos a perfect design just for you. Explore these unique, specialized aircraft in this fascinating collection.

Granville Brothers E Sportster Replica The small, flashy Granville Brothers (Gee Bee) E Sportster embodies the spirit of sport aviation in the 1930s. Five brothers, led by Zantford Granville, went from building simple biplanes to producing highly advanced racers that set speed records. They could be challenging to fly, and all four of the Model E Sportsters were destroyed in crashes. While the Great Depression ruined hopes for mass production, much of the design for the famous R and Z racers came from these earlier Sportsters.

Schweizer SGS 2-32 Nicknamed the Cadillac of gliders, the Schweizer SGS 2-32&rsquos wingspan is 57 feet and, when empty it weighs only 831 pounds! The 2-32 was once classified as the world&rsquos highest-performance production multi-seat glider, setting many world and national records during the 1960s and through the 1970s for speed over 100, 300 and 500-km courses. Commonly used today for the commercial &lsquorider&rsquo business, the glider has very effective spoilers and dive brakes. With the spoilers out, the glider will not exceed 85 miles per hour even in a steep dive. This 2-32 is on loan from the National Soaring Museum.

Aviat Christen Eagle II Introduced by Frank Christen in 1978, the Christen Eagle set a new standard for home-built aircraft due to high quality and completeness. Based on the famous Pitts Special, the Eagle is an aerobatic aircraft used in competition, advanced aerobatic training and sport cross-country flying. James A. Poier completed this Eagle in 1986, from a series of kits with very detailed construction manuals. Poier donated this unique aircraft to the Museum in 2002

Handley Raven Each year, millions of people attend air shows and watch with fascination as pilots perform seemingly impossible maneuvers with specially engineered aerobatic aircraft. Designed and built by Wayne Handley of Salinas, California, the spectacular Raven is a striking and exhilarating monoplane that dazzled air show crowds every time it took to the sky.

Lancair 360 Frustrated by his inability to find a kitplane he liked, Lance Neibaur decided to design his own. Neibauer started by asking homebuilders what features they were looking for in a homebuilt. The result was the Lancair a high-performance aircraft that was among the first kitplanes to feature molded composite construction. Pilots can construct the entire plane themselves or purchase a &ldquoFastbuild Kit,&rdquo which includes many manufactured components.

Oldfield Baby Great Lakes Designed in the mid-1950s as a scaled down version of the Great Lakes 2T-1, , the Baby is so small it takes only one step from the tarmac into the cockpit. Built by pilots and enthusiasts for aerobatics and Sunday cruising, the Baby Great Lakes has an unexpected high performance. The little speedster can be airborne in five seconds from a dead stop, and has a climb rate of 2,000 feet per minute. Earl Thorp built this Baby Great Lakes over a span of 27 years and flew it only once &ndash on August 12, 1997. He donated it to the Museum in 1999.

Pitts S-2B Special Florida crop duster Curtis Pitts created the first Pitts Special biplane in 1944 because he wanted to fly something more exciting and dynamic than the old Stearman he flew over cotton fields every day. Pitts&rsquo second Special became Little Stinker, flown by Betty Skelton, who won the U.S. Women&rsquos Aerobatics Championships four years in a row, from 1948 to 1951. By the 1960s, aerobatics flyers and their Specials were winning titles worldwide. The planes became known as one of the best stunt aircraft ever built. This Pitts was a favorite of Captain Michael King Smith, who often flew the speedy little aircraft in air show performances.

Yakovlev YAK-50 (1983) The YAK-50 is a single-seat, low wing competition aerobatic airplane. It was used for flight training at Soviet state-sponsored aviation clubs. It also served as a trainer for several other nations&rsquo military. First flown in 1975, the YAK-50 proved its aerobatic versatility and worth at the 1976 World Aerobatic Championships. YAK-50s took the first, second and fifth places in the Men&rsquos competition and the top five places in the Women&rsquos! Built in 1983, this YAK-50 served as a standby aircraft for the Soviet National Aero Team. Later, air show performer Bill Reesman used this aircraft in his aerobatic act &ldquoYAK ATTACK.&rdquo Reesman donated the airplane to the Museum in 1991.

Bede BD-5B The BD-5 Micro is a small, single seat, homebuilt designed in the late &lsquo60s by Jim Bede. The project became too complicated for Bede so he hired Burt Rutan in the 1970s to head the flight test department while Bede handled the business. Even though 5,000 kits were sold, only a few were completed before the company went out of business. It was available with a piston engine or a jet.

Fisher 404 Biplane The FP-404 is a single engine biplane kit for amateur builders, introduced in 1984. The design was intentionally reminiscent of 1930s aircraft, with the goal of giving pilots a &ldquoseat of the pants, minimal instruments and bare necessities&rdquo sort of flight experience. The FP-404 features a wooden geodetic construction which makes it light yet very strong and Fisher states it can be built in 500 hours with common household tools

Glasair SHA In 1980, Galsair, a company founded by three Boeing engineers, revolutionized the kit plane industry with the introduction of the world&rsquos first pre-molded composite aircraft. With pre-molded skin made of a fiberglass and foam &ldquosandwich&rdquo it was easy to build and proved to be very popular. Originally designed as a tail-dragger, the company later incorporated retractable landing gear and today, over 3000 Glasair kits have been produced.

Quickie Q2 The Quickie was designed in 1977 by Burt Rutan. Its unique design looks like a biplane or a canard at first, but the plane is actually a dual-wing. Designed to echo an X-wing fighter from the movie Star Wars, it was intended to be an exciting project for a first-time home builder. The design of the Quickie was optimized for a minimal number of fiberglass components.

Bald Eagle Nests

Eagle nests in the Midwest are usually built in mature trees, such as white pine or cottonwood trees. They can also be built on other trees such as aspen spruces, firs, oaks, or hickories. Eagles may also build/use nests in snags (dead trees), transmission lines and communication towers.

The nests are usually built in a supportive crotch of the tree, typically below the highest point of the canopy, and tend to be deeper with larger sticks than other raptor nests.

Eagle nest can vary in size greatly. They are usually about 5-9 feet in diameter, 3-5 feet deep, and composed of large sticks. Eagles add to the nests every year, and the depth of the nest can reach up to 8 feet.

Eagles will use these nests year after year nests can, reach 1,000-2,000 pounds. As with all raptor nests, an occupied eagle&rsquos nest may have whitewash (excrement) on the tree trunk and under the nest tree, although this is not always obvious. Active nests may also have feathers, bones, and small animal carcasses under them.

Eagles may build multiple nests within their territory some nests will never be completed and will remain small. Eagles may also build and use nests on transmission lines and communication towers.

When is an Eagle Nest an Eagle Nest?

The following are all considered eagle nests eagle nests and are protected under the Eagle Act:

Any nest constructed by an eagle, even if the nest is never finished or used.

A nest built by another bird that is subsequently used by an eagle for nesting

A nest constructed by an eagle that is subsequently used by another species, such as owls or osprey.

Any of the above scenarios for nests on communication towers and transmission lines.

The eagle nesting season takes up 5-6 months of the year eagles may start nesting as early as late January, and may still be using the nest as late as August.

Eagle Nests in Deciduous (Leafy) Trees:

Photos courtesy of Mags Rheude, USFWS (left) and MN DOT (right)

Eagle nest are quite large and visible from a distance, especially when leaves are off the trees. The tree on the left is in a cottonwood tree and still visible in the summer. The tree on the right is in an aspen tree in the winter. The head of an adult eagle sitting on the nest is visible.

Watch the video: Bob Burts Curtiss CW-1 Junior RC Airplane (July 2022).


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