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Infrared Reveals a Wife Swap in a Prominent Medieval Religious Book

Infrared Reveals a Wife Swap in a Prominent Medieval Religious Book


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Some good old-fashioned swinging? Medieval photoshopping? Not quite, but scientists have discovered something about Francis I of Brittany that he would surely have preferred to have kept secret. Researchers and scientists at Cambridge’s historic Fitzwilliam Museum , part of the team curating "The Human Touch" exhibition, noticed something was amiss when they were examining the Christian medieval bestseller, “ The Hours of Isabella Stuart .” What they noticed was that one of the paintings was “altered” and that the owner had pulled off a wife swap, replacing the first wife with the second. This was a religious book, so a wife swap was, in more ways than one, a fairly controversial revision.

The Hours of Isabella Stuart ’ written in Latin, was produced for Yolande of Aragon, and completed in the year 1431 AD, beautifully painted on vellum (goat or cow skin), with gold, ink and egg tempera. According to The Evening Standard , “it is based on the monastic day for use in daily life.”

An article in The Art Newspaper states that the manuscript’s original pigments were analyzed through infrared photographic technology, revealing that Francis I of Brittany’s first wife, Yolande of Anjou (daughter of Yolande of Aragon), was replaced both in print in the prayer book and in real life, with his second wife. And this so-called wife swap has both intrigued researchers and amazed modern readers.

The page from the manuscript, showing the Virgin and Child, St Catherine (far left) and Isabella Stuart (in red coat), the new bride. ( Cambridge University Press )

A Medieval Wife Swap Exposed With Modern Infrared Technology

Co-curator Dr Suzanne Reynolds said, “something was ‘amiss’ and a 'darker area' was noticed on a page 'so it was decided to use infrared and see what was going on there.”

“That's when the under-drawing was revealed,” Dr Reynolds was quoted by the Daily Mail . “What they also did was add in the coat of arms of the second wife into the borders around the manuscript.”

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In the “original” Yolande appeared as a tiny figure kneeling before the Virgin Mary on a glorious, well-illustrated page. To pull off the wife swap, Yolande’s face was painted over with that of Isabella’s, the second wife. In addition to this alteration, “ ermine trimmed heraldic robes ,” and the figure of St. Catherine was added in the background.

Isabella’s ducal coronet, and figure of St Catherine from a page from the Book of Hours showing how the red in the new image was different from the reds used in the original images, thus revealing the wife swap. (Katie Young / Fitzwilliam Museum )

To make the wife swap look really authentic, Isabella’s coat of arms was added to the floral design borders of that page. The same vermilion hue of red was employed on her gown, which differed from the deep red used in the original, as revealed by the infrared scans.

Though Isabella was adorned with Yolande’s headdress, in the wife swap version that too was painted over to give her a golden crown with many jewels. This was synonymous with Francis’s succession from count to duke, after the death of his father in 1442 AD.

The manuscript was altered again to accommodate the first daughter of their marriage, Margaret, in the form of an extra page, and an ode to the Virgin Mary in terms of kneeling and prostrating before her in prayer.

Painting of Francis I of Brittany by an unknown artist. As the Duke of Brittany, he had his first wife painted over in the book first commissioned by her, replacing “her” with details relating to his second wife.

The “The Hours of Isabella Stuart” and the Fitzwilliam Museum

Francis I, Count of Montfort l’Amaury, was the Duke of Brittany from August 1442 to 1450, when he died. His mother, Joan of France was the daughter of King Charles VI of France and his father, John V, was the previous Duke of Brittany.

He was married to Yolande of Anjou in Nantes in 1431, with whom he had a son. Both wife and son tragically died within the next decade, following which he married Isabel of Scotland in 1442, with whom he had two children.

The Hours of Isabella Stuart ” is so historically significant because of its commissioning and appropriation by the wealthy, in this case, the mother of the first wife of Duke Francis I of Brittany, who was a patron of arts and culture. It was intended as a wedding gift for Yolande, who tragically died in the year 1440. It was widely recognized as one of the most beautiful and extensively decorated illustrated medieval works, renowned for its strong Christian overtones, and its 500 jewel-like miniature paintings .

“These books in a way are sort of archaeological sites and when you start to uncover what lies under these images it actually unlocks the human story of how these books were commissioned and then passed from one person to another as the story of these different marriages and different dynastic alliances evolved,” said Dr. Reynolds.

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Anglo-Irish nobleman, Richard Fitzwilliam of Dublin, after whom the Cambridge museum is named, became the owner of this book till it was passed onto the museum after his death in 1816.

The museum’s “ Human Touch ” exhibition opens to the public on May 18th and will run until August 2021. And visitors can expect to see the amazing medieval wife swap manuscript in all it’s glory during this period.


Tag: Surena

The Roman army was considered to be an unstoppable juggernaut in the ancient world, but the tables were turned by a formidable Parthian Empire general and devastating tactics. This clash led to one of the most crushing defeats in Roman history.

Leading the Romans was Marcus Licinius Crassus, who was a member of the First Triumvirate and the wealthiest man in Rome. He, like many before him, had been enticed by the prospect of riches and military glory and so decided to invade Parthia.

Leading the Parthians was Surena. Very little is known of his background. What is known is that was a Parthian general from the House of Suren. The House of Suren was located in Sistan. Sistan, or Sakastan, “land of the Sakas,” located in what is today southeast Iran.

In 56 BC, Julius Caesar invited Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus to Luca in Cisalpine Gaul (Luca is the modern day city of Lucca in Italy). Caesar requested that they meet to repair their strained relationship, which had been established around 60 BC and was kept secret from the Senate for some time. During this event, a crowd of 100 or more senators showed up to petition for their sovereign patronage. The men cast lots and chose which areas to govern. Caesar got what he wanted, Gaul Pompey obtained Spain and Crassus received Syria. All of this became official when Pompey and Crassus were elected as consuls in 55 BC.

Crassus was delighted that his lot fell on Syria. His grand strategy and desire was to make the campaigns of Lucullus against Tigranes and Pompey’s against Mithridates appear mediocre. Crassus’ grand strategy and desire of conquest and confiscation went beyond Parthia, beyond Bactria and India, reaching the Outer Ocean—easier envisioned than orchestrated.

Roman, Seleucid, and Parthian Empires in 200 BC. Roman Republic is shown in Purple. The Blue area represents the Seleucid Empire. The Parthian Empire is shown in Yellow. (CC BY-SA 3.0)


The Roman army was considered to be an unstoppable juggernaut in the ancient world, but the tables were turned by a formidable Parthian Empire general and devastating tactics. This clash led to one of the most crushing defeats in Roman history.

Leading the Romans was Marcus Licinius Crassus, who was a member of the First Triumvirate and the wealthiest man in Rome. He, like many before him, had been enticed by the prospect of riches and military glory and so decided to invade Parthia.

Leading the Parthians was Surena. Very little is known of his background. What is known is that was a Parthian general from the House of Suren. The House of Suren was located in Sistan. Sistan, or Sakastan, “land of the Sakas,” located in what is today southeast Iran.

In 56 BC, Julius Caesar invited Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus to Luca in Cisalpine Gaul (Luca is the modern day city of Lucca in Italy). Caesar requested that they meet to repair their strained relationship, which had been established around 60 BC and was kept secret from the Senate for some time. During this event, a crowd of 100 or more senators showed up to petition for their sovereign patronage. The men cast lots and chose which areas to govern. Caesar got what he wanted, Gaul Pompey obtained Spain and Crassus received Syria. All of this became official when Pompey and Crassus were elected as consuls in 55 BC.

Crassus was delighted that his lot fell on Syria. His grand strategy and desire was to make the campaigns of Lucullus against Tigranes and Pompey’s against Mithridates appear mediocre. Crassus’ grand strategy and desire of conquest and confiscation went beyond Parthia, beyond Bactria and India, reaching the Outer Ocean—easier envisioned than orchestrated.

Roman, Seleucid, and Parthian Empires in 200 BC. Roman Republic is shown in Purple. The Blue area represents the Seleucid Empire. The Parthian Empire is shown in Yellow. (CC BY-SA 3.0)


Multiple Clues Tell Us Much About Daily Neolithic Life

The archaeological work conducted at Ain Ghazal also sheds light on the way of life of its prehistoric inhabitants. The archaeological evidence shows that the site’s inhabitants practiced agriculture, growing barley, wheat, chickpeas, and lentils. Additionally, there is evidence that goats had been domesticated. However, other plants and animals were also consumed by the inhabitants of Ain Ghazal.

Evidence showed, however, that as time went by, the diet of the site’s inhabitants changed, and was limited to the types of crops they planted, and the animals they kept. Although Ain Ghazal belongs to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, traces of pottery technology appeared during the later phases of the site’s occupation. It has been argued that this technology was developed by the people of Ain Ghazal themselves, rather than it being introduced by outsiders who migrated to the settlement.

The most enigmatic artifacts from Ain Ghazal are unquestionably the so-called Ain Ghazal statues. A total of 32 plaster Ain Ghazal statues have been unearthed at the site, consisting of both statuettes and busts of human figures. The Ain Ghazal statues were discovered in two caches, one in 1983 (containing 26 statues), and the other in 1985 (containing 5 statues). Additionally, a single statue head was also unearthed in 1985. The 1983 cache has been dated to around 6700 BC, whereas the 1985 cache is found to have been deposited about 200 years later. Therefore, the Ain Ghazal statues are “among the world’s oldest known large-scale statues”.

Not surprising, the Ain Ghazal statues are not the first of their kind to be discovered in the region. Two other caches of statues were discovered by Garstang at Jericho in 1935, whilst Kenyon unearthed another cache of statues during the 1950s when she was excavating at the same site (Jericho).

The Ain Ghazal statues, however, were not just “two more caches of plaster statues.” Although the statues unearthed by Garstang and Kenyon were earlier discoveries, they were largely in fragments and not well preserved. In comparison, the state of preservation of the Ain Ghazal statues, with the exception perhaps of the single head bust, which was heavily damaged, is remarkable.

In the case of the 1983 cache, this was in part due to the fact that the entire cache was “blocklifted,” and then brought to the Institute of Archaeology in London, where the statues were excavated and conserved immediately in a laboratory.

Just one of the many Ain Ghazal statues currently safe and secure in museum settings. (ALFGRN / CC BY-SA 2.0 )


What Lies Beneath

When Claire Spencer starts hearing ghostly voices and seeing spooky images, she wonders if an otherworldly spirit is trying to contact her. All the while, her husband tries to reassure her by telling her it’s all in her head. But as Claire investigates, she discovers that the man she loves might know more than he’s letting on.


گوشت مرغ، صدرنشین جدول افزایش قیمت در اردیبهشت ۱۴۰۰ شد

به گزارش روز چهارشنبه ایرنا، بررسی آمار وزارت صنعت، معدن و تجارت نشان می‌دهد در یک ماه منتهی به اردیبهشت ماه سال ۱۴۰۰، قیمت هر کیلوگرم گوشت مرغ تازه به‌طور میانگین ۲۵ هزار و ۹۶ تومان شد که نسبت به مدت مشابه در اردیبهشت ماه سال ۹۹ با قیمت ۱۱ هزارو ۲۴۳ تومان بیش از ۱۲۳.۲ درصد رشد داشته است.

بنابراین گزارش، قیمت هر کیلوگرم گوشت گوسفندی (مخلوط) به‌طور میانگین ۱۳۰ هزار و ۳۱۷ تومان شد که نسبت به مدت مشابه اردیبهشت ماه ۹۹ با قیمت ۹۲ هزارو ۴۹۰ تومان، حدود ۴۰.۹ درصد رشد را نشان می‌دهد.

قیمت هر کیلوگرم گوشت گوساله در اردیبهشت ماه امسال به‌طور میانگین ۱۱۴ هزار و ۹۹۲ تومان شد که نسبت به مدت مشابه فروردین‌ماه سال ۹۹ با قیمت ۷۵ هزار و ۵۳۵ تومان، رشد ۵۲.۲ درصدی داشته است.

همچنین در اردیبهشت ماه قیمت هر کیلوگرم برنج پاکستانی باسماتی (درجه یک) ۲۴ هزار و ۶۶۰ تومان، برنج تایلندی (غیر از هومالی) ۱۴ هزار و ۳۲۶ تومان، برنج طارم اعلاء ۳۵ هزار و ۳۲۹ تومان و برنج داخلی هاشمی درجه یک ۳۴ هزار و ۵۳ تومان شد که نسبت به مدت مشابه اردیبهشت ماه پارسال به ترتیب حدود ۷۲.۲ درصد، ۸۶.۲ درصد، ۴۲.۱ درصد و ۴۰.۱ درصد رشد را نشان می‌دهد.

برپایه این آمارها، متوسط قیمت هر کیلوگرم شکر سفید در اردیبهشت ماه سال ۱۴۰۰ حدود ۱۲ هزار و ۳۹۰ تومان شد که نسبت به مدت مشابه اردیبهشت ماه سال ۹۹ با قیمت هفت هزار و ۲۸ تومان، حدود ۷۶.۳ درصد رشد داشته است.

براساس آمارهای وزارت صنعت، معدن و تجارت، در اردیبهشت ماه سال ۹۹ قیمت هر کیلوگرم گوشت گوساله ۷۵ هزارو ۵۳۵ تومان، گوشت گوسفندی (مخلوط) ۹۲ هزارو ۴۹۰ تومان، گوشت مرغ تازه ۱۱ هزارو ۲۴۳ تومان، برنج پاکستانی باسماتی (درجه یک) ۱۴ هزار و ۳۱۶تومان، برنج تایلندی (غیر از هومالی) هفت هزار و ۶۹۵ تومان، برنج طارم اعلاء ۲۴ هزار و ۸۶۸ تومان، برنج داخلی هاشمی درجه یک ۲۴ هزار و ۳۰۷ تومان و شکر سفید هفت هزار و ۲۸ تومان بوده است.

بنابراین قیمت فروردین ماه برای هرکیلوگرم برنج پاکستانی باسماتی ۲۴ هزار و ۵۲۷ تومان، برنج تایلندی (غیر از هومالی) ۱۴ هزار و ۳۳۵ تومان، برنج طارم اعلاء ۳۴ هزار و ۸۹۱ تومان، برنج داخلی هاشمی درجه یک ۳۳ هزار و ۶۹۷ تومان و شکر سفید ۱۱ هزار و ۹۱۲ تومان، گوشت گوساله ۱۱۲ هزارو ۵۰۵ تومان، گوشت گوسفندی (مخلوط) ۱۳۰ هزارو ۶۷۷ تومان و گوشت مرغ تازه ۲۴ هزار و ۶۹۷ تومان بوده است.

مقایسه قیمتی فروردین با اردیبهشت ۱۴۰۰ نشان می دهد که هر کیلوگرم برنج پاکستانی باسماتی ۰.۵ درصد، برنج طارم اعلاء ۱.۳ درصد، برنج داخلی هاشمی درجه یک ۱.۱ درصد، شکر سفید ۴ درصد، گوشت گوساله ۲.۲ درصد و گوشت مرغ تازه ۱.۶ درصد رشد داشته است.

همچنین نوسان قیمتی هر کیلوگرم برنج تایلندی (غیر از هومالی) در مقایسه فروردین با اردیبهشت ماه امسال منفی ۰.۱ درصد و گوشت گوسفندی (مخلوط) منفی ۰.۳ درصد است.

برچسب‌ها وزارت جهاد کشاورزی گوشت قرمز گوشت مرغ برنج کاظم خاوازی شکر نرخ تورم


امام رضا(ع)؛ شخصیتی جامع الشرایط در میان تمام مذاهب اسلامی/دهه کرامت؛ نمادی برای هم افزایی امت اسلامی

شیخ مسعود راهبر امام جمعه اهل سنت بخش شیبکوه شهرستان بندر لنگه (چارک) در گفتگو با خبرنگار حوزه اندیشه خبرگزاری تقریب با اشاره به اصل کرامت و بزرگواری در سیره امام رضا(ع)، این خصیصه بزرگ را عامل مهمی برای تحکیم وحدت امت اسلامی دانست و بیان کرد: گردهمایی ها و گرامی داشتن دهه کرامت می تواند نمادی برای هم افزایی وحدت امت اسلامی و دیگر ملل باشد؛ حضور مردمانی از ادیان و مذاهب گوناگون در این ملجا نورانی(حرم مطهر امام رضا(ع)) زمینه وحدت و تقریب ملت ها می باشد.

امام جمعه اهل سنت بخش شیبکوه، افزود: در شرایط اقتصادی کنونی می توان به مقاومت امام در برابر زورگویان و ستمگران عصر خود اشاره نمود و سرلوحه زندگی خود قرار داد؛ سیره عملی زندگی این امام رئوف که مملو از تقوا ، اخلاق ، رحمانیت و دیگر فضائل پند آموز است می تواند سرمشق پیروان مذاهب و ادیان قرار بگیرد.

شیخ راهبر، ادامه داد: از این رو با مشاهدات میدانی، شاهد سیل عظیم زائران این امام رئوف به مشهد مقدس هستیم؛ فلذا همگان باید سیره و مکتب این امام عزیز را سرلوحه امورات خود قرار داده و بیداری خود را در مقابل هجمه های دشمنان اسلام حفظ نمایند.

وی عنوان کرد: دشمنان از صدر اسلام تاکنون درصدد ایجاد شکاف میان امت اسلامی و ائمه اطهار بوده اند و با القائات مختلف از طریق رسانه های معاند و ضد اسلامی درصدد تضعیف محبت به اهل بیت (ع) بوده اند.

وی در پایان تاکید کرد: امام رضا(ع) شخصیتی جامع الشرایط در میان تمام مذاهب اسلامی و مورد اتفاق فریقین هستند؛ وجود با برکت ایشان در ایران اسلامی و ویژگی های بارز و مشهور ایشان در رافت ، بخشش ، مهربانی و کریم بودن، ایشان را در میان مومنین دارای جایگاهی عظیم قرار داده است. انتهای پیام/


Important announcement by the Saker!

April 20th, 2021 Wake Up Fools

Recent events have forced me to take some important decisions which I have to share with you now.

First, from now on, the Saker blog shall not post any texts or videos from the four organizations which the US Treasury has declared “disinformation outlets controlled by Russian intelligence services”. These are:

I want to stress that in my opinion these organizations did nothing absolutely wrong and that accusation is as false as all the other accusations against Russia since 2013. I therefore apologize to all of them for having to take this decision.

The US government, however, feels otherwise and it is not my role to interfere in these issues. Please understand that I am a guest of the United States (a “legal alien” in their terminology) and this morally obliges me to act as a guest and obey all the current US laws, irrespective of my personal assessment of these laws.

Furthermore, from now on, I will post no articles or videos which will discuss internal US politics (US foreign policy is fine). Again, not only is it not my role as a foreign guest to interfere in internal US politics, and the Saker blog is mostly focused on international relations anyways.

Also, the Saker blog and its philosophy (see here for a sampling: http://thesaker.is/blogs-philosophy/) was always anti-war and anti-violence. The moderators always intercepted any attempts to call for violence, without even the need for a special rule about this, this was common sense. I just want to mention here that from today on even indirect or “humorous” “suggestions” for even limited violence of any kind will from now moderated even more strenuously than before.

And, finally, since I am doing some “Spring house cleaning” I have also decided to add a new rule to the moderation rules (which can all be found here: http://thesaker.is/moderation-policy/). This is the full text of the new rule:

21) I am now also banning any advocacy of the following ideologies: 1) National-Socialism (Nazism, Fascism) 2) Wahabism (Takfirism) 3) Zionism (rabbinical “Judaism”, aka “Phariseism”) and 4) Latin Christianity (Papism, including the propaganda of the so-called “Marian apparitions” including the Fatima hoax). These are all messianic ideologies with a fantastic propensity (and, I would argue, a proven record) for deception and violence. Frankly, I consider them all evil and even demonic in nature. Discussion and criticism of these ideologies remain allowed, but direct attempts of advocacy/propaganda is from now on banned. Adherents of these ideologies are welcome to conclude that I am a “censoring tyrant” who is afraid of their “truth” – that is quite fine by me since I truly don’t care about their opinions anyway. If they don’t like it – let them open their own blogs 🙂 From now on, any attempts to peddle these ideologies on the Saker blog will result in 1) the comment being removed and 2) the author permanently banned.

There might be some amongst the reader who, for whatever reasons, will disapprove of these decisions. To them I can only say the following: it is my profound conviction that these decisions are correct and that I had no other choice in the matter. I am sorry if you feel otherwise.

Finally, I also have to ban comments under this announcement. Again, I feel that this is the right thing to do but I cannot discuss this here. I apologize for that.

However, feel free to email me with any (reasonable) comments, objections or suggestions (don’t bother with the usual hate mail).

Again, I ask for everybody’s understanding for the decisions I had to take and for the fact that I cannot go into any discussions about the motives that made me take these decisions.

Friends, I don’t like this any more than you do, but this is my “new normal” and going into deep denial will only make things worse.


King Cyaxares and his Possible Ancestral Origins

In old Iranian/Persian, Cyaxares’ name is “Hvakhshathra” or “Uaksatar,” as well as “Uksatar,” which is interesting, for if Cyaxares was a Mede, then why is his name in Old Iranian/Persian Hvakhshathra? Hvakh is most likely a rendering of the Old Iranian name Hakha, which is a variation of the Sanskrit word Sakha both Sakha and Hakha mean Saka, and Saka is another name for a nomadic tribe. Now shathra, or hathra, seems to be derived from the word satra in Sanskrit, which means “together, collectively united, and dominion.” In addition, Hathra in Parthian means “city or country.” Also, consider that shathra/hathra could also be a rendering of the Persian word “shah,” which means king. Now if we look at the other renderings of Cyaxares’ name – like Uksatar and Uaksatar – notice that his name carries the word “satar,” which also seems to be a rendering of the word “satra.” Therefore, it is plausible that Cyaxares was of Saka/Scythian stock due to his name but it remains uncertain.

What is about to be presented fixes the issue but adds another piece to the puzzle to consider. Before the name of Cyaxares is mentioned in historical record, there was a man by the name of Sandakkurru/Sandaksatru. Sandakkurru/Sandaksatru was the son of Dugdammi. Dugdammi was not only king of the Sacae or Scythians, but also of the Guti – and the term Guti was applied to the region of Media. Now because of this, Dugdammi’s title suggests that he was king of the Saka (Scythians) and the Guti. If one takes it fully into account, then the fact that the very title Dugdammi is addressed by could suggest that he was king over a vast number of Scythians/Cimmerians including those not of the same ethnic group, and that his home was in Guti (Media).

If so, then Sandakkurru/Sandaksatru is a good candidate to be the famed Cyaxares found in Herodotus’ Histories. However, according to Herodotus, Cyaxares is the son of the man named Phraortes. This seems unlikely since there is no other information known about Cyaxares’ father other than what Herodotus has documented for us. Herodotus says that Cyaxares invaded Assyria, defeating one of their armies and had laid siege to Nineveh, when all of the sudden Madyes invaded Media in pursuit of Cimmerians, and in turn ended up battling the Medes who were just defending their land (in which they were defeated and lost their empire. Cyaxares in turn lifted the siege on Nineveh and returned home only to find it occupied. He thus submitted to Madyes, only to become his puppet king.

The Apadana Palace in Persepolis, Iran, northern stairway (detail) – fifth-century BC Achaemenid bas-relief shows a Mede soldier in traditional Mede costume (behind Persian soldier). (Public Domain)

Now that we have examined both names and the possible meanings of Cyaxares and Sandakuru/Sandaksatru, it seems possible that Cyaxares was Dugdammi’s son. I do believe there is a connection between the two as being the same person, and I have one more name that might be the cornerstone in linking the two names and that name is: “Shaushatra.” The name Shaushatra is said to be another name for Cyaxares. Notice the similarities between Shaushatra and Sandaksatru. Both names seem the same, phonetically. Therefore, it is possible that once Madyes was dead, Sandaksatru/Shaushatra was able to retake his former kingdom and thus was named Hvkhashathra, which sounds more like a title than a name. However, this is mere speculation and Herodotus could be right. Nevertheless, an alternative has been provided and should be considered and investigated further.


References

Thomas J. Craughwell, The Rise and Fall of the Second Largest Empire in History: How Genghis Khan’s Mongols Almost Conquered the World (Beverly, Mass: Fair Winds Press, 2010).

Timothy May, The Mongol Conquests in World History (London: Reaktion Books, 2012).

Timothy May, The Mongol Art of War: Chinggis Khan and the Mongol Military System (Yardley, Penn: Westholme, 2007).

Richard D. McCreight, Mongol Warrior Epic: Masters of Thirteenth Century Maneuver Warfare (Fort Leavenworth, KS: US Army Command and General Staff College 1983).

Marco Polo, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian: Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East. Volume 2 edited and translated by Henry Yule. 3 rd edition (London: J. Murray, 1929).

Michael Prawdin, The Mongol Empire: Its Rise and Legacy (London: G. Allen and Unwin, 1961).

George Vernadsky, A History of Russia, Vol 3 (New Haven and London: Yale University press, 1953).

Tracy, Larissa. Wounds and Wound Repair in Medieval Culture. Leiden: Brill, 2015.


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